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Austria-Hungary,  including  Dalmatia,  Bosnia,  Bucharest,  Belgrade, 
and  Montenegro.  With  71  Maps,  77  Plans,  and  2  Panoramas.  Eleventh 
edition.    1911 

The  Eastern  Alps,  including  the  Bavarian  Highlands,  Tyrol,  Salzburg, 
Upper  and  Lower  Austria,  Styria,  Carinthia,  and  Carniola.  With 
73  Maps,  16  Plans,  and  11  Panoramas.  Twelfth  edition.    1911  .... 

Belgium  and  Holland,  including  the  Grand-Duchy  of  Luxem- 
bourg.  With  19  Maps  and  45  Plans.    Fifteenth  edition.   1910  .  .  . 

The  Dominion  of  Canada,  with  Newfoundland  and  an  Excursion 
to  Alaska.  With  14  Maps  and  12  Plans.  Fourth  edition.   1922   .  .  . 

Constantinople  and  Asia  Minor,  in  German  only: 

Konstantinopel  und  Kleinasien,  Balkanstaaten,  Archipel,  Cypern. 
Mit  18  Karten  und  65  Planen.    2.  Aufl.    1914 

Czechoslovakia,  see  Austria- Hungary. 

Denmark,  see  Norway,  /Sweden,  and  Denmark. 

Egypt  and  the  Sddan.  With  22  Maps,  85  Plans,  and  55  Vignettes. 
Seventh  edition.    1914 

England,  see  Great  Britain. 

Prance : 

Paris  and  its  Environs,  with  Routes  from  London  to  Paris.  With 
66  Maps  and  Plans.  Nineteenth  edition.    1924 

Northern  France  from  Belgium  and  the  English  Channel  to  the  Loire 
excluding  Paris  and  its  Environs.  With  16  Maps  and  55  Plans. 
Fifth  edition.  1909 

Southern  France  from  the  Loire  to  the  Pyrenees,  Anvergne,  the 
C6vennes,  the  French  Alps,  the  Rhone  Valley,  Provence,  the  French 
Riviera,  and  Corsica.  With  42  Maps,  63  Plans,  and  1  Panorama. 
Sixth  edition.    1914 

Algeria  and  Tunisia,  see  T7ie  Mediterranean. 


Berlin  and  its  Environs.  With  30  Maps  and  Plans.  Sixth  edition. 

Northern  Germany,  excluding  the  Rhineland.  With  165  Maps  and 
Plans.  Seventeenth  edition.   1925 

Southern  Germany  (Wurtemberg  and  Bavaria).  With  37  Maps  and 
50  Plans.  Twelfth  edition.    1914 

The  Rhine  inclnding  the  Moselle,  the  Volcanic  Eifel,  the  Taunus,  the 
Odenwald,  the  Vosges  Mountains,  the  Black  Forest,  etc.  With  128 
Maps  and  Plans.   Seventeenth  edition.   1911 

Great  Britain.  England,  Wales,  and  Scotland.  With  28  Maps, 
65  Plans,  and  a  Panorama.   Seventh  edition.  1910 

London  and  its  Environs.  With  45  Maps  and  Plans.  Eighteenth  edi- 
tion.   1923 

Greece,  the  Greek  Islands,  and  an  Excursion  to  Crete.  With  16  Maps, 
30  Plans,  and  a  Panorama  of  Athens.  Fourth  edition.  1909 

Holland,  see  Belgium  and  Holland. 

India,  in  German  only: 

Indien,  Ceylon,  Vorderindien,  Birma,  die  malayische  Halbinsel,  Siam, 
Java.  Mit  22  Karten,  33  Planen  und  8  Grnndrissen.  1914 

Italy:  /.  Northern  Italy,  including  Leghorn,  Florence,  Ravenna,  and 
Routes  through  Prance,  Switzerland,  and  Austria.  With  36  Maps, 
45  Plans,  and  a  Panorama.    Fourteenth  edition.  1913 

//.  Central  Italy  and  Rome.  With  19  Maps,  55  Plans  and  Views,  and  the 
Arms  of  the  Popes  since  1417.    Fifteenth  edition.    1909 

///.  Southern  Italy  and  Sicily,  including  Malta,  Sardinia,  Tunis,  and 
Corfu.    With  64  Maps  and  Plans.    Sixteenth  edition.    1912 

Italy  from  the  Alps  to  Naples.  With  25  Maps  und  52  Plans 
and  Sketches.    Second  edition.    1909 

The  Mediterranean.  Seaports  and  Sea  Routes,  including  Madeira, 
the  Canary  Islands,  the  Coast  of  Morocco,  Algeria,  and  Tunisia. 
With  38  Maps  and  49  Plans.   1911     

Norway,  Sweden,  and  Denmark,  with  Excursions  to  Iceland  and 
Spitzberyen.    With  104  Maps  and  Plans.  Tenth  edition.  1912  .  .  . 

Palestine  and  Syria,  including  the  principal  routes  through  Meso- 
potamia and  Babylonia.  With  21  Maps,  56  Plans,  and  a  Panorama 
of  Jerusalem.  Fifth  edition.  1912 

Portugal,  see  Spai?i  and  Portugal. 

Riviera,  see  Southern  France. 

Russia,  with  Teheran,  Port  Arthur,  and  Peking.  With  40  Maps  and 
78  Plans.    1914 

Manual  of  the  Russian  Language,  with  Vocabulary  and  List  of 
Phrases.   1914 

Scotland,  see  Great  Britain. 

Spain  and  Portugal,  with  Excursions  to  Tangier  and  the  Balearic 
Islands.  With  20  Maps  and  59  Plans.  Fourth  edition.  1913 

Sweden,  see  Norivay,  Sweden,  and  Denmark. 

Switzerland,  together  with  Chamonix  and  the  Italian  Lakes.  With 
80  Maps,  21  Plans,  and  14  Panoramas.  Twenty -sixth  edition. 

Tyrol,  see  The  Eastern  Alps. 

The  United  States,  with  Excursions  to  Mexico,  Cuba,  Porto  Rico 
and  Alaska.  With  33  Maps  and  48  Plans.  Fourth  edition.  1909  .      . 

Wales,  see  Great  Britain. 












With  38  Maps  and  49  Plans 




All  Rights  Reserved. 

'Go,  little  book,   God  send  thee  good  passage, 
And  specially  let  this  be  thy  prayere 
Unto  them  all  that  thee  will  read  or  hear, 
Where  thou  art  wrong,  after  their  help  to  call, 
Thee  to  correct  in  any  part  or  all.' 


/S^S  46,03 

Aft  IS 


The  present  Handbook  to  the  Mediterranean  describes  the 
chief  routes  along  the  Mediterranean  coasts.  In  his  endeavour  to 
unite  within  a  single  volume  the  chief  points  of  interest  in  so  vast 
a  region  the  Editor  has  naturally  been  confronted  by  peculiar 
difficulties.  These  points  are  so  numerous  that  little  space  could 
be  afforded  for  more  subordinate  matters,  so  that  many  details 
have  necessarily  been  omitted.  Again  as  regards  the  selection  of 
routes,  and  of  places  to  be  described,  opinions  frequently  differ. 
The  Editor  ventures,  however,  to  hope  that  on  the  whole  he  has 
satisfied  the  requirements  of  most  of  his  readers.  As  many  of  the 
regions  which  are  here  grouped  historically  and  geographically  f 
have  already  been  treated  of  in  several  of  his  other  Handbooks, 
the  Editor  would  respectfully  refer  the  traveller  to  these  for  fuller 
details  ff.  The  new  subjects  comprise  Madeira  and  the  Canary  Is 
lands,  the  coast  of  Morocco,  and  Algeria  and  Tunisia,  the  materials 
for  describing  which  have  been  collected,  in  the  course  of  much 
travel,  by  several  of  the  Editor's  friends  and  fellow-workers.  The 
chief  Author  of  the  German  edition,  which  appeared  in  1909,  was 
Dr.  F.  Propping,  of  Godesberg  on  the  Rhine,  who  personally  visited 
most  of  the  places  described.  The  present  English  edition  has 
been  prepared  by  the  Editor's  old  friend,  emeritus  Professor  John 
Kirkpatrick,  formerly  of  Edinburgh  University,  who  fifty  years 

f  The  volume  contains  six  separable  Sections.  First:  Introduction; 
From  England  to  the  Mediterranean  by  the  Portuguese  Coast;  Madeira  and 
the  Canary  Islands  (pp.  i-xxxvi  and  1-48). — Second:  Andalusia;  Morocco 
(pp.  49-110).  —  Third:  Sea  Routes  in  the  W.  Mediterranean  (pp.  111-166). — 
Fourth:  Algeria  (pp.  167-818).—  Fifth:  Tunisia  (pp.  319-394).—  Sixth:  Sea 
Routes  in  the  E.  Mediterranean;  the  Black  Sea  (p.  395  to  the  end  of  the 

tt  Comp.  for  the  W.  Mediterranean  Baedeker's  'Southern  France', 
'Northern  Italy',  'Central  Italy  and  Rome',  'Southern  Italy,  Sicily,  and 
Sardinia',  'Italy  from  the  Alps  to  Naples',  and  'Spain  and  Portugal';  for 
Trieste  and  Dalmatia,  'Austria-Hungary';  for  the  E.  Mediterranean,  'Egypt', 
.Palestine  and  Syria',  'Greece',  and  'Konstantinopel  und  Eleinasien'  (at 
preaent  in  German  only);  for  the  Black  Sea,  'Russland'  or  'Russie'. 


ago  (1861)  translated  the  Handbook  for  the  Rhine,  and  thus  intro- 
duced 'Baedeker's  guidebooks'  to  the  English  public.  In  bringing 
the  information  contained  in  the  new  Mediterranean  volume  up  to 
date  the  Editor  has  received  valuable  aid  from  British  and  United 
States  consuls  and  ministers,  and  from  other  authorities,  who  have 
shown  the  utmost  courtesy  and  willingness  to  assist.  To  all  of 
these  the  Editor  expresses  his  grateful  acknowledgments.  Many 
readers  will  be  interested  also  in  the  geographical  sketch  by  the 
late  Professor  Theobald  Fischer  (d.  1910),  one  of  the  great  au- 
thorities on  the  Mediterranean  coast-lands. 

Special  care  has  been  bestowed  on  the  Maps  and  Plans  with 
which  the  Handbook  is  furnished.  Several  of  these  are  based  on 
materials  hitherto  unpublished,  and  others  have  been  locally  revised 
and  improved  for  the  special  benefit  of  the  Handbook.  In  the  case 
of  Algeria  and  Tunisia  the  French  spelling  has  been  adopted  in 
the  letter-press  as  well  as  in  the  mapsf. 

Hotels.  As  in  all  his  Handbooks  the  Editor  has  taken  the 
utmost  care  to  recommend  none  but  comfortable  and  respectable 
hotels.  From  this,  as  from  all  his  other  Handbooks,  advertisements, 
direct  and  indirect,  are  absolutely  excluded.  Persons  calling  them- 
selves agents  for  Baedeker's  Handbooks  are  impostors  and  should 
be  handed  over  to  the  police. 

As  many  matters  treated  of  in  the  Handbook  are  liable  to  fre- 
quent change  and  as,  in  the  Orient  particularly,  trustworthy  sources 
of  information  are  too  often  lacking,  the  Editor  will  warmly  ap- 
preciate any  communications  with  which  travellers  may  kindly 
favour  him. 

t  Note,  however,  that  in  the  letter-press  the  English  j  is  used  in 
preference  to  the  French  dj  (as  in  jebel,  mountain),  and  that  the  German 
or  Italian  u  is  preferred  to  the  French  ou  or  the  English  oo  (as  in  suk, 
market).  So  too,  as  a  general  rule,  all  the  other  vowel-sounds  in  the 
proper  names  follow  the  Italian  pronunciation. 



Introduction xiii 

I.  From  England  to  the  Mediterranean  by  the  Portu- 

guese Coast. 

1.  From  England  via  Oporto  and  Lisbon  to  Gibraltar  or 
Tangier  (Marseilles  and  Genoa) 1 

2.  Lisbon 6 

II.  Madeira  and  the  Canary  Islands. 

3.  Madeira 17 

4.  The  Canary  Islands 28 

HI.  Andalusia. 

5.  Gibraltar 52 

6.  From  Gibraltar  to  Seville ...  56 

7.  Seville 59 

8.  From  Seville  to  Cordova 68 

9.  From  Cordova  via  Bobadilla  to  Granada 72 

10.  Granada 73 

II.  From  Granada  via  Bobadilla  to  Malaga 88 

IV.  Morocco. 

12.  Tangier 98 

13.  From  Tangier  to  Tetuan  (Ceuta)    .     .          102 

14.  From  Tangier  to  Mogador  by  Sea 104 

V.  Sea  Routes  in  the  W.  Mediterranean. 

15.  From  Gibraltar  to  Genoa Ill 

16.  From  Gibraltar  to  Naples 118 

17.  From  (Lisbon)  Tangier,  and  from  Gibraltar,  to  Mar- 
seilles       119 

18.  From  Tangier  and  Cartagena  to  Oran 123 

19.  From  Marseilles  to  Oran 126 

20.  From  Marseilles  to  Algiers,  Bongie,  Philippeville,  and 
Bona 126 

21.  From  Marseilles  to  Tunis 128 

viii  CONTENTS. 

Route  Page 

22.  From  Algiers  to  Tunis  by  Sea 130 

23.  From  Marseilles  to  Naples 132 

24.  From  Genoa  to  Naples 1 34 

25.  From  Genoa  to  Tunis  via  Leghorn  and  Cagliari    .     .     .  142 

26.  From  Naples  to  Tunis  via  Palermo 146 

27.  From  Naples  to  Syracuse  (Malta,  Tunis,  Tripoli)  via 
Messina  and  Catania 154 

VI.  Algeria. 

28.  Oran 175 

29.  From  Oran  to  Tlemcen 185 

30.  Tlemcen 187 

31.  From  Tlemcen  to  Nemours  via  Lalla-Marnia   .  .     .  197 

32.  From  Oran  to  Beni-Ounif  de  Figuig  (Colomb-B6char)  via 
Damesme  and  Perregaux 199 

33.  From  Oran  to  Algiers 206 

34.  Algiers 217 

35.  From  Algiers  to  Tipaza  and  Cherchell 236 

36.  From  Algiers  to  Cape  Matifou  and  to  Aln-Taya  via  Maison- 
CarrSe 247 

37.  From  Algiers  to  Bougie  via  Beni-Mansour 249 

38.  From  Algiers  to  Tizi-Ouzou.    From  Camp-du-Mar6chal 

to  Tigzirt 252 

39.  From  Tizi-Ouzou  via.  Fort-National  to  Maillot  or  Tazmalt  256 

40.  From  Fort-National  via  Azazga  to  Bougie 260 

41.  Bougie 262 

42.  From  Bougie  through  the  Chabet  el-Akra  to  Setif     .     .  265 

43.  From  Algiers  to  Constantino  via  Beni-Mansour,  Setif,  and 
El-Guerrah 269 

44.  From  Constantine  to  Biskra  via  El-Guerrah  and  Batna  274 

45.  From  Batna  via  Lambese  to  Timgad 286 

46.  Constantine 297 

47.  From  Constantine  to  Philippeville 303 

48.  From  Constantine  to  Bona  via  Duvivier 306 

49.  From  Constantine  or  Bona  via  Duvivier  to  Souk-Ahras 
(Tebessa,  Tunis) 312 

50.  From  Souk-Ahras  to  Tebessa    ....  ....  313 

VII.  Tunisia. 

51.  From  (Constantine,  Bona)  Souk-Ahras  to  Tunis    .     .     .  325 

52.  Tunis 329 

53.  Carthage 343 

54.  From  Tunis  to  Bizerta 351 

55.  From  Tunis  to  Dougga  (Le  Kef) 354 

56    From  Tunis  to  Le  Kef  and  KaM-Djerda 358 


Route  Page 

57.  From  Tunis  to  Snsa 363 

58.  From  Snsa  to  Kairwan 370 

59.  From  Snsa  to  Sfax 378 

60.  From  Sfax  to  Metlaoni  via  Gafsa 383 

61.  From  Metlaoni  to  the  Djerid 386 

62.  From  (Sfax)  Gral'ba  to  Djerba  via  Gabes  and  Medenine  388 

Viu.  Sea  Routes  in  the  E.  Mediterranean. 

63.  From  Tnnis  to  Malta  (Syracnse) 396 

64.  From  Tnnis  to  Syracnse  via  Sfax,  Tripoli,  and  Malta     .  404 

65.  From  Tripoli  to  Alexandria  via.  Benghazi  and  Derna  412 

66.  From  Tripoli  to  Constantinople  via  Derna  and  Crete      .  41 5 

67.  From  (Marseilles,  Genoa)  Naples  to  Alexandria  and  Port 
Said 417 

68.  From  Venice  or  Trieste  to  Alexandria  and  Port  Said  via 
Brindisi 418 

69.  Alexandria 431 

70.  Port  Said 436 

71.  From  Alexandria  or  Port  Said  to  Cairo 437 

72.  From  Alexandria  or  Port  Said  to  Beirut  (Smyrna,  Con- 
stantinople) via.  Jaffa 466 

73.  From  Jaffa  to  Jerusalem 470 

74.  Beirnt.   Excursion  to  Damascus 481 

75.  From  Beirut  to  Smyrna  (and  Constantinople)  ....  489 

76.  From  Alexandria  to  Athens  and  Smyrna  (and  Constan- 
tinople)     491 

77.  From  (Marseilles,  Genoa)  Naples  to  Athens  (and  Con- 
stantinople) ...          493 

78.  From  Venice  or  Trieste  to  Athens  (and  Constantinople) 

via  Brindisi  and  Patras 496 

79.  Athens 502 

80.  From  Athens  via  Smyrna  to  Constantinople      ....  529 

81.  Constantinople 536 

IX.  The  Black  Sea. 

82.  From  Constantinople  to  Constantza 561 

83.  From  Constantinople  to  Odessa 563 

84.  From  Odessa  to  Batum 568 

85.  From  Batum  to  Constantinople 571 



(The  Maps  and  Plans  are  oriented  in  the  usual  way,  with  the  North 
at  the  top,  unless  otherwise  indicated.) 

1.  General  Map  of  the  Mediterranean  (1 : 8,250,000)  before  the 

2.  Environs  of  Lisbon  (1 :  250,000),  p.  14. 

3.  Madeira  (1 :  400,000),  p.  17. 

4.  Environs  of  Fnnchal  (1  :  120,000),  p.  21. 

5.  The  Canary  Islands  (1 :  7,500,000),  p.  28. 

6.  Teneriffe  (1 :  450,000),  p.  28. 

7.  Environs  of  Pnerto  Orotava  (1  :  100,000),  p.  28. 

8.  Environs  of  Las  Palmas  (1 :  250,000),  p.  46. 

9.  Andalnsia  and  the  Straits  of  Gibraltar  (1  :  2,750,000),  p.  49. 

10.  Environs  of  Tangier  (1 :  40,000),  p.  98. 

11.  Environs  of  Naples  (1  :  500,000),  p.  141. 

12.  Straits  of  Messina  (1 :  200,000),  p.  155. 

13.  Environs  of  Syracuse  (1 :  50,000),  p.  162. 

14.  Algeria  and  Tunisia  (1 :  8,250,000),  W.  part,  p.  167. 

15.  Environs  of  Oran  (1  :  150,000),  p.  175. 

16.  Environs  of  Tlemcen  (1  :  50,000),  p.  187. 

17.  Environs  of  Blida  (1 :  250,000),  p.  213. 

18.  Nearer  Environs  of  Algiers  (1 :  100,000),  p.  233. 

19.  Remoter  Environs  of  Algiers  (1 :  500,000),  p.  233 

20.  Environs  of  Bougie  (1 :  50,000),  p.  262. 

21.  Environs  of  Biskra  (1  :  100,000),  p.  279. 

22.  Environs  of  Lambese  and  Timgad  (1 :  500,000),  p.  289. 

23.  Environs  of  Philippeville  (1 :  150,000),  p.  304. 

24.  Environs  of  Bona  (1 :  200,000),  p.  309. 

25.  Algeria  and  Tunisia  (1  :  8,250,000),  E.  part,  p.  319. 

26.  Environs  of  Tunis  (1 :  250,000),  p.  338. 

27.  Environs  of  Susa  (1 :  50,000),  p.  366. 

28.  Environs  of  Sfax  (1  :  50,000),  p.  380. 

29.  The  Island  of  Malta  (1 :  320,000),  p.  399. 

30.  Environs  of  Tripoli  in  Barbary  (1  :  80,000),  p.  406. 

31.  The  Lagoons  of  Venice  (1 :  340,100),  p.  419. 

32.  Environs  of  Cairo  (1 :  250,000),  p.  458. 

33.  The  Island  of  Corfu  (1 :  300,000),  p.  497. 

34.  Environs  of  the  Town  of  Corfu  (1 :  60,000),  p.  497. 

35.  Environs  of  Athens  (1 :  150,000),  p.  528. 

36.  Environs  of  Constantinople  (1 :  140,000),  p.  537. 

37.  The  Bosporus  (1 :  200,000),  p.  557. 

38.  Environs  of  Yalta  (1 :  166,000),  p.  569. 









.  Alexandria  (1:18,000)  431 

.  Algiers  (1 :  20,000)  .  .  217 

,  Athens  (1 :  10,000)  .  .  503 

Beirut,    General  Plan 

(1 :  25,000) 481 

,  Beirut,  Old  Town  (1  : 

10,000) 481 

Biskra  (1 :  12,000)  .  279 
Blida  (1 :  12,000)  ...  213 
Bona  (1  :  15,000)  .  .  309 
Bougie  (1 :  15,000)  .  .  262 
Cairo  (1 :  12,300)  ...  439 
Carthage  (1 :  25,000)  .  343 
Catania  (1 :  16,700) .  .  160 
Constantine  (1 :  14,000)  297 

(1  :  20,000) 537 

Cordova  (1  :  15,000)  .  68 
Town    of    Corfu    (1  : 

15,000) 497 

Funchal  (1  :  30,000)  .  21 
Genoa  (1 :  10,000)  .  .  113 
Gibraltar  (1 :  25,000)  .  53 
Granada  (1 :  8700)  .  73 
Jerusalem  (1  :  8350)  .  471 
Kairwan  (1 :  12,000)  .  372 
Lisbon  (1 :  15,000)  .  .  7 
Malaga  (1  :  13,000)  .  .  89 
Marseilles  (1 :  14,000)  119 
Naples  (1  :  20,000)  .  .  135 








Odessa  (1  :  35,000)  .  565 
Oran  (1 :  18,000)  ...  175 
Palermo  (1 :  13,000)  .  147 
Las  Palmas  (1:15,000)  44 

(1  :  15,000) 304 

Port  Said,  Harbour  (1 : 

50,000) 437 

Port  Said,   Town   (1  : 

25,000) 437 

Puerto  de  la  Luz  and 
Las  Palmas  (1:60,000)     46 
Santa  Cruz  de  Tenerife 

(1:25,000) 33 

Seville  (1 :  10,000)  .  .  59 
Sfax  (1 :  14,000)  ...  380 
Smyrna  (1 :  18,000) .  .  531 
Susa  (1 :  12,000)  ...  366 
Tangier  (1  :  8000)  .  .  98 
Timgad  (1  :  6000) ...  289 
Tlemcen  (1 :  12,000)  .  187 
Trebizond  (1 :  30,000)  573 
Trieste  (1 :  16,700)  .  .  425 
Tripoli  in  Barbary  (1  : 

12,500) 406 

Tunis  (1 :  16,000) ...  329 
Valletta  (1  :  64,000)  .  399 
Venice  (1  :  12,500)  .  .  419 
Yalta  (1 :  25,200) ...  569 


Hot.,  Hot.  =  hotel. 

Alb.  =  albergo  (hotel). 

Restaur.  =  restaurant. 

R.  =  room  with  one  bed,  usually 
incl.  light  and  attendance. 

B.  =  breakfast  (coffee,  etc.). 

d6j.  =  dejeuner,  hot  lunch. 

D.  =  dinner. 

pens.  =  pension,  board  incl.  R.  un- 
less contrary  stated. 

rfmts.  =  refreshments. 

omn.  =  omnibus. 

N.,  S.,  E.,  "W.  —  north,  northern, 
south,  southern,  etc. 

r.  =  right,   1.  =  left. 

M.  =  mile;  sq.  M.  =  square  mile; 
ft.  =  foot,  feet;  yd.  =  yard,  etc. 

min.  =  minute;  hr.  =  hour. 

R.  =  route.  PI.  =  plan. 

dr.,  1.  =  drachme,  lepta. 

fr.,  c.  =  franc,  centime;  Ital.  lira, 

K,  h  =  krone,  heller  (Austrian  cur- 


L,  s.,  d.  =  pound  sterling,  shilling, 

pence,    g.  =  guinea, 
mej.  =  mejidieh. 
p.,  o.  =  peseta,  centimo. 
pias.,  mill.  =  piastre,  millieme. 

s.  pias.  =  silver  piastre. 

rs.  =  reis  (plur.  or  real ;  comp.  p.  6) 

rotib.,  cop.  =  rouble,  copeck. 

comp.  s=  compare. 

adm.  =  admission,  admittance. 

Asterisks  (*)  denote  objects  of  special  interest  and  hotels  that  are 
believed  to  be  worthy  of  special  commendation. 

The  number  of  ft.  (1  Engl.  ft.  =  0.3048  metre ;  1  metre  =  3.281  Fngl.  ft. 
or  about  3  ft.  3V8  'n0  given  after  the  name  of  a  place  shows  its  height 
above  the  sea-level. 

The  number  of  M.  (1  Engl,  mile  =  1.6093  kilometres;  1  kilometre  = 
0.6214  M.)  placed  before  the  principal  places  of  a  route  indicates  their 
distance  from  the  starting-point  of  the  route. 

International  Hotel  Telegraphic  Code. 

The  international  association  of  hotel-keepers  has  agreed  on  the  follow- 
ing code:  Alba,  room  with  single  bed;  albaduo,  room  with  double  bed; 
arab,  room  with  two  beds;  abec,  room  with  three  beds;  belab,  two  rooms 
and  two  beds;  birac,  two  rooms  and  three  beds;  bonad,  two  rooms  and 
four  beds;  ciroc,  three  rooms  and  three  beds;  carid,  three  rooms  and  four 
beds;  calde,  three  rooms  and  five  beds;  caduf,  three  rooms  and  six  beds; 
casag,  three  rooms  and  seven  beds;  danid,  four  rooms  and  four  beds; 
dalme,  four  rooms  and  five  beds ;  danof,  four  rooms  and  six  beds ;  dalag, 
four  rooms  and  seven  beds;  dirich,  four  rooms  and  eight  beds;  durbi, 
four  rooms  and  nine  beds;  kind,  child's  bed;  sal,  saloon,  private  sitting- 
room:  bat,  private  bathroom;  serv,  servant's  room.  The  class  of  room 
may  be  indicated  by  best,  bon,  or  plain.  Day  and  hour  of  arrival  must 
be  notified  (granmatin  is  midnight  to  7  a.m.,  matin  is  7-12,  sera  12-7, 
and  gransera  7  to  midnight),  and  also  duration  of  stay  (pass  means  one 
night,  stop  means  several  days,  but  is  not  binding).  Name  and  address 
of  applicant  must  be  given;  if  prevented  from  coming,  'ca?icel',  with  his 
signature,  suffices. 


'Mediterranean  Winter  Besorts'  by  E.  Reynolds-Ball  (6th  ed.,  London, 
1908;  price  6s.)  although  far  from  exhaustive,  contains  much  useful  and 
practical  information.  The  art  of  the  Orient  is  admirably  treated  of  in 
the  'Manuel  d' Art  Musulman'  by  H.  Saladin  and  G.  Migeon  (Paris,  1907 ; 
30  fr.).  Among  excellent  German  books  are  Theob.  Fischer's  'Mittelmeer- 
bilder'  (2  vols.,  Leipzig,  1906,  1908;  each  6  marks),  and  A.  Philippson's 
'Mittelmeergebiet'  (Leipzig,  1907 ;  7  marks). 

Books  on  Algeria,  see  p.  175;  on  Athens,  see  p.  508;  on  Cairo,  see 
p.  444;  on  the  Canary  Islands,  see  p.  32;  on  Cartnage,  see  p.  343;  on 
Constantinople,  see  p.  542;  on  Cordova,  see  p.  69;  on  Granada  and  the 
Alhambra,  see  pp.  f"5,  80;  on  Jerusalem,  see  p.  473;  on  Madeira,  see  p.  20; 
on  Morocco,  see  pp.  97,  98;  on  Seville,  see  p.  61;  on  Tebessa,  seep.  315; 
on  Timgad,  see  p.  289;  on  Tunisia,  see  p.  325. 




Season  and  Plan  of  Tour.    Health 



Money,  Passport,  Cnstom  House     .               .     . 

.   xvi 


Steamboats    ....                              .     . 

.     XV11 


Intercourse  with  Orientals              

The  Mediterranean  Sea   and   adjoining  Lands, 


geographical  Sketch  by  Theobald  Fischer  .     . 

.    xxvii 

L  Season  and  Plan  of  Tour.    Health. 

Season  of  Toub.  The  mildness  of  the  climate  (p.  xxxv)  makes 
travelling  pleasant  in  the  Mediterranean  lands  at  almost  any  season. 
Even  in  the  height  of  summer  travellers  who  can  stand  a  little 
heat  will  find  residence  in  many  of  the  islands  and  sea-side  resorts 
quite  agreeable.  Winter  begins  here  much  later  and  ends  much 
earlier  than  in  Northern  or  Central  Europe,  but  until  the  end  of 
March  few  regions  are  quite  exempt  from  wintry  days  and  falls 
of  snow.  March  is  considered  also  the  windiest  month  in  the  year 
on  the  Mediterranean. 

For  the  Portuguese  coast,  Andalusia,  and  Northern  Morocco 
(Tangier)  the  best  seasons  are  from  the  middle  of  March  to  the 
middle  of  May  and  the  months  of  October  and  November.  Granada, 
which  lies  high,  is  suitable  for  a  prolonged  stay  from  April  till 
the  middle  of  June.  Seville  and  Cordova  are  often  uncomfortably 
cold  in  December  and  January  owing  to  lack  of  heating  appliances. 
At  Lisbon  and  Tangier  winter  is  the  season  of  the  fertilizing  rains, 
which  often  last  till  the  middle  of  March.  With  regard  to  the  best 
season  for  Madeira  and  the  Canary  Islands,  see  pp.  19,  32. 

The  weather  is  generally  bright  and  genial  in  Algeria,  Tunisia, 
and  Tripolitania  in  late  autumn,  till  the  end  of  November,  and 
also  in  March  and  April,  though  less  settled.  Winter  is  a  dry 
season  only  on  the  E.  coast  of  Tunisia  and  in  the  Sahara,  but  is 
sometimes  cool  and  windy  (see  also  pp.  170,  172,  321).  It  is  still 
hot  in  October  in  Sicily,  in  Barbary,  and  in  Egypt,  where  the 
sirocco  (p.  321)  is  specially  disagreeable  in  the  early  autumn, 
while  health  is  endangered  by  malaria  (p.  xvi). 

xiv  PLAN  OF  TOUR. 

Of  all  the  Mediterranean  regions  Egypt  alone  offers  a  dry, 
settled,  and  genial  climate  in  winter.  The  traveller  on  the  Eastern 
Mediterranean  who  wishes  to  avoid  extremes  of  cold  and  heat 
should  make  his  first  stay  at  Cairo  in  January  or  February,  start 
for  the  Syrian  coast  at  the  end  of  February  or  early  in  March, 
proceed  to  Palestine  and  Damascus  after  March  has  commenced, 
and  visit  Asia  Minor  and  Greece  in  April,  and  Constantinople  and 
the  Black  Sea  in  May.  In  autumn,  from  the  end  of  September  on- 
wards, the  above  order  should  be  reversed. 

Plan  op  Touk.  The  traveller  is  advised  to  draw  up  a  careful 
programme  of  his  tour  before  starting.  All  the  places  described 
in  the  Handbook  may  be  reached  by  steamer,  or  partly  overland, 
at  any  time  of  the  year,  but  during  the  winter  season  (from  about 
the  end  of  October  to  the  middle  of  May)  much  greater  facilities 
are  offered  by  excursion-steamers  (see  pp.  xviii,  1,  2),  circular 
tickets,  and  combined  tickets.  American  travellers  may  sail  direct 
from  New  York  or  Boston  to  some  of  the  Mediterranean  ports  (see 
p.  xviii).  Travellers  from  Great  Britain  may  start  from  London, 
Liverpool,  Southampton,  or  Dover,  or  if  they  dread  a  long  sea- 
voyage  may  proceed  overland  to  Marseilles,  to  Genoa,  to  Naples,  to 
Brindisi,  to  Venice,  or  to  Trieste  (comp.  p.  xxiv),  and  begin  their 
Mediterranean  tour  from  one  of  these  poinls.  Some  may  prefer  the 
overland  route  to  Spain  and  Gibraltar,  while  others  again  may  find 
it  more  convenient  to  travel  all  the  way  to  Constantinople  (Orient 
Express),  to  Constantza  (Ostend -Vienna  Express),  or  to  Odessa 
(via  Vienna  and  Cracow)  by  railway,  and  thence  explore  the  Med- 
iterranean from  east  to  west.  The  railway  routes  will  be  found  in 
'Bradshaw's  Continental  Railway  Guide'  or  in  the  German  'Reichs- 
kursbuch'.  For  the  'trains  de  luxe'  services  tickets  must  be  obtained 
from  the  International  Sleeping  Car  Co.  (London,  20  Cockspur  St., 
S.W.;  Paris,  3  Place  de  l'Opera;  New  York,  281  Fifth  Ave.; 
Berlin,  69  Unter  den  Linden).  For  the  sea-routes,  see  p.  xvii ;  for 
particulars  application  should  be  made  to  the  various  companies 
or  their  handbooks  consulted.  Excursion,  circular,  and  combined 
tickets  are  issued  by  Messrs.  Thos.  Cook  &  Son,  Ludgate  Circus, 
and  by  other  tourist-agents.  It  may  be  noted  here  that  the  'pleasure- 
cruises'  organized  by  many  of  the  companies  offer  great  attractions 
at  moderate  cost,  but  at  the  almost  entire  sacrifice  of  personal 
independence,  while  the  fellow-passengers  with  whom  one  is  assoc- 
iated for  weeks  may  not  always  be  congenial. 

As  a  general  rule  it  is  pleasanter  and  less  expensive  to  travel 
with  one  or  more  companions  than  alone.  Apart  from  hotel  charges 
and  railway  and  steamboat  fares,  the  cost  for  two  or  three  persons 
is  often  no  greater  than  for  one.  Moreover,  when  off  the  beaten 
track  the  traveller  thus  escapes  from  monotonous  and  monosyllabic 
conversation  with  native  guides  or  drivers  (comp.  pp.  xxv,  xxvi), 


and  in  case  of  illness  or  accident  he  is  far  more  certain  of  obtaining 
assistance  and  relief. 

The  most  nsefnl  language  in  most  parts  of  the  Mediterranean 
is  French.  In  Portugal,  Madeira,  and  the  Canary  Islands  English 
is  much  spoken,  in  Egypt  it  is  the  leading  language.  Italian  is 
very  useful  in  Tunisia,  on  the  coast  of  Tripolitania  and  Barca,  in 
Malta,  throughout  the  Levant,  in  Greece,  and  at  Constantinople. 
On  the  other  hand  a  slight  knowledge  of  Arabic  will  be  found  most 
useful  throughout  the  whole  of  N.  Africa,  from  Morocco  to  Egypt, 
and  in  Palestine  and  Syria. 

Some  Hints  on  Health  may  be  of  advantage  to  the  inexper- 
ienced traveller  from  the  north.  As  a  rule  an  overcoat  or  extra 
wraps  should  be  put  on  at  sundown,  though  they  may  often  be 
dispensed  with  an  hour  or  two  later.  When  heated  with  walking 
the  traveller  should  not  rest  in  the  shade.  In  hot  climates  like 
those  of  Egypt  and  the  Sahara  he  should  never  remove  his  pith- 
helmet  or  other  headgear  in  the  sun.  Grey  spectacles  or  grey 
veils  shield  the  eyes  alike  from  the  glare  of  the  sun  and  from  dust. 
Sunshades  also  are  very  desirable  in  hot  weather.  As  a  rule  it  is 
advisable  to  stay  within  doors  during  the  heat  of  the  day.  On  the 
other  hand  many  places  on  the  Mediterranean  are  cold  in  winter, 
Lower  Egypt  and  Cairo  being  no  exceptions.  Steamboat  passengers, 
too,  will  generally  find  warm  clothing  very  desirable  between 
October  and  the  middle  of  May.  An  extra  coat  or  shawl  should 
be  donned  in  museums,  churches,  mosques,  and  other  buildings 
with  stone  pavement,  as  the  air  is  often  very  chilly. 

When  engaging  rooms  visitors  should  insist  on  a  southern  aspect, 
which  is  almost  essential  for  the  delicate  and  highly  desirable  for 
the  robust.  In  every  case,  especially  if  the  rooms  do  not  face  due 
south,  they  should  have  a  fireplace  or  else  central  heating.  In  the 
Mediterranean  regions,  where  many  of  the  plainer  hotels  have  stone 
or  brick  floors,  carpets  are  essential  to  comfort. 

With  regard  to  diet  also  a  few  general  hints  may  be  serviceable. 
Oysters,  fish,  salads,  and  tinned  meats  should  be  absolutely  avoided. 
Raw  fruit,  except  perhaps  oranges  and  grapes,  should  be  partaken 
of  very  sparingly.  Ices  and  iced  drinks  also  are  apt  to  be  upset- 
ting. The  contents  of  siphons,  lemonade,  and  other  'refreshing 
beverages'  are  not  unfrequently  composed  of  polluted  water.  The 
safest  liquids  are  boiled  water,  natural  mineral  waters,  tea,  coffee, 
good  red  wine,  and,  in  moderation,  sound  English  or  German  beer. 
Fairly  good  cognac  or  even  whiskey  may  be  obtained  almost  every- 
where, but  for  the  time-honoured  'soda'  or  'potash'  it  is  safer  to 
substitute  boiled  or  mineral  water. 

Colds,  errors  in  diet,  malaria,  and  over-exertion  are  the  chief 
sources  of  the  sharp  attacks  of  illness  to  which  even  the  hardiest 
travellers  from  the  north  are  liable  in  the  'sunny  south'.   Sunstroke 

xvl  MONEY. 

is  another  danger.  Against  all  these  the  traveller  requires  to  be 
more  on  his  guard  than  at  home,  where  his  nerves  and  his  digest- 
ion are  much  less  liable  to  be  overtaxed.  Care  and  moderation  in 
sight-seeing  and  touring  are  therefore  hardly  less  important  than 
attention  to  diet. 

Before  the  journey  is  begun  a  supply  of  a  few  simple  remedies 
(see  below)  may  be  prepared  with  the  advice  of  the  traveller's 
physician.  In  cases  of  serious  illness  one  of  the  properly  qualified 
doctors  mentioned  in  the  text  should  be  consulted. 

Diarrhoea,  which  may  develop  into  dysentery,  one  of  the  commonest 
complaints,  generally  results  from  catching  cold  or  from  eating  unwhole- 
some food.  The  patient  should  first  take  a  slight  aperient  and  afterwards 
several  doses  of  bismuth.  The  diet  should  be  arrowroot  (which  should 
always  accompany  the  traveller),  rice  or  some  other  farinaceous  food,  and 
milk;  fruit,  meat,  fatty  substances,  and  alcohol  should  be  avoided.  In 
obstinate  cases  a  change  of  climate  is  sometimes  the  only  remedy. 

Sprains  are  best  treated  with  cold  compresses;  the  injured  part  should 
be  tightly  bandaged  and  given  perfect  rest.  In  the  case  of  a  snake  bite 
or  scorpion  sting  the  wound  should  be  immediately  treated  with  ammonia, 
or  better  still,  cauterized.  Sunstroke  is  not  common  in  winter,  but  may 
easily  occur  as  late  as  November  or  as  early  as  April.  The  usual  remedies 
are  rest  and  shade;  cold  appliances  are  used  for  the  head  and  neck;  in 
case  of  high  temperature  these  should  be  iced.  The  best  protection  for 
the  head  is  either  a  pith-helmet,  or  a  tall  perforated  straw-hat,  with 
several  folds  of  gauze  round  it  and  hanging  down  over  the  back  of  the 
neck.  When  the  eyes  are  irritated  with  glare  or  dust  frequent  washing 
with  a  weak  boracic  or  zinc  lotion  affords  relief  (comp.  also  p.  xv). 

Lastly  a  few  simple  and  well-known  remedies,  most  of  which  may  be 
obtained  in  a  tabloid  form,  may  be  mentioned  for  other  common  ailments : 
cascara  sagrada,  castor-oil,  'Tamar  Indien',  or  Epsom  salts  for  constipation; 
a  zinc  or  starch  dusting-powder  for  chafed  sores  due  to  riding;  tincture  of 
arnica,  or  Elliman's  embrocation,  antiseptic  wool,  collodion,  and  sticking- 
plaster,  for  bruises  and  wounds ;  ammonia  (sal-ammoniac)  or  other  antidote 
(inuscatol)  to  stings  or  bites;  disinfectants,  carbolic  acid,  insect-powder; 
chlorodyne  for  neuralgia ;  quinine  for  cases  of  fever.  Fever,  be  it  noted, 
especially  in  malarious  regions  (Sardinia,  Sicily,  Algeria,  Tunisia,  Greece) 
is  propagated  by  mosquitoes,  especially  by  the  female  of  the  Anopheles 
Claviger.  Light  curtains  round  the  beds  should  therefore  be  used  to  ward 
off  the  attacks  of  these  troublesome  insects.  At  dusk,  and  at  night 
when  the  room  is  lighted,  the  windows  should  always  be  carefully  closed. 
"When  a  bite  has  been  received  the  inflamed  part  should  be  at  once  rubbed 
with  ammonia. 

It  should,  however,  be  added,  in  order  to  reassure  the  timid  or  nerv- 
ous traveller,  that  few  of  these  elaborate  precautions  are  necessary  ex- 
cept for  enterprising  explorers  who  often  leave  the  beaten  track  or  whose 
tour  extends  beyond  the  usual  winter  season. 

IE.  Money,  Passport,  Custom  House. 

Money.  A  small  sum  of  money  to  start  with  shonld  be  taken 
in  English  or  French  gold,  but  large  sums  should  always  be  carried 
in  the  form  of  circular  notes,  care  being  observed  to  keep  the  notes 
and  the  'letter  of  indication'  quite  separate.  These  notes  are  issued 
by  the  London  and  the  Scottish  banks  and  by  Messrs.  Thos.  Cook 


&  Son  (Ludgate  Circus).  The  cheques  issued  by  the  American 
Express  Companies,  by  the  American  Bankers  Association,  and  by 
the  International  Mercantile  Marine  Co.  are  also  convenient.  Wher- 
ever the  traveller  lands  he  will  find  an  ample  supply  of  the  small 
change  of  the  country  very  needful. 

Passports  are  not  absolutely  necessary,  except  in  Turkey  and 
in  Russia;  but  consuls,  and  sometimes  bankers,  require  more  con- 
vincing proof  of  identity  than  a  visiting-card.  Passports  must  be 
Bhown  at  the  post-offices  also  in  order  to  obtain  delivery  of  re- 
gistered letters. 

Passports  may  be  procured  in  England  direct  from  the  Passport  De- 
partment of  the  Foreign  Office,  Whitehall  (fee  2  s.),  or  through  any 
tourist-agent.  —  In  the  United  States  they  are  obtained  from  the  Bureau 
of  Citizenship,  State  Department,  Washington,  D.C.  —  Travellers  may 
generally  get  their  passports  vise's  for  Turkey  or  Russia  through  one  of 
the  steamboat-companies  or  by  applying  to  their  consulate  at  one  of  the 
chief  seaports,  if  they  have  omitted  to  take  this  step  before  leaving  home. 

The  Custom  House  Examination  at  the  various  seaports  and 
frontiers  is  seldom  very  rigorous;  but  the  traveller  should  be  care- 
ful to  declare  every  new  article  not  intended  for  personal  use;  and 
he  should  note  particularly  that  cigars,  tobacco,  and  cigarettes, 
weapons  and  ammunition  (the  import  of  the  last  four  articles  being 
entirely  prohibited  in  Turkey),  playing-cards,  matches,  etc.  are 
liable  to  a  heavy  duty  almost  everywhere.  These  should  therefore 
be  carried  in  very  small  quantities  or  dispensed  with  altogether. 
It  is  rarely  worth  while  carrying  large  supplies  of  any  dutiable 
article,  as  the  formalities  are  tedious  and  the  expenses  heavy. 

In  Turkey  a  second  custom-house  examination  of  luggage  takes 
place  when  the  traveller  leaves  the  country,  a  small  duty  being 
levied  on  exports,  while  the  export  of  antiques  without  the  au- 
thority of  government  is  forbidden.  In  Spain,  Italy,  and  Greece 
also  permission  must  be  obtained  to  carry  away  works  of  art.  Per- 
sons who  have  made  large  purchases,  or  have  a  superfluity  of 
baggage  to  send  home,  had  better  employ  a  goods-agent. 

III.  Steamboats. 

All  the  leading  steamboat-companies  are  mentioned  in  the  Hand- 
book in  connection  with  the  different  routes.  The  great  Oriental, 
Australian,  and  other  liners,  of  5-12,000  tons'  burden  and  upwards, 
touch  at  very  few  Mediterranean  ports  (Gibraltar,  Marseilles,  Genoa, 
Naples,  Port  Said).  Travellers  desirous  of  visiting  the  Portuguese 
coast,  Madeira  and  the  Canary  Islands,  Algiers,  Sardinia,  Sicily, 
Tunisia,  Athens,  Constantinople,  and  many  other  places  of  interest 
must  generally  be  content  with  smaller  and  often  very  inferior 
vessels.  The  sections  of  the  following  brief  summary  of  the  chief 
lines  correspond  with  those  into  which  the  Handbook  is  divided. 

Baedeker's  Mediterranean.  b 


From  the  United  States  to  the  Mediterranean. —  White  Star  Line. 
From  Boston  about  every  three  weeks  to  Gibraltar,  Algiers,  Naples,  and 
Genoa,  in  14-15  days.  From  New  York  at  irregular  intervals  to  Gibraltar, 
Naples,  and  Genoa,  in  15-16  days.  From  Genoa  via  Naples  to  New  York 
or  Boston  at  irregular  intervals.  Fares:  1st  cl.  from  New  York  to  Gibral- 
tar, Genoa,  or  Naples,  from  16Z.,  according  to  steamer;  from  Boston  to 
Gibraltar,  Algiers,  Genoa,  or  Naples,  from  16?.  10s.;  from  New  York  to 
Villefranche,  from  19Z.  10s. ;  2nd  cl.  1SZ. 

Hamburg-American  Line.  From  New  York  at  irregular  intervals  to 
Gibraltar,  Algiers,  Naples  (or  Palermo),  and  Genoa,  in  13  days,  and  vico 
versa.    Fares:  1st  cl.  from  111.  10s.,  2nd  cl.  13Z. 

North  German  Lloyd  Line.  From  New  York  on  most  Sat.  to  Gibral- 
tar, Algiers  (not  in  summer),  Naples,  and  Genoa,  in  13  days,  returning 
on  most  Thursdays.    Fares:  1st  cl.  from  $  87V2>  2nd  cl.  from  $65. 

Cunard  Line.  From  New  York  at  irregular  intervals  to  Gibraltar, 
Genoa,  Naples,  Trieste,  and  Fiume,  in  about  20  days,  returning  via  Palermo, 
Naples,  and  Gibraltar.  Fares  to  Trieste  or  Fiume,  1st  cl.  from  16L  10s.; 
to  Gibraltar,  Genoa,  or  Naples  from  lil.  10s. ;  2nd  cl.  fares  from  122. 

Among  the  regular  pleasure -cruises  from  the  United  States  to  the 
Mediterranean  may  be  mentioned  those  from  Boston  organized  by  the 
Bureau  of  University  Travel;  for  excursion-steamers  from  England  to 
the  Mediterranean,  see  pp.  1,  2. 

(1).  Portuguese  Coast  (R.  1). 

Pacific  Line  from  Liverpool  (31  James  St.)  fortnightly,  for  La 
Rochelle-Pallice  (for  Bordeaux),  Cormina,Vigo,  Leixoes  (for  Oporto), 
Lisbon,  and  St.  Vincent  (Cape  Verde),  and  thence  to  S.  America. 
Passengers  for  Madeira,  the  Canary  Islands,  and  the  Mediterranean 
must  of  course  tranship  at  Lisbon  or  St.  Vincent. 

Royal  Mail  Steam  Packet  Co.,  see  p.  xix. 

Nederland  Royal  Mail  Steamers  (London  office,  2  King 
William  St.,  E.  C.)  and  Rotterdam  Lloyd,  both  fortnightly  from 
Southampton  to  Lisbon,  Tangier,  etc. 

Yeoward  Bros.'  Line,  see  p.  xix. 

Hall  Line,  see  p.  xx. 

Booth  Line  thrice  monthly  from  Liverpool  (office  in  the  Tower 
Building)  to  Havre,  Vigo,  Leixoes  (for  Oporto),  Lisbon,  and  Madeira. 

Ellerman  Line  weekly  from  Liverpool  to  Lisbon  and  Oporto. 

Peninsular  &  Oriental  Co.,  see  p.  xx. 

German  East  African  Line  (London  office,  14  St.  Mary  Axe, 
E.C.)  once  every  three  weeks  from  Southampton  to  Lisbon,  Tangier, 
Marseilles,  Naples,  etc. 

Hamburg  -  American  Line  (London  office,  22  Cockspur  St., 
S.W.)  and  Hamburg  &  South  American  Co.  several  times  monthly 
from  Southampton,  calling  occasionally  at  Lisbon. 

Royal  Holland  Lloyd  monthly  from  Dover  to  Boulogne,  Co- 
runna,  Vigo,  Lisbon,  etc. 

Compania  Trasatldntica  (Philippines  Line)  monthly  from 
Liverpool  to  Corumia,  Vigo,  Lisbon,  Cadiz,  etc. 


(2).  Madeira  and  Canary  Islands  (It It.  3,  4). 

Union  Castle  Line  (London  office,  3  Fenchurch  St.,  E.C.) 
weekly  from  Southampton  to  Madeira;  also  fortnightly  from  Lon- 
don and  Southampton  touching  alternately  at  Las  Palmas  and  Ten- 
eriffe;  also  summer  tours  to  Madeira,  Las  Palmas,  and  Teneriffe. 

Royal  Mail  Steam  Packet  Co.  (London  office,  18  Moorgate  St., 
E.C.)  fortnightly  from  Southampton  to  Vigo,  Lisbon,  and  Madeira; 
also  round  voyages  from  London,  see  p.  sx. 

Peninsular  &  Oriental  Branch  Service  monthly  from  London 
(office,  3  East  India  Ave.,  E.C.)  to  Las  Palmas. 

Booth  Line,  see  p.  xviii. 

Bucknall  Line  monthly  from  London  (office,  23  Leadenhall  St., 
E.  C.)  to  Teneriffe. 

Aberdeen  (TJiompson's)  Line  monthly  from  London  (office,  7 
Billiter  Square,  E.  C.)  and  Plymouth  to  Teneriffe. 

Aberdeen  (Rcnnie's)  Line  about  once  every  ten  days  from 
London  (office,  4  East  India  Ave.,  E.C.)  to  Las  Palmas  and  Teneriffe 

German  East  African  Line  (London  office,  see  p.  xviii)  once 
every  three  weeks  from  Southampton  for  Las  Palmas  and  Teneriffe. 

Woermann  Line  monthly  from  Dover  to  Las  Talmas  and 

Xcw  Zealand  Line  (London  office,  138  Leadenhall  St.,  E.C.) 
and  Shaw,  Savill,  &  Albion  Line  (London  office,  34  Leadenhall 
St.,  E.  C),  each  monthly  from  London  and  Plymouth  to  Teneriffe. 

Yeoward  Bros.  Line  weekly  from  Liverpool  (office,  27  Stanley 
St.)  to  Lisbon,  Teneriffe,  and  Grand  Canary,  calling  on  alternate 
voyages  at  Madeira. 

Federal,  Houlder,  &  Shire  Lines  fortnightly  from  Liverpool, 
calling  at  Madeira,  Las  Palmas,  or  Teneriffe. 

Natal  Line  fortnightly  from  London  (office,  14  St.  Mary  Axe, 
E.C.)  to  Las  Palmas. 

Empreza  Nacional  de  Naveyagdo  twice  monthly,  and  Em- 
preza Insulana  once  monthly  from  Lisbon  to  Madeira. 

(3).  Gibraltar  and  Andalusia  (ER.  1,  5,  6b,  11). 

Peninsular  &  Oriental  Co.  once  weekly  from  London  (office, 
122  Leadenhall  St.,  E.C.)  to  Gibraltar,  etc.    Comp.  also  p.  xx. 

Orient  Royal  Line  fortnightly  from  Loudon  (office,  5  Fenchurch 
St.,  E.C.)  to  Gibraltar,  etc. 

North  German  Lloyd  fortnightly  from  Southampton  (London 
office,  26  Cockspur  St.,  S.W.). 

Anchor  Line  almost  weekly  from  Liverpool  (office,  17  Water  St.) 
or  Glasgow  (Anchor  Line  Buildings)  to  Gibraltar. 



Hall  Line  weekly  from  London  (office,  31  Crutched  Friars,  E.C.) 
to  Lisbon,  Gibraltar,  Malaga,  and  Cadiz. 

Royal  Mail  Steam  Packet  Co.,  see  below. 

Moss  Line  fortnightly  (office,  31  James  St.)  and  Papayanni 
Line  (office,  22  Water  St.)  occasionally  from  Liverpool  to  Gibraltar. 

Vapores  Correos  de  Africa  from  Algeciras  to  Tangier,  Cadiz, 
and  Ceuta. 

(4).  Morocco  (RR.  13,  14). 

Royal  Mail  Steam  Packet  Co.  fortnightly  from  London  (office, 
see  p.  xix)  to  Gibraltar,  Tangier,  etc.,  returning  via  Las  Palmas, 
Teneriife,  and  Madeira. 

Nederland  Royal  Mail  and  Rotterdam  Lloyd,  see  p.  xviii. 

German  East  African  Line,  see  p.  xviii. 

Peninsular  &  Oriental  Co.  sends  'Vectis'  or  other  excursion 
steamer  from  London  (office,  see  p.  xix)  several  times  in  spring 
and  summer  to  Lisbon,  Gibraltar,  and  Tangier. 

Compania  Trasatldntica  (Canary  Line)  calls  at  Tangier  (if 
required  also  at  Casablanca  and  Mazagan)  once  a  month  on  the 
voyage  to  and  from  Barcelona. 

Bland  Line,  small  cargo-boats  thrice  weekly  from  Gibraltar 
to  Tangier;  also  steamers  from  Tangier  to  Tetuan  and  Larash. 

Oldenburg  Portuguese  Line  fortnightly  from  Tangier  to  Rabat, 
Mogador,  etc. 

Vapores  Correos  de  Africa  twice  monthly  from  Tangier  to 
Larash,  Rabat,  Casablanca,  Mazagan,  Saffi,  and  Mogador. 

N.  Paquet  &  Co.  weekly  from  Tangier  to  Rabat  and  Mogador. 

Navigation  Mixte  weekly  from  Tangier  for  Melilla,  Malaga, 
and  Oran. 

Hungarian  Adria  monthly  from  Gibraltar  to  Tangier  and  Oran. 

(5).  W.  Mediterranean. 

From  Gibraltar  to  Genoa  (R.  15a): —  White  Star  Line  (from 
New  York  or  Boston)  2-3  times  monthly;  North  German  Lloyd 
(from  Southampton)  monthly;  Cunard  Line  (from  New  York)  oc- 
casionally; Lloyd  Sabaudo  (from  S.  America)  once  monthly. 

From  Gibraltar  to  Algiers  (R.  15b):  —  North  German  Lloyd 
fortnightly;  the  Hamburg-American,  the  Austrian  Lloyd,  and  the 
German  Levant,  all  less  regularly ;  Navigation  Mixte  (Touache 
Co.)  to  Oran  (thence  to  Algiers  by  rail). 

From  Gibraltar  to  Marseilles  (R.  17) :  —  Peninsular  &  Oriental 
(from  London)  weekly;  Orient  Royal  (from  London)  fortnightly. 

From  Gibraltar  to  Naples  (R.  16):  —  Orient  Royal  (from  Lon- 
don) fortnightly ;  North  German  Lloyd  (from  Southampton)  twice, 
also  (from  New  York)  once  or  twice  monthly;  Cunard  and  White 


Star  (from  New  York  or  Boston),  each  two  or  three  times  a  month; 
Hamburg-American  (from  New  York)  once  or  twice  a  month. 

From  Marseilles  to  Naples  (R.  23) :  —  Orient  Royal  (from  Lon- 
don) fortnightly;  North  German  Lloyd  (from  Southampton)  fort- 
nightly; German  East  African  Line  once  in  three  weeks;  Mes- 
sageries  Maritimes  fortnightly ;  Hungarian  Adria  (cargo-boats) 
twice  weekly. 

From  Marseilles  to  Algiers  (R.  20) :  — G6n&rale  Transatlantique 
four  times  weekly ;  Transports  Maritimes,  twice  weekly ;  Naviga- 
tion Mixte  (Touaehe  Co.)  weekly,  also  cargo-boat  weekly. 

From  Marseilles  to  Tunis  (R.  21) :  —  North  German  Lloyd 
fortnightly  (to  Goletta  only) ;  Gin&rale  Transatlantique  once 
weekly  (and  thence  on  to  Malta),  and  via  Bizerta  once  weekly; 
Navigation  Mixte  (Touaehe  Co.)  once  weekly,  and  cargo-boats 
via  Bizerta  once  weekly. 

From  Genoa  to  Naples  (R.  24):  —  North  German  Lloyd  (from 
Southampton)  two  or  three  times  a  month;  Hamburg- American 
once  or  twice  monthly ;  Cunard  and  White  Star,  each  once  monthly ; 
Societd  Nazionale  three  or  four  times  weekly;  Italian  Lloyd 
once,  twice,  or  thrice  monthly;  La  Veloce  and  Lloyd  Sabaudo, 
each  once  monthly;  Hungarian  Adria  twice  weekly. 

From  Genoa  to  Tunis  (R.  25):  —  Societd  Nazionale  weekly; 
North  German  Lloyd  fortnightly  to  Bizerta. 

From  Naples  to  Palermo  (R.  26) :  —  Steamers  of  the  Ferrovie 
dello  Stato  daily;  Societd  Nazionale  weekly;  Hungarian  Adria 
twice  weekly;  Lloyd  Sabaudo  monthly. 

From  Palermo  to  Tunis  (R.  26):  —  Societd  Nazionale  weekly, 
also  small  cargo-boats  weekly ;  Navigation  Mixte  (Touaehe  Co.), 
cargo-boats  weekly. 

From  Naples  to  Messina  and  Syracuse  (R.  27) :  —  Societd  Na- 
zionale thrice  weekly  to  Messina,  and  once  weekly  thence  to  Syr- 
acuse; also  steamers  of  the  Ferrovie  dello  Stato  weekly  from 
Naples  to  Messina,  and  of  the  North  German  Lloyd  fortnightly 
from  Naples  to  Catania. 

From  Tunis  or  Syracuse  to  Malta  (R.  64) :  —  Societd  Nazionale 
six  times  monthly;  Hungarian  Adria  six  times  weekly.  —  From 
London  to  Malta:  Peninsidar  &  Oriental  usually  weekly.  From 
Liverpool  to  Naples  and  Malta:  City  Line  about  once  monthly. 

(6).  Steamers  to  Algeria. 

From  Southampton  to  Algiers:  —  North  German  Lloyd  once 
or  twice  monthly  direct;  Nederland  Royal  Mail  fortnightly  via 
Lisbon  and  Tangier. 

From  Marseilles  to  Oran  (R.  19):  —  Gdn&rale  Transatlantique 
twice  weekly;  Transports  Maritimes  once,  and  cargo-boat  once 


weekly;  Navigation  Mixte  (Touache  Co.)  once  weekly  (also 
weekly  steamers  from  Cette  to  Oran). 

From  Marseilles  to  Algiers,  see  p.  xxi. 

From  Gibraltar  to  Algiers,  see  p.  xx. 

From  Cartagena  to  Oran  (R.  18) :  —  Gdnirale  Transatlantique 
once  weekly. 

From  Tangier  to  Oran  (R.  18) :  —  Navigation  Mixte  (Touache 
Co.)  weekly,  also  cargo-boats  fortnightly;  Hungarian  Adria  once 

(7).  Steamers  to  Tunis. 

From  Algiers  to  Tnnis  (It.  22): —  Generate  Transatlantique, 
coasting  cargo-boats,  once  weekly;  German  Levant  Lane  two  or 
three  times  a  month;  Hungarian  Adria  once  monthly  to  Tunis 
direct.    Several  other  lines  are  available  for  sections  of  the  route. 

From  Marseilles  to  Tunis,  see  p.  xxj ;  from  Naples  to  Palermo, 
and  from  Palermo  to  Tunis,  see  p.  xxi ;  from  Naples  to  Syracuse, 
and  from  Syracuse  to  Malta  and  Tunis,  see  p.  xxi 

(8).  Eastern  Mediterranean 

From  Tunis  to  Malta,  see  p.  xxi. 

From  Tunis  to  Tripoli  (R.  64):  —  Societa  Nazionale  weekly, 
and  Navigation  Mixte  (Touache  Co.)  weekly,  both  coasting. 
(From  Algiers  to  Tripoli  direct  or  via  Malta,  cargo-steamers  of 
the  German  Levant  Line.) 

From  Tripoli  to  Malta  and  Syracuse  (R.  G4):  —  Societa  Nazio- 
nale weekly,  other  boats  fortnightly. 

From  Tripoli  to  Alexandria  (R.  65):  —  German  Levant  Line, 
cargo-boats,  thrice  monthly ;  Banco  di  Roma  fortnightly. 

From  Tripoli  to  Constantinople  (R.  66):  —  Societa  Nazionale 

From  Marseilles,  Genoa,  and  Naples  to  Alexandria  (R.  67):  — 
North  German  Lloyd  -weekly  from  Marseilles  to  Naples  and 
Alexandria;  Messageries  Mariiimes  from  Marseilles  w'eekly  to 
Alexandria  direct;  Societa  Nazionale  weekly  from  Genoa  to 
Leghorn,  Naples,  and  Alexandria. 

From  Venice  to  Alexandria  (R.  68) :  —  Societa  Nazionale  fort- 
nightly, via  Ancona,  Bari,  and  Brindisi. 

From  Trieste  to  Alexandria  (R.  68) :  —  Austrian  Lloyd  weekly 
vi§,  Brindisi,  and  weekly  via.  Gravosa  and  Brindisi. 

Steamers  to  Port  Said  (RR.  67,  68) :  —  All  the  great  liners  already 
mentioned  and  others  besides  converge  at  Port  Said.  Of  the  com- 
panies despatching  vessels  almost  daily  from  British  ports  the 
following  are  the  chief:  Peninsular  &  Oriental  (calling  at  Gibraltar, 
Marseilles,  and  Brindisi) ;  Orient  Royal  and  North  German  Lloyd 


(calling  at  Gibraltar,  Marseilles,  and  Naples) ;  Bibby  (calling  at 
Marseilles) ;  City  Line  (calling  at  Naples  and  Malta) ;  British  In- 
dia Lane  (calling  occasionally  at  Marseilles,  Genoa,  or  Naples) ; 
Nederland  Royal  Mail  (via  Genoa) ;  Rotterdam  Lloyd  (via  Mar- 
seilles); Queensland  IAne;  Japan  Mail  (via  Marseilles);  and 
Compaflia  Trasatldntica  (via  Genoa). 

Steamers  to  Palestine  and  Syria  (K.  72): — Khedivial  Mail, 
Austrian  Lloyd,  Russian  Steam  Navigation  &  Trading  Co., 
Soeieta  Nazionale,  all  weekly  from  Alexandria  to  Port  Said,  Jaffa, 
Haifa,  and  Beirut;  Messageries  Maritimes  fortnightly  from  Alexan- 
dria and  Port  Said  to  Beirut  direct,  and  fortnightly  calling  at  Jaffa; 
German  Levant,  cargo-boats,  twice  monthly  from  Alexandria  to 
Jaffa,  Haifa,  and  Beirut. 

From  Alexandria  and  Beirut  to  Smyrna  and  Constantinople 
(RR.  72,  75,  76) :  —  Khedivial  Mail  fortnightly  from  Alexandria  to 
Port  Said,  Beirut,  Smyrna,  and  Constantinople;  Russian  Steam 
Navigation  &  Trading  Co.,  similar  route,  weekly ;  Messageries 
Maritimes  fortnightly  from  Beirut;  La  Phoceenne  weekly  from 
Alexandria  to  Smyrna  (Constantinople). 

Steamers  to  the  Pirseus  (Athens;  RR.  76,  77,  78):  —  Khedivial 
Mail,  Rumanian  Mail,  Russian  Steam  Navigation  &  Trading 
Co.,  all  weekly  from  Alexandria  to  the  Pirseus;  North  German 
Lloyd  fortnightly  from  Marseilles  to  Genoa,  Naples,  Catania,  and 
the  Pirseus;  Messageries  Maritimes  fortnightly  from  Marseilles 
to  the  Pirseus;  Soeieta  Nazionale  weekly  from  Genoa  to  Leghorn, 
Naples,  Palermo,  Messina,  and  the  Pirseus ;  Soeieta  Nazionale  also 
weekly  from  Venice  to  Brindisi,  Patras,  and  the  Pirseus;  Austrian 
Lloyd  weekly  from  Trieste  to  Patras  and  the  Pirseus;  also  Greek- 
Oriental  and  Thessalian  lines  of  the  same  company,  each  weekly  from 
Trieste  to  the  Pirseus ;  Greek  Panhellenios  Co.  weekly  from  Trieste 
to  Patras  and  the  Pirseus ;  Austro- Americana,  New  York  line  (quick- 
est), weekly  from  Trieste  to  Patras  (for  Athens). 

From  the  Pirseus  (Athens)  via.  Smyrna  to  Constantinople 
(R.  80) :  —  Kliedivial  Mail  weekly ;  North  German  Lloyd,  Mes- 
sageries  Maritimes,  both  fortnightly;  Austrian  Lloyd  weekly; 
also  Rumanian  Mail,  Soeieta  Nazionale,  and  Austrian  Lloyd 
(the  three  quickest  routes),  each  weekly  to  Constantinople  direct. 

(9).  Black  Sea. 

From  Constantinople  to  Constantza  (R.  82) :  —  Rumanian  Mail 
(quickest)  twice  weekly;  Austrian  Lloyd  alternate  Fridays  and 
alternate  Saturdays;  Soeieta  Nazionale  weekly. 

From  Constantinople  to  Odessa  (R.  83) :  —  NorthGerman  Lloyd 
fortnightly;  Russian  Steam  Navigation  &  Trading  Co.,  direct 
line,  weekly;  Syria  and  Egypt  lines  fortnightly;  Anatolian  line  fort- 


nightly ;  Austrian  Lloyd  fortnightly ;  Societa  Nazionale  weekly ; 
Messageries  weekly. 

From  Odessa  to  Batum  (R.  84): —  Russian  Steam  Navigation 
&  Trading  Co.  weekly;  North  German  Lloyd  monthly. 

From  Batnm  to  Constantinople  (R.  85) :  —  North  German  Lloyd 
alternate  Saturdays;  Russian  Steam  Navigation  &  Trading  Co. 
alternate  Thursdays ;  Austrian  Lloyd  weekly ;  Messageries  Mari- 
times,  N.  Paquet  &  Co.,  and  Societa  Nazionale  all  fortnightly. 

Overland  Routes.  Travellers  bound  for  the  Central  or 
Eastern  Mediterranean,  and  in  particular  those  who  wish  to  avoid 
the  long  voyage  to  Gibraltar  and  thus  to  save  five,  six,  or  more 
days,  will  choose  an  overland  route  to  one  or  other  of  the  Mediter- 
ranean ports.  Marseilles  is  reached  from  London  by  the  'P.  &  0. 
Express',  starting  on  Thnrsdays,  or  by  the  'Calais-Mediterranean 
Express',  daily  in  winter,  in  20-201/4  hrs.,  or  by  ordinary  express 
in  22J/2  hrs.  —  Genoa  is  27  hrs.  from  London,  via  Paris  and  Mont 
Cenis.  —  Venice  is  321/4  hrs.  from  London  via  Bale  and  the  St. 
Gotthard. —  Trieste  is  reached  in  43^2  brs.  from  London  via  Milan. 
—  Naples  is  46  hrs.  from  London  via,  Paris  and  Rome.  —  Brindisi 
is  reached  in  45y4  hrs.  by  the  'P.  &  0.  Brindisi  Express',  starting 
on  Friday  mornings,  or  by  ordinary  express,  via  Boulogne  and 
Paris,  in  54J/2  hrs. 

Lastly,  the  traveller  who  proposes  to  explore  the  Mediterranean 
from  east  to  west,  and  who  desires  to  economize  time,  should 
consult  Bradshaw's  Continental  Railway  Time  Tables,  or  the  Ger- 
man Reichskursbuch,  or  Hendschel's  Telegraph,  as  to  the  great 
Oriental  expresses  to  Constantinople  and  the  Black  Sea. 

Hints  to  Steamboat  Passengers.  During  the  height  of  the  sea- 
son (in  Egypt  Jan.  and  Feb.,  in  other  parts  of  the  Mediterranean  March, 
April  and  even  May)passages  often  have  to  be  booked  a  month  or  six 
weeks  in  advance.  Holders  of  return-tickets  or  combined  tickets  must 
secure  berths  for  the  return-voyage  also  long  beforehand. 

Heavy  Baggage,  to  be  stowed  away  in  the  hold,  should  be  sent  on 
board  at  least  one  or  two  days  beforehand.  Each  passenger  should 
endeavour,  for  his  own  sake  and  that  of  others,  to  limit  his  requirements 
for  the  voyage  to  one  or  two  cabin-trunks  of  moderate  size.  Private  cabins 
should,  as  a  rule,  be  kept  locked,  and  small  articles  should  not  be  left 
lying  about  on  deck  unwatched. 

Landing  or  Embarkation  by  small  boat  is  often  an  unpleasant  pro- 
ceeding, as  the  boatmen  are  apt  to  be  extortionate  in  their  demands, 
especially  when  the  sea  is  rough.  The  charge  for  each  passenger  with 
his  baggage  should  be  ascertained  beforehand  and  only  paia  at  the  end  of 
the  trip,  or  the  whole  transaction  may  be  entrusted  to  one  of  the  hotel- 
agents.  Small  articles  carried  in  the  hand  should  not  be  allowed  out  of 

The  Food  is  generally  good.  Coffee  is  served  between  8  and  10, 
lunch  at  1  or  earlier,  dinner  at  6  or  7.  First-class  passengers  in  the 
British  and  German  steamers  dress  for  dinner. 

The  Fees  vary  according  to  circumstances.  They  are  of  course  higher 
if  the  passenger  has  been  ill  and  has  required  much  attention.   The  chief 


steward   or  stewardess   usually   expects   at  least  1  fr.  per  day,   and  the 
other  attendants  receive  fees  proportioned  to  the  services  rendered. 

Mr  dical  Attendance  and  medicines,  in  case  of  illness,  are  nominally 
free,  but  a  reasonable  fee  is  usually  paid.  Baths  in  the  larger  steam- 
boats are  free,  fixed  hours  being  allotted  to  passengers  on  application. 
Passengers  may  bring  their  own  Deck  Chairs  or  hire  them  from  the 
chief  steward. 

IV.  Intercourse  "with  Orientals. 

The  objects  and  pleasures  of  travel  are  so  unintelligible  to  most 
Orientals  that  they  are  apt  to  regard  the  European  traveller  as  a 
lunatic,  or  at  all  events  as  a  Crcesus,  and  therefore  to  be  exploited 
on  every  possible  occasion.  Hence  their  constant  demands  for 
•bakshish'  ('a  gift').  To  check  this  demoralizing  cupidity  the  tra- 
veller should  never  give  bakshish  except  for  services  rendered, 
unless  occasionally  to  aged  or  crippled  beggars. 

Small  fees  are,  however,  not  unreasonably  expected  by  drivers, 
guides,  donkey-boys,  and  others,  over  and  above  their  stipulated 
hire.  Excursionists  should  therefore  always  be  well  provided  with 
small  change.  If  no  previous  bargain  has  been  made  the  charges 
and  fees  stated  in  the  Handbook  are  usually  ample. 

While  the  traveller  should  be  both  cautious  and  firm  in  his 
dealings  with  the  natives,  he  should  avoid  being  too  exacting  or 
suspicious.  Many  of  those  he  meets  with  are  like  mere  children 
and  often  show  much  kindliness  of  disposition.  In  most  cases  their 
attempts  at  extortion  are  comparatively  trilling;  but  if  serious,  the 
matter  may  be  referred  to  the  police  or  to  the  traveller's  consul. 

On  the  other  hand  exaggerated  professions  of  friendship  should 
be  distrusted,  loyalty  towards  strangers  being  still  rarer  in  the 
East  than  elsewhere.  The  natives  are  apt  to  make  common  cause 
against  European  visitors.  While  their  religion  usually  requires 
them  to  address  each  other  as  'yd  alhuija'  (my  brother),  their  bro- 
therhood does  not  extend  to  outsiders. 

As  the  Orientals  are  often  remarkably  dignified  and  punctilious 
in  their  bearing,  the  traveller  should  show  corresponding  respect 
and  consideration  for  their  customs  and  prejudices.  He  should 
never,  for  example,  photograph  a  Mohammedan  without  his  leave, 
nor  look  too  curiously  at  the  veiled  women,  nor  don  Oriental  cos- 
tume. Sacred  places,  such  as  mosques,  chapels,  and  religious 
houses  and  their  schools,  must  not  be  entered  without  removing 
one's  shoes  or  putting  on  slippers,  lest  the  carpets  and  mats  on 
which  prayer  is  offered  be  polluted.  Korans  must  never  be  touched ; 
and  when  prayers  are  being  recited,  strangers  must  keep  carefully 
aloof.  In  every  part  of  the  Orient  the  traveller  meets  with  'saints' 
(often  imbecile  or  insane),  who  go  about  in  fantastic  rags  and  some- 
times stark  naked.  Needless  to  say  he  will  give  them  a  wide  berth. 


The  traveller  may  least  obtrusively  observe  the  various  phases 
of  Oriental  life  by  visiting  the  native  quarters  of  the  towns,  the 
bazaars  and  markets,  and  the  popular  festivals  and  recreations  of 
the  Moslems.  Story-tellers  at  the  native  cafes  (reminiscent  of  the 
Arabian  Nights),  jugglers,  wrestlers,  snake-charmers,  barbers' 
shops,  and  native  schools  are  all  objects  of  interest.  In  Turkey 
and  in  Egypt  the  popular  theatres  with  their  shadow-scenes  (kara 
goz)  are  curious.  Ladies  may  sometimes,  by  special  introduction, 
obtain  admission  to  a  private  dwelling-house  and  get  a  glimpse  of 
the  manners  and  customs  of  Oriental  women.  On  Fridays  they  may 
see  the  Moslem  women  raising  their  veils  in  the  cemeteries  (comp. 
p.  220). 

Gentlemen,  when  visiting  an  Oriental,  knock  at  the  door  with  an 
iron  ring.  From  within  is  asked  the  question  'mill'  (who  is  there)?  On 
being  admitted,  after  the  ladies  who  happen  to  be  in  the  court  have 
retired,  he  removes  his  shoes  lest  the  costly  carpets  be  sullied,  and  un- 
covers his  head.  The  host  approaches  to  meet  him,  one  step  or  more 
according  to  the  honour  he  desires  to  do  his  visitor.  The  latter  salutes 
him  in  Oriental  fashion  by  placing  his  right  hand  on  his'  heart  and  then 
moving  it  up  to  his  forehead.  Questions  as  to  health  are  first  asked, 
but  no  allusion  must  be  made  to  the  ladies  of  the  family,  who  are  regard- 
ed as  under  a  veil  (sitr).  Coffee  is  always  offered.  The  servant  with 
his  left  hand  on  his  heart,  hands  round  the  little  cups  to  the  guests  in 
order  of  their  rank.  The  guest  holds  the  cup  in  his  hand  till  it  is  taken 
back  by  the  servant.  If  the  host  wishes  his  guest  to  pay  a  long  visit 
he  delays  his  order  for  coffee,  and  the  guest  must  not  leave  before  then. 

It  is  considered  highly  impolite  to  decline  a  visit,  and  each  visit 
must  of  course  be  returned. 

The  Guides  who  proffer  their  services  everywhere  may  gener- 
ally be  dispensed  with,  except  by  novices  or  by  travellers  pressed 
for  time.  Most  of  those  at  Constantinople  and  in  Asia  Minor  are 
native  Jews,  who  speak  a  little  English,  Italian,  French,  or  German. 
All,  as  a  rule,  are  ignorant  and  uneducated,  and  their  'explanations' 
of  antiquities  or  works  of  art  are  worthless.  When,  as  sometimes 
happens,  they  assume  a  patronizing  or  a  familiar  manner,  they 
should  be  promptly  checked  and  kept  in  their  proper  place.  If 
a  purchase  has  to  be  made,  or  a  carriage  or  horse  to  be  hired,  the 
aid  of  a  guide  should  be  declined,  as  the  sum  demanded  is  then 
considerably  raised,  and  part  of  it  given  to  the  guide  as  commis- 
sion. On  short  excursions  the  guide  usually  walks,  and  it  is  quite 
unnecessary  to  provide  him  with  a  mount. 

In  the  large  towns  the  guides  and  commissionaires  are  some- 
times in  the  pay  of  gambling-rooms  or  low  places  of  entertainment. 
Against  such,  especially  at  night,  the  traveller  should  be  on  his 

The  Mediterranean  Sea  and  adjoining 

Geographical  Sketch  hy  the  late 
Prof.  Theobald  Fischer. 

The  shores  of  the  Mediterranean,  formerly  visited  in  part  only 
and  imperfectly  known,  now  most  deservedly  attract,  throughout 
their  whole  extent,  an  ever  increasing  number  of  travellers  and 
explorers.  No  part  of  the  earth's  surface  can  offer  so  marvellous 
an  intellectual  feast.  Land  where  he  may,  the  traveller  is  almost 
invariably  struck  with  the  beauty  of  the  scenery,  the  richness  of 
the  vegetation,  and  the  wealth  of  historical  memories.  For  three 
thousand  years  the  Mediterranean  was  the  theatre  of  all  history, 
the  cradle  of  all  culture,  to  which  the  whole  of  humanity  more  or 
less  directly  owes  its  modern  civilization.  It  was  here  for  the  first 
time  that  the  nearness  of  the  opposite  coasts  and  the  numerous  is- 
land stepping-stones,  coupled  with  winds  blowing  gently  for  months 
at  a  time,  deprived  the  sea  of  its  terrors  and  gave  birth  to  a  hardy 
race  of  mariners.  The  stagnation  of  the  continental  peoples  was 
thus  powerfully  stirred  and  their  ignorance  gradually  dispelled. 
It  was  first  in  Egypt,  and  then  above  all  in  Greece  and  in  Italy, 
that  those  mighty  intellectual  weapons  were  forged  which  were  to 
conquer  the  whole  earth,  while  from  Palestine  came  the  mightiest 
of  all  religious  and  moral  influences.  The  Mediterranean  was  the 
school  of  almost  all  the  mediaeval  geographers  and  navigators,  such 
as  Toscanelli,  Columbus,  Vespucci,  the  Gabotti  (the  'Cabots'  em- 
ployed by  Henry  VII.),  and  others,  who  added  a  New  "World  to  the 
old,  and  who  brought  Europe  into  touch  with  the  great  Asiatic 
cradles  of  culture.  The  Italians  were  the  first  to  educate  the  Spanish, 
Portuguese,  French,  and  even  English  mariners,  and  to  introduce 
them  to  that  Ocean  which  was  to  become  the  world's  commercial 
and  intellectual  highway. 

The  ancient  Romans  were  fully  aware,  from  a  very  early  period, 
that  they  could  maintain  their  empire  on  land  only  by  securing 
their  supremacy  at  sea  also.  Favoured  by  the  central  situation  of 
Italy,  they  gradually  subjected  the  whole  of  the  Mediterranean  lands 
to  their  sway,  thus  imparting  to  them  a  certain  social  and  political 
unity.  The  name  of  'sea  in  the  middle  of  the  land',  though  of  late- 
Roman  origin,  still  suggests  the  idea  that  both  sea  and  laud  belonged 
to  Rome.  But  this  unity  was  afterwards  destroyed  by  the  repeated 
incursions  of  Germanic  tribes  from  the  north,  followed  by  Arabs 
and  Turks  from  the  south  and  east.  Owing  to  the  discovery  of  the 
great  ocean  highways  the  Mediterranean  was  almost  entirely  ne- 
glected in  the  16-19th  centuries,  but  since  the  opening  of  the  Suez 
Canal  in  1869  it  has  become  one  of  the  world's  most  important 


arteries  of  traffic.  The  establishment  of  the  French  in  Algeria 
(1830)  and  Tunisia  (1881)  and  that  of  the  British  in  Egypt  (1884) 
have  still  more  effectually  reunited  Europe  and  Africa  and  promoted 
the  progress  of  civilization  and  commerce.  With  Asia  also  Europe 
has  been  brought  into  closer  touch  since  the  Crimean  war  of  1854-6, 
when  the  Black  Sea  was  opened  up,  and  new  avenues  to  the  Orient 
were  thus  rendered  available.  While  nominally  belonging  to  three 
different  quarters  of  the  globe,  the  Mediterranean  with  its  shores, 
being  bounded  on  the  north  by  a  long  wall  of  high  mountains  and 
on  the  south  by  a  vast  and  even  more  impenetrable  expanse  of  desert, 
possesses  quite  a  unique  individuality  of  its  own. 

Geologically  considered  the  Mediterranean  forms  part  of  an 
immense  depression  girdling  the  whole  of  the  earth's  crust  and 
separating  the  northern  from  the  southern  parts.  This  depression 
probably  existed  during  the  earlier  geological  periods,  but  iu  its 
depths  has  not  yet  assumed  a  settled  character,  as  is  evidenced  by 
frequent  earthquakes,  mostly  tectonic,  and  by  continuous  volcanic 
activity.  This  great  depression  is  believed  by  geologists  to  have 
extended  in  the  mesozoic  period  into  Central  Asia,  far  beyond  the 
limits  of  the  present  Mediterranean,  forming  an  immense  sea  to 
which  the  name  of  Tethys  has  been  given.  In  its  depths  were  de- 
posited those  strata,  chiefly  calcareous  and  argillaceous,  which 
were  afterwards  raised  and  converted  into  dry  land  by  means  of 
the  centripetal  motion  of  the  earlier  masses  of  rock  and  by  lateral 
pressure.  In  proof  of  this  it  may  be  noted  that  some  two-thirds 
of  Italy  and  four-fifths  of  Sicily  consist  of  subaqueous  formations 
of  the  tertiary  or  even  a  later  period. 

In  the  midst  of  this  vast  'Eurasian'  (European-Asiatic)  region 
of  folded  rock  formation,  some  930  miles  in  length,  bounded  on  the 
north  by  the  solid  primaeval  rocks  of  the  continent  of  Europe,  and 
on  the  south  by  the  great  plateau  of  the  desert,  lies  the  Chief  Basin 
of  the  Mediterranean,  embracing  the  Adriatic  and  the  Greek 
Archipelago,  where  the  highly  indented  coast  and  the  numerous 
islands  and  peninsulas  display  a  most  striking  variety  of  picturesque 
scenery.  On  the  other  hand  the  smaller  part  of  the  sea,  lying  to 
the  south  of  a  line  drawn  from  the  Lesser  Syrtis,  past  the  south 
coasts  of  Crete  and  Cyprus,  to  North  Syria,  has  been  formed  by 
encroachment  on  the  plateau  of  the  desert  (p.  xxxiii),  and  is  al- 
most entirely  destitute  of  attraction.  In  the  geological  history  of 
the  Mediterranean  it  is  important  to  note  also  that  three  great  rock- 
masses  of  the  earliest  periods  still  survive.  These  are  the  Iberian 
mass  to  the  west,  once  probably  connected  with  the  kindred  rocks  of 
the  Atlas  in  Morocco;  then  the  Tyrrhenian  mass,  in  the  centre,  and 
the  Rumelian  to  the  east.  These  three  belong  to  the  archsean  and 
palaeozoic  periods.  Once  towering  to  Alpine  peaks,  they  were  grad- 
ually undermined  by  the  action  of  the  waves  and  by  the  subsidence 


of  the  land.  Their  bases  were  thus  partly  covered  with  their  ddbris, 
built  up  in  new  formations.  By  later  movements  of  the  earth's  crust, 
however,  these  shapeless  primaeval  masses  were  again  broken  up, 
and  by  the  pressure  and  counter-pressure  of  the  fragments  were 
piled  up  anew  into  smaller  mountain-ranges  of  considerable  height. 
Thus  from  the  Iberian  primaeval  rock  sprang  up,  in  the  Castilian 
range  (Sierra  de  Gredos),  peaks  to  a  height  of  nearly  9000  feet;  in 
the  Rhodope  of  Rumelia  rise  similar  peaks  to  nearly  10,000  feet 
high;  and  even  amid  the  ruins  of  the  Tyrrhenis  (p.  xxxi)  still 
towers  the  granitic  Monte  Cinto  in  Corsica  to  a  height  of  8900  feet. 
Around  these  great  primaeval  masses,  deeply  rooted  in  the 
earth's  crust,  were  gradually  built  up  the  recent  folded  mountains, 
out  of  materials  forced  aside  and  upwards  by  the  debris  of  earlier 
rock  as  it  sank  into  the  sea.  Thus  on  the  Iberian  Pedestal,  from 
the  north  side,  out  of  the  depths  of  the  great  Biscay  abyss,  arose 
the  Pyrenaean-Cantabrian  Folded  Chain  (culminating  in  the 
Aneto  or  Maladetta,  11,168  ft.),  the  fan-like  structure  of  which 
has  been  due  to  lateral  pressure  coming  from  the  Ebro  depression 
also.  By  similar  pressure  from  the  south  side  the  Andalusian 
Folded  Mountains  were  piled  up  against  the  Iberian  nucleus 
(Meseta  Mts.),  and,  though  only  23  miles  distant  from  the  Mediter- 
ranean, they  tower  in  the  Mulhac6n  of  the  Sierra  Nevada  to  a  height 
of  11,424  feet,  the  greatest  altitude  in  Europe  apart  from  the  Alps. 
As  the  Pyrenees  are  fringed  on  the  east,  on  the  frontier  of  Spain 
and  France  (near  Port  Vendres),  with  a  deeply  indented  coast,  so 
too  the  Andalusian  range  is  strongly  marked  by  transverse  fissures, 
the  eastmost  of  which  have  severed  the  Balearic  Islands  from  the 
mainland.  Still  more  striking  is  the  great  westmost  fissure  or  cleav- 
age, where  the  girdle  of  mountains  takes  a  sharp  turn  from  west 
to  east,  where  the  action  of  tides  and  waves  has  hollowed  out  the 
Straits  of  Gibraltar,  and  has  further  widened  them  within  the 
historic  period.  The  Mediterranean  is  here  separated  from  the  At- 
lantic by  a  submarine  bar  or  threshold,  at  a  depth  averaging  only 
650  feet,  extending  from  Cape  Trafalgar  to  Cape  Spartel,  a  dis- 
tance of  27y2  miles,  and  forming  the  boundary  between  the  inner 
Alboran  basin  or  depression  and  the  outer  or  Andalusian.  Thus, 
on  north  and  south  alike  the  Iberian  central  bed-rock  is  bordered 
with  lofty  mountains,  whose  seaboard  almost  everywhere  repels 
human  traffic,  and  seems  barred  against  Europe  by  the  Pyrenees 
and  against  Africa  by  the  mountains  of  Andalusia.  On  the  east 
side,  however,  between  the  Pyrenees  and  Cabo  de  la  Nao  (p.  112), 
the  original  rock-nucleus  slopes  gradually  down  to  the  Mediter- 
ranean. Still  more  important  is  the  western  slope  down  to  the 
Atlantic,  whose  waves  have  penetrated  into  the  lower  estuaries 
of  primaeval  rock  on  the  coast,  thus  forming  a  number  of  excellent 
harbours,  such  as  in  particular  that  of  Lisbon  at  the  mouth  of  the 


Tagns.  Towards  the  Atlantic  descend  also  the  plains  of  Lower 
Andalusia,  the  so-called  Guadalquivir  Basin,  which  lies  between 
the  Iberian  central  pedejtal  and  the  Andalnsian  sedimentary  and 
contorted  formations.  In  this  basin  lie  Spain's  chief  seaports  for 
traffic  with  Africa  and  America,  the  island-harbour  of  Cadiz,  the 
estuary-harbour  of  Huelva,  the  starting-point  of  Columbus,  and 
the  river-harbour  of  Seville,  accessible  to  large  vessels  at  high-tide. 

In  North-Western  Africa  the  Andalnsian  contorted  formation 
is  continued  by  the  Rlf  Mte.  of  Morocco  (p.  93)  and  by  the  Tell 
Atlas  (p.  169),  extending  to  the  south  and  then  turning  eastwards. 
These  ranges  are  characterized  by  deep  fissures,  formed  by  pre- 
historic volcanic  action  and  descending  abruptly  to  the  Mediter- 
ranean. The  whole  northern  coast  of  Morocco,  Algeria,  and  Tunisia, 
apart  from  numerous  wave-worn  beaches,  is  completely  rock-bound, 
forbidding  all  approach.  Even  the  artificial  harbours  like  that  of 
Algiers  are  maintained  with  difficulty.  At  the  east  end  of  this  long 
stretch  of  coast  comes  at  last  the  welcome  haven  offered  by  the 
Gulf  of  Tunis,  which  runs  inland  at  the  mouth  of  the  depression 
between  the  Tell  Atlas  and  the  Sahara  Atlas  (p.  320),  and  on  which 
the  Medjerda  and  other  streams  and  several  important  roads  con- 
verge. Here,  as  in  Lower  Andalusia,  a  great  avenue  to  the  interior 
was  thus  opened  up.  This  favoured  spot  therefore  became  a  great 
focus  of  traffic,  and  as  it  lay  on  the  Straits  of  Pantelleria  (p.  396)  it 
was  also  of  great  political  importance.  The  ancient  Utica  (p.  353) 
was  succeeded  by  the  'new  city'  of  Carthage  (p.  344),  the  predeces- 
sors of  the  modern  Tunis.  From  this  base  the  Carthaginians,  the 
Vandals,  and  the  Moors  ruled  Sicily  and  Sardinia.  With  such  a 
base  as  the  admirable  naval  harbour  of  Bizerta,  lately  constructed 
by  the  French,  they  in  turn  may  perhaps  some  day  become  masters 
of  the  Mediterranean. 

The  Straits  of  Pantelleria,  leading  from  the  western  to  the 
eastern  basin  of  the  Mediterranean  and  separating  the  Atlas  from 
the  Apennines,  have  been  formed,  like  those  of  Gibraltar  and  the 
narrow  side-portal  of  Messina,  by  transverse  cleavage.  Owing  to 
the  subsidence  of  the  flat  offshoots  of  the  Apennines  and  to  the 
erosive  action  of  the  waves  the  straits  have  been  gradually  widened 
to  about  90  miles.  The  Maltese  Islands  are  fragments,  now  broken 
up  by  fissures,  of  what  was  once  a  tableland,  but  they  too  are 
being  rapidly  washed  away  by  the  action  of  the  surf.  On  the  other 
hand  the  island  of  Pantelleria,  which  has  given  its  name  to  the 
straits,  rising  to  a  height  of  2743  ft.  from  the  verge  of  the  central 
abyss  and  3900  ft.  in  depth,  is  of  volcanic  origin.  These  transverse 
fissures  are  indeed  generally  the  scenes  of  volcanic  action,  and 
they  are  usually  situated  at  points  where  the  mountains  of  recent 
contorted  formation  take  a  sudden  bend  (as  is  notably  the  case  in 
the  lower  valley  of  the  Danube). 


Italy  forms  an  immense  bridge  across  the  trough  of  the  Medi- 
terranean, extending  to  Cape  Bon  in  Tunisia.  Like  a  lofty  embank- 
ment, rising  over  18,000  ft.  from  the  bottom  of  the  sea,  Calabria, 
culminating  in  the  Aspromonte  (6424  ft.  above  sea-level),  separates 
the  Tyrrhenian  Sea  (12,000  ft.  deep,  though  of  recent  formation) 
from  the  Ionian  Sea.  The  latter  is  the  deepest  basin  in  the  Medi- 
terranean, attaining  a  depth  of  14,500  feet.  The  Apennines,  devi- 
ating in  their  southern  course  from  the  usual  'Eurasian'  direction, 
were  probably  influenced  by  the  primteval  Tyrrhenis.  This  ancient 
nucleus  of  the  Italian  continent  has  been  broken  up  by  movements 
of  the  earth's  crust  which  began  in  the  mesozoic  period,  were  still 
more  marked  in  the  later  tertiary  period,  and  continue  to  this 
day.  Some  of  the  solid  blocks,  as  in  Tuscany,  Calabria,  and  Sicily 
(the  Monti  Peloritani  near  Messina),  have  been  incorporated  in  the 
later  rock  structure  of  the  Apennines;  others  again  rise  as  isolated 
masses  from  the  abysses  of  the  Tyrrhenian  Sea,  such  as  Corsica, 
Sardinia,  and  Elba.  The  lines  of  cleavage,  especially  between 
Cosenza  and  Palermo,  were  marked  by  great  volcanic  activity.  In 
a  curve,  parallel  with  the  abrupt  ramparts  of  Calabria  and  Sicily, 
rise  the  volcanoes  of  the  Lipari  Islands  (Stromboli)  and  Ustica  iu 
succession.  To  the  nortli  the  series  is  continued  by  Vesuvius,  the 
Epomeo,  and  the  Ponza  Islands  near  Naples,  and  by  the  Alban 
Mts.  near  Pome.  All  these  lie  on  the  inner  declivity  of  the  Apen- 
nines. To  the  south  the  series  is  continued  by  Mt.  JEtna  in  Sicily, 
lying  outside  of  the  Apennines.  In  the  quaternary  period  the  new 
Apennine  formations  underwent  an  upheaval  which  imparted  to  the 
range  its  present  orographical  unity.  The  result  was  that  the 
straits  which  once  intersected  Southern  Italy,  connecting  the  Tyr- 
rhenian with  the  Ionian  basin,  were  filled  up,  with  the  exception 
of  those  of  Messina,  while  these  last  were  narrowed  to  2  miles  and 
shoaled  at  the  north  end,  where  they  are  only  335  ft.  deep.  The 
intensity  of  the  upheaval  is  evidenced  by  the  fact  that  quarternary 
deposits  cover  the  terraces  of  the  Aspromonte  in  Calabria  to  a 
height  of  3900  feet  above  the  sea-level.  That  these  movements  of 
the  earth's  crust  still  continue  is  proved  by  the  variations  of  level 
in  the  Bay  of  Naples  observed  within  historic  times.  The  most 
striking  instance  of  this  is  the  great  subsidence  in  the  island  of 
Capri  which  has  taken  place  within  the  Christian  era.  In  the  Blue 
Grotto  there  we  find  remains  of  a  flight  of  steps  of  the  time  of 
Tiberius,  descending  to  the  water,  but  the  lowest  step  is  now  19 
feet  below  the  surface. 

Italy  open9  towards  the  west.  On  the  west  side  lie  its  pictur- 
esque bays  and  islands,  as  well  as  most  of  its  great  centres  of  cul- 
ture, Rome  and  Florence,  Genoa  and  Naples,  besides  many  others. 
But  the  east  side  also  is  important  owing  to  its  close  connection 
with  the  south-eastern  basin  of  the  Mediterranean.  The  chief  outlets 


in  this  direction  are  the  lagoon-harbour  of  Venice,  as  great  a  portal 
of  continental  commerce  in  the  middle  ages  as  Genoa  is  at  the  pre- 
sent day,  and  the  excellent  harbours  of  Brindisi,  Taranto,  Mes- 
sina, and  Syractise.  Were  geographical  advantages  alone  decisive, 
Italy  might  again  become  mistress  of  the  Mediterranean.  Ethno- 
graphically  also  she  is  highly  favoured.  Her  population,  densest 
on  the  coasts,  is  about  one-third  of  the  scattered  and  heterogeneous 
hundred  million  inhabitants  of  the  whole  of  the  Mediterranean  lands. 

Almost  all  along  the  coast  of  the  north-western  basin  of  the 
Mediterranean  the  recent  stratified  and  contorted  headlands  abut 
most  picturesquely  on  the  sea.  On  the  north-west  only,  on  each 
side  of  the  Pyrenees,  the  basin  is  bounded  by  a  coast  of  the  primaeval 
bed-rock  formation,  and  is  easily  accessible  from  the  Iberian  moun- 
tains by  the  valleys  of  the  Ebro,  Jucar,  and  other  rivers.  Still  more 
important  are  the  avenues  afforded  by  the  Aquitanian  Plains  and 
the  Rhone  Valley.  Hence  it  was  that  from  a  very  early  period  the 
streams  of  Roman  culture  flowed  through  Marseilles  and  Narbonne 
to  western  and  central  Europe.  But  these,  like  the  Straits  of  Gib-, 
raltar  on  the  west,  the  Carso  or  Karst  near  Trieste  on  the  north,  and 
the  Bosporus  on  the  east,  afford  inlets  also  for  the  cold  winds  which 
sometimes  pour  into  the  warm  mountain-girdled  basin  of  the  Med- 
iterranean and  force  back  the  zone  of  southern  vegetation  (p.  xxxv). 

The  southern  margin  of  the  north-western  basin  of  the  Mediter- 
ranean lies  in  the  same  latitude  (36°)  as  the  northern  margin  of  the 
south-eastern  basin  (Cape  Tsenaron,  on  the  south  coast  of  Asia 
Minor).  This  less  favoured  south-eastern  basin  sends  two  great 
branches  towards  central  Europe,  the  Adriatic  and  the  Greek  Archi- 
pelago, both  of  which  open  out  in  the  direction  of  the  Suez  Canal 
and  the  Red  Sea.  From  these  branches  run  important  roads  leading 
to  the  heart  of  Europe,  in  particular  those  from  Venice  and  Trieste 
into  Austria,  and  that  from  Saloniki  to  Belgrade  and  up  the  Danube. 
This  last,  as  also  the  road  from  Belgrade  to  Sofia,  Adrianople,  and 
Constantinople,  traverses  the  Rumelian  Primary  Formation,  to 
which  the  greater  part  of  the  south-eastern  European  peninsula 
belongs  (Thrace  and  Macedonia,  extending  into  Servia).  To  the 
same  period  probably  once  belonged  also  the  north-western  part  of 
Asia  Minor  and  ^SUgaeis,  of  which  last  the  only  surviving  relics 
are  the  islands  of  the  Cyclades.  Here,  too,  over  the  primaeval  bed- 
rock, recent  folded  mountains  have  been  gradually  built  up.  The 
Balkan  is  one  of  these  ranges.  Another  is  the  EVyrian-Greek 
Range,  running  in  a  different  direction,  which  with  its  broad  girdle 
gives  the  peninsula  its  southern  trend,  while  shutting  it  off  from 
the  Adriatic  and  barring  direct  access  to  the  north-west.  As  the 
Balearic  Islands  belong  to  the  Andalusian  stratified  formation,  and 
as  Sicily  and  its  adjoining  islands  form  part  of  the  Apennines,  so 
the  western  stratified  girdle  of  the  south-eastern  European  penin- 


snla  crumbled,  even  within  the  historic  period,  into  peninsulas 
and  islands,  formed  chiefly  by  very  recent  subsidence.  Thus  arose 
Greece,  a  hill-country  with  an  extensive  seaboard,  a  new  and  unique 
region  which  was  one  day  to  reign  supreme  in  the  intellectual  world. 
It  is  probable  that  the  Greek  range  of  hills  was  once  prolonged 
eastwards,  as  appears  to  be  indicated  by  the  lie  of  the  Cretan  moun- 
tains, and  that  these  in  their  turn  were  connected  with  the  similarly 
stratified  Taurus  Mountains  in  Asia  Minor.  Just  as  the  south- 
eastern peninsula  of  Europe,  with  Asia  Minor,  thus  formed  the  great 
stepping-stones  of  traffic  which  brought  the  ancient  culture  of 
Europe  into  contact  with  that  of  Mesopotamia  and  Syria,  so  when 
the  railway  from  Constantinople  to  Bagdad  is  completed  a  great 
future  may  yet  be  in  store  for  the  Orient. 

The  Eastern  Mediterranean,  the  smaller  south-eastern 
basin  to  the  south  of  Malta,  Crete,  and  Cyprus  (p.  xxviii),  lies  within 
the  region  of  the  great  primaeval  desert-plateau  of  northern  Africa 
(apart  from  the  Atlas  regions),  of  Arabia,  and  Syria,  and  has  been 
formed  by  the  subsidence  of  part  of  that  plateau.  In  contrast  to  the 
richly  varied  shores  of  the  western  and  central  basins  its  coasts,  as 
may  even  be  seen  from  a  glance  at  the  map,  are  monotonous.  Their 
formation,  whether  perpendicular  or  horizontal,  is  featureless,  and 
there  is  an  almost  entire  lack  of  islands,  harbours,  and  rivers.  The 
Nile  greatly  relieves  this  monotony,  but  its  sources  lie  within  trop- 
ical regions  far  beyond  the  limits  of  the  desert.  Alexandria  pos- 
sesses almost  the  only  natural  harbour  on  this  flat  coast  of  early 
formation.  The  old-world  characteristics  of  the  land,  its  inhabi- 
tants, and  their  language  at  once  strike  the  traveller  on  landing  at 
Tripoli.  Yet  even  this  part  of  the  Mediterranean,  especially  the 
Levant  Basin,  beyond  the  passage  between  Crete  and  Barca,  con- 
tains recent  formations.  The  hill-region  of  Barca,  the  ancient 
Cyrenaica  (p.  413),  averaging  1600  feet  in  height,  is  composed  of 
miocene  marine  strata.  The  bay  now  filled  up  by  the  Nile  delta, 
and  at  one  time  connected  with  the  Red  Sea,  is  of  even  later  origin, 
dating  perhaps  from  the  plnvial  or  glacial  era.  That  the  mouth  of 
the  Nile  once  lay  much  farther  to  the  north  and  watered  Palestine 
is  evidenced  by  the  identity  of  its  fauna  with  that  of  the  Jordan  and 
the  Lake  of  Tiberias  (crocodiles,  for  instance,  occurring  in  the  Nahr 
ez-Zerka,  to  the  south  of  Mt.  Carmel;  p.  468).  Movements  of  the 
earth's  crust  also  account  for  the  peculiar  conformation  of  that  part 
of  the  great  desert-plateau  which  we  call  Syria.  It  is  only  differen- 
tiated from  the  monotonous  North  Arabian  desert  by  the  great 
Syrian  Valley  or  trough,  running  from  north  to  south,  and  ending  at 
the  Gulf  of  Akaba  in  the  Erythraean  depression  (the  Red  Sea),  which 
dates  from  about  the  same  epoch.  On  each  side  of  this  long  narrow 
furrow,  descending  to  a  depth  of  some  2500  feet  below  the  sea- 
level,  strips  of  land  have  been  forced  upwards  so  as  to  form  lofty 


mountains.  These,  in  spite  of  subsidences  and  erosion,  still  attain 
a  height  of  about  10,000  feet  in  the  twin-giants  of  Lebanon  and 
Anti-Lebanon  in  Central  Syria.  It  is  to  this  highly  picturesque 
mountain-wall,  which  condenses  the  vapours  from  the  sea  and  re- 
mains snow-clad  till  late  in  summer,  that  the  Syrian  seaboard, 
10-16  miles  in  breadth,  owes  its  luxuriant  subtropical  vegetation, 
and  Palestine  its  cultivability  as  far  as  its  southern  borders.  Syria, 
which  may  be  regarded  geographically  and  anthropologically  as  a 
kind  of  peninsula  of  the  Mediterranean,  thus  forms  a  bridge  be- 
tween north  and  south,  connecting  Asia  Minor  and  Mesopotamia 
with  Arabia  and  Egypt,  and  bounded  by  the  sea  on  the  west  and 
by  the  desert,  only  some  60  miles  distant,  on  the  east. 

The  Black  Sea,  which  from  the  north-eastern  angle  of  the 
Archipelago  runs  far  into  the  interior  of  the  Old  World,  lies  out- 
side of  the  Mediterranean  regions.  Like  the  inland  Caspian  Sea 
it  is  a  relic  of  the  tertiary  Sarmatic  Sea,  which  was  afterwards 
broken  up  into  lakes  of  brackish  water.  It  was  not  till  the  diluvial 
epoch  that  those  subsidences  which  created  the  Sea  of  Marmora 
brought  the  Black  Sea  also  into  connection  with  the  Mediterranean. 
Through  the  Sea  of  Marmora  there  must  once  have  flowed  a  great 
river,  into  whose  valley  the  sea  afterwards  penetrated  from  the 
south,  forming  the  Dardanelles  and  the  Bosporus  of  the  present 
day.  Travellers  on  the  Rhine  will  observe  an  interesting  resem- 
blance between  these  straits  and  the  Rhine  Valley  between  Bingen 
and  Coblenz.  Like  these  straits  the  Black  Sea  also  is  a  great 
trough  hollowed  out  between  lofty  stratified  mountains.  On  three 
sides  its  bold  rocky  coasts  are  inhospitable  and  forbidding.  On  the 
north  it  is  bounded  by  the  'steppe',  a  plateau  of  primitive  form- 
ation, no  less  monotonous  than  the  desert-plateau  on  the  south 
side  of  the  Mediterranean,  yet  cultivable  owing  to  its  more  northern 
situation.  At  two  places  on  this  side,  through  gaps  in  the  mountain 
rampart,  the  sea  has  overflowed  the  plateau,  forming  the  shallow 
Gulf  of  Odessa  and  Sea  of  Azov.  Two  great  routes  of  traffic  were 
thus  opened  up  from  the  Black  Sea  into  the  heart  of  Eastern  Europe 
and  even  of  Central  Asia,  enriching  the  world's  commerce  with  the 
products  of  these  regions,  and  at  the  same  time  forming  the  portal 
through  which  Byzantine  culture  and  Greek  Christianity  found 
their  way  into  Russia.  Through  these  passages  great  masses  of 
cold  northern  air  are  poured  into  the  Black  Sea;  but  between  them 
the  Peninsula  of  the  Crimea,  a  relic  of  the  broken-down  mountain- 
girdle,  still  stands  boldly  forth,  giving  shelter  to  an  almost  Mediter- 
ranean vegetation  on  its  southern  coast.  On  that  coast  lies  the  ad- 
mirable harbour  of  Sebastopol.  Nearer  the  Sea  of  Azov  once  lay 
the  flourishing  Greek  colonies  of  Pantikapaeon  and  Phanagoria, 
and  in  the  middle  ages  the  Genoese  settlements  of  Sudak  (Kertch) 
and  Kajfa  (Theodosia  or  Feodossiya).    As  the  corn  of  Southern 


Russia  is  now  the  chief  export  from  Odessa  to  London  and  Ant- 
werp, so,  from  the  14th  century  onwards,  quantities  of  Russian 
caviare  were  brought  by  Italian  merchants  from  Kaffa  to  Bruges, 
which  was  then  one  of  the  world's  greatest  markets. 

The  Climate  of  the  Mediterranean  is  very  equable.  In  every 
age  northerners  have  been  attracted  by  the  mildness  of  the  win- 
ters, when  the  occasional  storms  and  heavy  rains  are  of  short 
duration  and  are  soon  succeeded  by  bright  sunshine.  The  heat  of 
su miner  is  tempered  everywhere,  especially  on  the  more  southern 
coasts,  by  refreshing  sea-breezes.  The  farther  south  one  goes,  the 
longer  the  dry  season  lasts.  At  Tripoli,  for  example,  it  lasts  for 
seven  months  and  at  Alexandria  for  ten.  The  subtropical  maximum 
air-pressure  over  the  eastern  Atlantic,  by  which  rainfall  and  wind- 
movements  are  determined,  is  usually  continued  in  winter  past  the 
southern  limit  of  the  Mediterranean  (comp.  p.  29),  thus  bringing 
the  whole  of  that  sea  within  the  zone  of  the  changeable  and  rainy 
winds  of  Central  Europe.  In  summer  the  pressure  lies  farther  to 
the  north,  producing  in  most  parts  of  the  Mediterranean  steady 
northerly  currents  of  air.  The  climate  is  tempered  also  by  the 
warmth  of  the  sea  itself.  The  bar  at  the  west  entrance  of  the  Straits 
of  Gibraltar  (p.  xxix)  keeps  out  the  cold  water  of  the  deep  Atlantic, 
but  allows  the  influx  of  the  warmer  surface-water  to  compensate 
for  what  the  Mediterranean  loses  by  evaporation.  This  loss  would 
otherwise  amount  to  a  depth  of  10-15  ft.  per  annum.  The  influx 
of  water  from  the  Atlantic  causes  a  current  to  flow  along  the  North 
African  coast  from  west  to  east,  but  its  thermal  effects  are  soon 
lost.  In  summer  the  surface  of  the  Mediterranean  is  heated  by  the 
sun  up  to  75-82°  Fahr. ;  but  the  temperature  diminishes  rapidly 
down  to  a  depth  of  about  1000  feet,  where  it  reaches  a  uniform 
minimum  corresponding  with  the  surface  temperature  of  February, 
the  coolest  month  in  the  year.  This  in  the  north-western  basin  is 
55°  Fahr.  only,  and  in  the  south-eastern  SG1/^,  but  it  suffices  to 
temper  the  cold  winds  of  winter,  while  additional  warmth  is  brought 
from  time  to  time  by  the  hot  sirocco  from  the  interior  of  Africa 
(comp.  p.  321).  It  may  be  stated  generally  that  the  winter  temper- 
ature on  the  Mediterranean  averages  14°  Fahr.  above  that  of  almost 
all  other  regions  in  the  same  latitude.  The  warmest  places  are  of 
course  those  on  the  coasts  facing  the  south  and  sheltered  from  the 
north,  while  the  average  temperature  rises  gradually  from  south- 
east to  north-west. 

The  Vegetation  is  rich  and  varied.  Evergreens  abound,  being 
better  able  to  stand  the  long  droughts  than  deciduous  trees  and 
shrubs.  Among  the  forest-trees  in  the  warmer  regions  the  com- 
monest are  pines,  including  stone-pines,  and  oaks  of  the  evergreen 
and  other  varieties.  The  underwood  (macchia,  maquis,  or  gar- 
rigue,   Grk.  ^hryyana)  is   composed   of  mastic-bushes  (Pistacia 


lentiscus),  myrtles,  arbutus-trees  (Arbutus  ungdo),  broom,  tree- 
like heaths  (Erica  arborea  and  scoparia),  resinous  and  aromatic 
cistus-shrubs  with  large  blossoms  resembling  wild  roses,  and  climb- 
ing-plants of  many  varieties.  Most  prominent  among  trees  in  the 
cultivated  lands  is  the  silver-grey  olive,  which,  as  well  as  the  vine 
and  the  fig-tree,  has  thriven  here  from  the  earliest  times  and  is 
the  most  characteristic  feature  in  every  Mediterranean  landscape. 
Most  of  the  other  fruit-trees  also  have  been  known  here  since 
remote  antiquity.  The  fruit  of  the  date-palm  attains  perfection  in 
the  oases  of  North  Africa  only  (comp.  p.  171),  but  the  tree  bears 
fruit  on  the  Spanish  coast,  and  is  very  popular  as  an  ornamental 
tree  on  the  French  and  Italian  Riviera  and  in  other  sheltered  situ- 
ations. Lemons  were  introduced  by  the  Arabs,  and  oranges  were 
brought  from  southern  China  by  the  Portuguese  about  the  middle 
of  the  16th  century.  Many  other  foreign  trees  and  plants  have 
been  introduced  since  then.  Aloes  and  opuntias,  which  now  grow 
wild  and  are  often  regarded  as  characteristic  of  the  Mediter- 
ranean, were  introduced  from  America.  In  the  beautiful  and  luxur- 
iant gardens,  especially  in  Italy,  on  the  French  Riviera,  and  in 
Algeria,  the  flora  of  almost  every  quarter  of  the  globe  is  re- 

No  less  varied  and  interesting  are  the  Inhabitants  of  the 
Mediterranean  lands,  who  belong  to  three  distinct  continents,  and 
who  differ  widely  in  race  and  language,  in  religion  and  culture. 
In  remote  mountain-regions  there  still  exist  peoples,  like  the 
Basqxies  and  the  Albanians,  who  belong  to  the  oldest  races  in 
Europe.  In  the  south  and  the  east  dwell  Arabs  and  Turks,  com- 
paratively recent  immigrants  from  the  steppes  of  Asia.  On  one 
side,  as  in  Southern  France,  is  witnessed  the  height  of  civili- 
zation; on  the  other,  as  in  Albania  and  many  parts  of  Northern 
Africa,  the  population  is  sunk  in  the  depths  of  ignorance.  The 
dwellers  in  the  west  profess  the  Roman  Catholic  faith,  those  in 
the  east  belong  to  the  Greek  Catholic  church,  while  they  differ 
materially  in  culture  also.  Christianity  again  is  antagonistic  to 
Islam,  which  prevails  in  Turkey,  Asia  Minor,  Syria,  and  North 
Africa.  The  inhabitants  of  the  Atlas  regions,  of  Tripolitania,  and 
of  Barca  are  Berbers  (p.  94),  who  are  neither  Arabs  nor  Turks, 
but  are  more  akin  to  the  Europeans.  The  Osman  Turks  of  the 
Balkan  Peninsula  and  Asia  Minor  have  been  so  blended  with 
Mediterranean  races  that  they  now  retain  little  of  their  original 
Mongolian  character.  Entirely  distinct  again  from  the  Arabs  are 
the  Aramaic  Syrians,  although  they  speak  Arabic,  and  so  too  are 
the  Felldhin  of  Egypt.  Most  mixed  perhaps  of  all  is  the  blood  of 
the  Modern  Greeks. 


Route  Page 

1.  From  England  via  Oporto  and  Lisbon  to  Gibraltar  or 

Tangier  (Marseilles  and  Genoa) 1 

2.  Lisbon 6 

a.  Cidade  Baixa,  Lisboa  Occidental  and  Oriental,  10.  — 
b.  The  Streets  on  the  Tagus.  Beleni,  13.  —  c.  Excursion 
to  Cintra,  15. 

1.  From  England  via  Oporto  and  Lisbon 
to   Gibraltar  or   Tangier  (Marseilles   and 


1.  To  Gibraltar  Direct.  The  chief  Steamboat  Lines  (offices,  comp. 
pp.  xviii-xx)  are  the  Peninsular  &  Oriental  Co.,  once  weekly  from  London 
to  Gibraltar,  Marseilles,  Port  Said,  etc. ;  the  Orient  Royal  Line,  fort- 
nightly from  London  to  Gibraltar,  Marseilles,  Naples,  Port  Said,  etc.; 
the  North  German  Lloyd,  fortnightly  from  Southampton  to  Gibraltar, 
Algiers,  Genoa,  Naples,  Port  Said,  etc. ;  the  Anchor  Line  almost  weekly 
from  Liverpool  or  Glasgow  for  Gibraltar,  Marseilles,  Genoa,  Leghorn, 
Naples,  Palermo,  Port  Said,  etc.;  fares  to  Gibraltar  in  all  these  from 
121.  2s.  downwards.  Less  expensive  are  the  Royal  Mail  Steam  Packet  Co.'s 
steamers,  fortnightly  from  Loudon;  and  from  Liverpool,  the  Moss  Line 
fortnightly  and  the  Papayanni  Line  occasionally;  fares  in  all  these  range 
from  GL  to  SI. 

2.  Coasting  Steamers.  Hall  Line,  weekly  from  London  to  Lisbon, 
Gibraltar,  Malaga,  and  Cadiz:  the  Pacific  Line,  fortnightly  from  Liver- 
pool to  La  Rochelle-Pallice  (for  Bordeaux),  Corunna,  Vigo,  Leixoes  (for 
Oporto),  Lisbon,  and  St.  Vincent  (Cape  Verde),  and  thence  to  S.  America 
(passengers  for  the  Mediterranean  requiring  of  course  to  tranship  at 
Lisbon  or  St.  Vincent);  the  Nederland  Royal  Mail  Steamers,  fortnightly 
from  Southampton  for  the  Mediterranean  and  Batavia,  touch  at  Lisbon, 
and  so  also  those  of  the  Rotterdam  Lloyd,  fortnightly  from  Southampton, 
for  Tangier,  the  Mediterranean,  and  Batavia;  Yeoward  Bros.  Line,  weekly 
from  Liverpool  to  Lisbon;  Booth  Line,  thrice  monthly  from  Liverpool  to 
Havre,  Vigo,  Leixoes  (for  Oporto),  etc. ;  EUerman  Line,  weekly  from  Liver- 
pool to  Lisbon  and  Oporto;  the  steamers  of  the  German  East  African 
Line,  once  every  three  weeks  from  Southampton,  call  at  Lisbon,  Tangier, 
Marseilles,  and  Naples,  on  their  way  to  Port  Said;  the  Atlantic  liners  of 
the  Hamburg-American  and  Hamburg  &  South  American  Cos.,  calling 
several  times  monthly  at  Southampton,  also  touch  occasionally  at  Lisbon; 
Royal  Holland  Lloyd,  monthly  from  Dover  to  Boulogne,  Corunna,  Vigo, 
Lisbon,  etc. ;  the  vessels  of  the  Cbmpaflia  Traeatldntica,  monthly  from 
Liverpool,  call  at  Corunna,  Vigo,  Lisbon,  Cadiz,  Cartagena,  Valencia, 
Barcelona,  and  Genoa,  on  their  voyages  to  Colombo  and  Manila. 

3.  Excursion  Steamers.  Many  of  the  above  companies  and  others 
besides  organize  Mediterranean  cruises  and  circular  tours  at  very  reason- 
able fares,   whereby  everything  is  made  easy  and  oomfortable;  but  the 

Baedeker's  Mediterranean.  1 

2     Route  1.  LA  PALLICE.  From  England 

more  enterprising  and  independent  traveller  will  greatly  prefer  to  piece 
his  tour  together  for  himself,  combining  the  various  routes  to  suit  his 
own  convenience,  and  often  lingering  for  days  in  profoundly  impressive 
historic  places  or  amid  glorious  scenery,  where  the  hurriedly  conducted 
tourist  can  spend  a  few  hours  only.  Among  the  excursion  steamers  may 
be  mentioned  the  'Vectis'  of  the  Peninsular  &  Oriental  Co.,  which  offers 
a  trip  of  10  days  from  London  to  Lisbon,  Gibraltar,  Tangier,  Malaga, 
and  Marseilles  for  10-15  guineas,  and  another,  of  21  days,  from  Marseilles 
to  Palermo,  Constantinople,  the  Piraeus,  Naples,  and  Marseilles,  for 
21-40  gs.  Similar  cruises  are  offered  by  the  Canard  Line,  starting  from 
Liverpool  for  the  Mediterranean  and  Adriatic,  the  Orient  Royal  Line  from 
London  (20  days;  fares  from  18  gs.),  and  by  'Continental  Travel'  (5  Ends- 
leigh  Gardens,  London),  some  of  the  last-named  (either  from  Southampton 
or  from  Marseilles)  extending  to  Egypt  and  the  Holy  Land,  and  lasting 
from  13  to  34  days  (fares  10-26  gs.).  —  The  voyage  from  London  to  Lis- 
bon (about  1170  M.)  usually  takes  3y2  days,  and  thence  to  Gibraltar  (about 
350  M.)  one  day  more ;  but  some  of  the  steamers  take  longer,  while  much 
of  course  depends  on  the  number  of  ports  called  at  and  on  the  length  of 
stay  made  at  each.  For  details  as  to  the  sailings,  which,  as  well  as  fares, 
are  liable  to  frequent  alteration,  application  should  be  made  to  the  var- 
ious companies,  or  to  Messrs.  Tlios.  Cook  &  Son  (Ludgate  Circus,  Lon- 
don, E.C.)  or  other  tourist- agencies. 

To  Gibraltar  Direct.  As  indicated  at  p.  1,  most  of  the  great 
steamers  bound  for  Port  Said,  India,  Australia,  and  other  distant 
parts  steer  for  Gibraltar  direct. 

Of  the  Coasting  Steamers  to  Gibraltar  some  touch  at  Lisbon 
only,  others  at  Leixoes  (or  Oporto)  and  Lisbon,  and  others  again 
at  various  additional  stations.  All  the  important  stations  are  here 
mentioned  in  their  order. 

The  Hamburg-American  steamers  call  at  Boulogne  (see  Baede- 
ker's N.  France)  to  take  up  passengers  for  Lisbon  and  America. 
Most  of  the  vessels  pass  the  Cap  de  la  Hague,  a  little  to  the 
N.W.  of  Cherbourg,  and  the  Channel  Islands,  which  belong  to 
Great  Britain.  The  first  of  these  is  Alderney  (Fr.  Aurigny) ;  next 
comes  the  islet  of  Burhou;  beyond  it,  behind  the  dangerous  rocks 
called  the  Casquets,  marked  by  a  triple  flashing  light,  lies  Guernsey 
('green  island'),  and  farther  away,  to  the  left,  is  Jersey.  The 
coast  of  Brittany  or  Bretagne  is  visible  in  clear  weather  only. 

All  the  steamers  leave  the  English  Channel  near  Ushant  (Oues- 
sant;  lighthouse) ,  an  island  near  the  coast  of  Brittany,  and  steer 
to  the  S.S.W.  across  the  Bay  of  Biscay  (Viseaya),  where,  even 
in  fine  weather,  the  heavy  swell  of  the  open  Atlantic  is  distinctly 
felt.  The  steamers  of  the  Pacific  Line  and  of  the  Rotterdam  Lloyd 
touch  at  La  Pallice,  3  M.  from  La  Rochelle.  From  La  Rochelle, 
an  interesting  historic  town,  by  railway  to  (145  M.)  Bordeaux,  see 
Baedeker's  Southern  France.  The  Bay  of  Biscay  is  bounded  on  the 
S.  by  the  N.  coast  of  Spain,  with  which  the  W.  coast  of  France 
forms  a  right  angle.  In  this  angle,  far  to  the  E.  of  the  steamer's 
course,  lie  Bayonne  and  the  famous  health  resort  of  Biarritz.  To 
the  S.W.  of  the  latter  is  (8  M.)  St.  Jean  de  Luz,  and  8  H.  farther 
is  Hendaye,  on  the  Spanish  frontier  (see  Baedeker's  S.  France). 

to  Gibraltar.  OPORTO.  1-  Route.      3 

In  Spain,  12  M.  to  the  W.  of  the  frontier,  is  situated  San  Se- 
bastian, a  strikingly  picturesque  town  and  fashionable  seaside 
resort;  ll1  j2  M.  farther  to  the  W.  lies  Bilbao,  famed  for  its  iron 
and  steel,  74  M.  beyond  which  is  Santander,  with  its  important 
harbour.  About  280  M.  farther  to  the  W.  are  the  N.W.  headlands 
of  Spain  which  mark  the  S.W.  end  of  the  Bay  of  Biscay. 

The  steamers  of  the  Pacilic  Line,  the  Compaiiia  Trasatlantica, 
and  some  others  next  call  at  Coruima,  Span.  La  Goruna,  a  pictur- 
esque and  important  seaport  famed  in  history,  and  the  chief  arsenal 
of  N.  Spain  (see  Baedeker's  Spain  and  Portugal;  debarkation  or 
embarkation  1  peseta).  Time  permitting,  passengers  may  spend 
an  hour  or  two  on  shore  in  walking  through  the  new  town  (Pesca- 
deria)  and  the  loftily  situated  old  town  (Ciudad  Vieja),  and  in 
ascending  to  the  Torre  de  Hercides  (185  ft.;  lighthouse),  about 
I  M.  to  the  N.  of  the  town,  for  the  sake  of  the  splendid  view  it 
affords.  Some  35  M.  to  the  W.  of  Corunna  lie  the  small  Sisargas 
Islands,  beyond  which  all  the  vessels  steer  to  the  S.,  past  Cabo 
Yillano  (lighthouse),  Cabo  Torlnana (lighthouse),  and  CapeFinis- 
terre.  To  the  E.,  in  clear  weather,  we  may  descry  the  long  outlines 
of  the  Galician  mountain-range  ('sierra').  Beyond  Cape  Finisterre 
we  pass  a  number  of  far-penetrating  inlets  (rias)  which  abound 
on  the  "W.  coast  of  Galicia.  Many  steamers  touch  also  at  Vigo, 
a  seaport  and  sea-bathing  place  most  picturesquely  situated  on  the 
Eia  de  Vigo,  the  southmost  inlet  of  Galicia,  which  runs  19  M. 
inland  (debarkation  or  embarkation  1  peseta).  Pine  view  near  the 
lofty  Castillo  del  Castro,  to  the  S.  of  the  town.  Some  eight  or  nine 
hours'  steaming  carries  us  from  Vigo,  past  the  mouth  of  the  Minho, 
the  boundary  between  Spain  and  Portugal,  to — ■ 

Leixoes  (pron.  layshoengsh;  Brit,  vice-consul,  T.  Coverley), 
the  first  Portuguese  port,  lying  at  the  mouth  of  the  little  river  Leca 
and  forming  the  outer  harbour  of  Oporto.  About  21/2  M.  farther  to 
I  he  S.  is  the  mouth  of  the  Douro,  usually  entered  by  the  smaller 
steamers  bound  for  (3^2  ^0  Oporto  itself. 

Passengers  who  wish  to  go  ashore  at  Leixoes  are  conveyed  by  motor- 
boat  or  rowing-boat  (about  225  reis  or  Is.,  and  half  as  much  more  for 
luggage)  to  the  custom-house.  Visitors  with  heavy  luggage  require  to 
take  the  train  (Leca  station,  near  the  Alfandega  or  custom-house)  to 
Oporto  (Estacao  da  Boa  Vista,  in  the  N.  of  the  town);  others  may  take 
the  electric  tramway  (120  rs.),  running  from  Leixoes  through  the  villa- 
suburb  of  Le$a  <la  Palmeira  and  the  watering-places  of  3Iattosinhos  and 
Sao  Joao  da  Foz,  and  up  the  right  bank  of  the  Douro,  to  Oporto  (about 
">  M.,  in  1  hr.).  It  goes  as  far  as  the  Praca  de  Dom  Pedro;  but  those  in 
haste  will  alight  in  the  fiua  do  Infante  Dom  Henrique  (comp.  p.  4). 

Oporto.  —  Hotels.  *Hut.  do  Porto,  Hot.  de  Paris,  Hot.  dq  Franc- 
fort,  etc.  —  Cafe-Restaurant  International,  Praca  de  Dom  Pedro  14;  Cafe 
Suisse,  same  square,  No.  122;  Cafi  Marques,  in  the  Crystal  Palace. 

Cab  500  rs.,  or  about  2s.  3(7.,  per  hour. 

Consuls.   British,  H.  Grant. — United  States  Consular  Agent,  W.  Si 
—  English  Church  (St.  James's),  in  the  Campo  Pequeno,  to  the  N.  of  the 
Crystal  Palace. 


4     Route  1.  OPORTO  From  England 

Oporto,  or  briefly  Porto  ('harbour')  in  Portuguese,  is  a  busy  commercial 
town  of  172,400  inhab.,  the  industrial  capital  of  N.  Portugal,  and  the  place 
from  which  the  famous  wines  of  the  upper  valley  of  the  Dotiro  are  chiefly 
exported.  It  lies  3V2  M.  from  the  sea,  on  the  lofty  right  bank  of  the 
Douro,  which  has  forced  its  passage  here  through  the  granite  rock.  The 
old  town,  with  its  quaint  balconied  houses,  whose  walls  are  often  faced 
with  coloured  tiles,  rises  in  terraces  on  the  rocky  slopes.  The  new  town 
lies  on  a  lofty  plateau  to  the  N.,  E.,  and  W.  of  the  old. 

To  the  N.  of  the  Rua  do  Infante  Dom  Henrique  is  the  Exchange 
(Bolsa),  with  its  showy  hall  in  the  Moorish  style.  To  the  E.  of  it  stands 
the  Monument  of  Prince  Henry  the  Navigator  (p.  5).  Adjoining  the 
exchange  is  the  Gothic  church  of  Sao  Francisco  (entrance  on  the  W. 
side),  containing  elaborate  gilt  wood-carving  of  the  17-lSth  centuries.  Near 
the  E.  end  of  the  Rua  do  Infante  Dom  Henrique  is  the  so-called  English 
Factory  House  (Associagao  Britannica),  an  imposing  building  erected  by 
an  Englishman  in  1785  and  now  used  as  a  kind  of  club.  The  nearest 
tramway-car  conveys  us  to  the  PraQa  de  Dom  Pedro,  the  business  centre 
of  the  city,  with  an  Equestrian  Statue  of  Pedro  IV.  (p.  11)  commemorating 
the  granting  of  the  constitution  (1826).  We  ascend  to  the  W.  by  the 
steep  Canada  dos  C16rigos  to  the  church  of  Igreja  dos  Clerigos  (427  ft.), 
the  tower  of  which  (246  ft.;  ticket  of  admission  100  rs.)  commands  a  pano- 
ramic view  of  the  city,  the  river,  and  the  coast.  Adjoining  the  church 
on  the  W.  is  the  Campo  dos  Martyres  da  Patria,  with  the  beautiful 
grounds  of  the  Jardim  da  Cordoaria.  We  next  proceed  by  the  electric 
tramway  'Palacio'  to  the  Crystal  Palace  (adm.  20,  50  or  100  rs.)  with  its 
beautiful  pleasure-grounds  and  superb  view  of  the  city,  the  river,  and 
the  sea.  The  same  electric  tramway,  now  entitled  the  'Praga  de  Dom 
Pedro',  returns  via  the  Rua  da  Cedofeita  to  the  Pra<ja  de  Dom  Pedro ; 
we,  however,  change  tramway-cars  in  the  former  and  proceed  by  the  tram- 
way 'Campanha'  via  the  Praga  de  Dom  Pedro  to  the  pretty  Jardim  de  S&o 
Ldzaro.  From  the  S.W.  angle  of  the  garden  the  Rua  das  Fontainhas 
descends  to  the  Passeio  das  Fontainhas  with  a  view  of  the  river,  its  S. 
bank,  and  both  bridges.  Following  this  promenade  to  the  W.  we  reach 
the  Largo  da  Policia  with  a  fountain,  where  remains  of  the  City  Walls 
are  to  be  seen.  Hence  the  Rua  de  Saraiva  de  Carvalho  leads  us,  before  it 
descends  in  an  abrupt  curve  to  the  left,  into  the  vicinity  of  the  Se",  or 
Cathedral,  now  almost  entirely  modernized.  We  may  now  traverse  the 
upper  roadway  (toll  5  rs. ;  tramway-car  if  desired)  of  the  magnificent 
Ponte  de  Dom  L/uiz  Primeiro,  spanning  the  Douro  with  a  single  iron 
arch  of  564  ft.  On  the  S.  bank,  on  an  eminence  immediately  to  the  left, 
lies  the  ruinous  Augustine  convent  of  Nossa  Senhora  da  Serra  do  Pilar 
where  Wellington  effected  his  celebrated  passage  of  the  Douro  against 
the  French  (1809).  The  view,  especially  from  the  dome  of  the  church, 
is  very  fine.  We  make  our  way,  at  first  by  steps,  then  by  a  steep 
descent,  to  the  lower  roadway  of  the  bridge.  Returning  to  the  N.  bank 
of  the  Douro  we  follow  the  Rua  Cima  do  Muro  to  the  Prac,a  da  Ribeira 
which  affords  an  insight  into  popular  life  and  commands  a  striking  retro- 
spect of  the  Ponte  de  Dom  Luiz.  In  the  neighbourhood  we  may  take 
the  electric  tramway  'Le^a'  which  conveys  us  back  to  Leixoes.  In  the 
reverse  direction  we  regain  the  Praqa  de  Dom  Pedro.  —  Comp.  Baedeker's 
Spain  and  Portugal. 

While  the  greater  Ocean  Steamers  rarely  sight  the  laud,  those 
bound  for  Lisbon  skirt  the  flat  Portuguese  coast  for  some  150  M., 
from  Oporto  to  Cabo  Carvoeiro,  steering  past  the  Berlengas  Is- 
lands (lighthouse),  and  then  rounding  the  Serra  de  Cmira  (p.  15), 
which  ends  in  the  Cabo  da  Roca  (472  ft.),  the  westmost  point  of 
Europe,  with  its  great  lighthouse.  Passing  the  Cabo  Raso,  we 
now  steer  due  E.  into  the  Bay  of  Cascaes,  the  'Riviera'  of  Portugal, 

to  Gibraltar.        STRAITS  OF  GIBRALTAR.  '•  Route.     5 

and  enter  the  month  of  the  Tagus  (Tejo),  where  the  lighthonses  of 
Torre  de  Sao  Juliao  and  Torre  de  Bugio  rise  conspicuously.  On 
the  left  we  next  observe  the  Torre  de  Belem  and  the  extensive 
streets  of  Lisbon  (see  R.  2). 

Leaving  Lisbon,  several  of  the  great  liners  steer  due  W.  across 
the  Atlantic  to  America.  Other  vessels  head  to  the  S.W.  for  Madeira 
(p.  17),  and  others  again  due  S.,  past  the  Cabo  de  Espichel,  on 
their  way  to  Gibraltar  or  Tangier.  About  120  M.  to  the  S.  of  Lis- 
bon we  are  off  *Cape  St.  Vincent  (Cabo  de  Sao  Vicente),  the  an- 
cient Promontorium  Sacrum.  This  huge  rocky  plateau,  with  its 
reddish-brown  precipices  rising  sheer  above  the  sea,  presents  an 
imposing  appearance.  Just  beyond  it  are  an  old  monastery  and  a 
lighthouse  and  then  the  Cabo  Sagres.  Between  these  capes  we 
obtain  a  glimpse  of  the  dreary  and  sun-burnt  interior  of  the  conn- 
try,  with  its  few  poor  villages.  Beyond  the  Cabo  Sagres  lies  the 
little  town  of  Sagres,  founded  by  Henry  the  Navigator  (1421)  as 
headquarters  for  his  voyages  of  exploration.  Both  before  and  after 
rounding  these  two  capes  we  sometimes  obtain  a  pleasant  view  of 
the  Serra  de  Monchique  (2963  ft.),  and  before  leaving  the  coast 
of  Algarve  we  may  distinguish  the  little  towns  of  Lagos  and  Albu- 
feira  and  the  Cabo  de  Santa  Maria.  Steering  now  due  E.,  the 
smaller  trading-vessels  call  at  Huelva,  a  little  beyond  the  Spanish 
frontier,  noted  as  the  shipping-port  for  the  great  Tharsis  and  Rio 
Tinto  mines,  and  as  the  starting-point  of  Columbus  (pp.  115,  64) 
for  his  voyage  to  America  in  1492,  while  other  vessels  call  at  Cadiz 
(p.  58) ;  all  the  larger  steamers  however  proceed  direct  across  the 
Hay  of  Cadiz  to  the  S.E.  to  the  Straits  of  Gibraltar,  and  either  call 
at  Gibraltar  itself,  or  pass  it  on  their  eastward  voyage  without 
stopping;  a  certain  number  touch  at  Tangier  (p.  98). 

The  *Struits  of  Gibraltar,  anciently  called  Fretum  Gadita- 
num  or  Herculeum  (comp.  Map,  p.  49),  from  Gades  (p.  58)  or  from 
the  Pillars  of  Hercules  (p.  54),  date  from  the  pliocene  age,  when  the 
action  of  tides  and  waves  forced  a  passage  from  the  Atlantic  into 
the  great  inland  cavity  of  the  Mediterranean.  The  straits  are 
widest  at  the  "W.  entrance,  between  Cape  Trafalgar  (p.  58)  on 
the  left,  and  Cape  Spartel  (p.  102)  on  the  right.  The  narrowest 
part  (8  M.)  is  between  the  Punta  Canales  (p.  6)  and  Cape  Ciris 
(p.  123).  The  E.  entrance,  between  Europa  Point  (p.  55)  and  the 
Punta  Santa  Catalina  (p.  123),  is  121/j  M.  in  breadth.  Between 
the  ocean  and  the  inland  sea  run  strong  currents,  the  upper  and 
lighter,  from  W.  to  E.,  sometimes  setting  at  the  rate  of  5  11.  an 
hour,  while  the  lower,  being  more  strongly  impregnated  with  salt 
and  therefore  heavier,  flows  in  the  opposite  direction.  These  cur- 
rents, coupled  with  the  conflict  of  winds  at  the  meeting  of  the 
waters,  often  cause  serions  trouble  to  sailing-vessels. 

To  the  right,  far  to  the  S.E.  as  we  steer  into  the  straits,  ap 

6     Route  2.  LISBON.  Practical 

pears  the  lighthouse  on  Cape  Spartel,  to  the  E.  of  which  opens  the 
bay  of  Tangier  (p.  98),  bounded  on  the  E.  by  Cape  Malabata. 
To  the  left,  on  the  treeless  coast  of  Andalusia  enlivened  only  by 
the  numerous  ancient  watch-towers,  lies  the  town  of  Tarifa,  pre- 
ceded by  an  isthmus  ending  in  the  Punta  Marroqui,  the  sonthmost 
point  of  the  mainland  of  Europe  (36°  N.  lat.). 

The  steamers  then  pass  the  Punta  Candles  and  Punta  del 
Fraile,  round  the  Punta  Carnero,  the  southmost  spur  of  the  Sierra 
de  los  Gazules,  and  enter  the  broad  Bay  of  Algeciras  or  Gibraltar, 
where  they  usually  anchor  in  the  open  roads  of  Gibraltar  (p.  52), 
to  the  N.W.  of  the  government  harbour. 

Prom  Gibraltar  to  Tangier  and  Mogador,  see  RR.  6  b  and  14;  to 
Genoa,  see  R.  15;  to  Naples,  see  R.  16;  to  Marseilles,  see  R.  17. 

2.  Lisbon,  f 

Arrival  by  Ska.  Steamers  arriving  from  Europe  (comp.  R.  1)  usually 
anchor  in  the  Tagus  (Tejo)  near  the  custom-house  (Alfandega;  PI.  P, 
G,  6).  Landing  or  embarking  by  boat  (bote)  ca.  500  rs.,  and  100-200  rs. 
for  each  trunk  or  package,  including  transport  to  the  custom-house 
(bargaining  necessary).  Steamers  from  the  South  (Madeira  and  Brazil), 
cast  anchor  opposite  the  quarantine  station  (Posto  Maritimo  de  Desinfeccao; 
PI.  B,  5);  passengers  are  landed  in  tenders  (1600  rs.);  for  conveyance  of 
luggage  to  the  custom-house  each  piece  200  rs.  As  soiled  linen  is  sometimes 
asked  for,  it  should  be  packed  in  a  separate  bundle  and  given  up  in 
exchange  for  a  metal  token.  A  declaration  has  to  be  filled  up  at  the 
custom-house  (100  rs.) ;  tobacco  and  unused  articles  only  are  dutiable.  In 
the  case  of  the  larger  liners  the  through -passengers  (passageiros  en 
transito)  are  conveyed  without  luggage  to  land,  and  thence  back,  by 
tender;  the  place  and  time  of  return  should  be  ascertained.  Special 
tenders  are  provided  for  the  landing  of  travellers  going  no  farther,  and 
for  their  luggage.  As  a  rule,  fully  half  a  day  is  spent  in  landing  and 
other  formalities  prior  to  settling  down  in  a  hotel.  Hotel-employds  are 
not  permitted  to  convey  passengers  from  the  steamers.  As  the  custom- 
house is  closed  at  sunset,  passengers  arriving  by  steamer  in  the  evening 
must  stay  on  board  till  next  morning. 

The  Central  Railway  Station  (Estag&o  Central  or  Lisboa  Rocio, 
PI.  P,  3;  no  restaurant),  in  the  Rua  Magalhaes  Lima,  a  little  to  the  N.W. 
of  the  Rocio  (p.  11),  is  the  station  for  all  the  through-trains  and  expresses 
to  Paris,  Madrid,  etc.  Lisbon  time  is  37  min.  behind  Greenwich  time,  and 
1  hr.  36  min.  slower  than  mid-European.  —  Office  of  the  International 
Sleeping  Carriage  Co.  (Companhia  Internacional  dos  Wagons-Lits  dos 
Grandes  Espressos  Europeus)   in   the  Avenida  Palace  Hotel  (see  below). 

Hotels  (advisable  to  engage  rooms  beforehand).  *Avenida  Palace 
Hotel  (PI.  a;  F,  3),   adjoining  the  Central  Station,  pens,   from  3000  rs. 

f  Money.  The  monetary  unit  in  Portugal  is  the  real  (equal  to  O.  549 
of  a  centime,  or  roughly  V20  of  a  penny  or  '/io  °f  a  cent),  which  is  used, 
however,  in  multiples  (reis)  only.  The  copper  coins  are  5  rs.,  10  rs., 
and  20  rs.  (vintem.  pi.  vintens).  In  nickel  there  are  pieces  of  50  and 
100  rs.  (tostao,  pi.  tostoes).  In  silver  there  are  coins  of  200,  500  (coroa), 
and  1000  rs.  (i*«  milreis,  worth  about  5  fr.  or  4s.  2d.  or  $  1).  Gold  is  never 
met  with  in  ordinary  traffic.  The  banknotes  are  for  5000  rs.,  10,000  rs., 
and  20,000  rs.  A  sum  of  1000  milreis  is  called  um  conto  da  reis.  —  Small 
amounts  are  often  reckoned  in  tostoes  and  vintens. 






~:'°  ff  gifiS  i  »*« 

V.  ;;::,:""  „ rM 

/(    , 




2.  Route. 

upwards:  *Hot.  Bkaganija  (PI.  b;  E,  5),  Rua  Victor  Cordon,  in  a  high 
site,  R.  from  1200  rs.,  B.  350,  dej.  800,  U.  1100  rs.  —  Hot.  he  Ingla- 
tekiia  (PI.  i;  F,  3),  Praga  dos  Restauradores  45,  well  spoken  of;  Hot. 
Cbhtsai  (PI.  c;E,  5),  in  the  lower  town,  commercial,  d^j.  800,  D.  1000, 
pens,  from  2600  rs.;  Hot.  de  i/Europe,  Rua  do  Oarmo  16  (PI.  F,  4),  pens, 
from  2000  rs.—  Hot.  Dubasd  (PI.  k;  E,  4),  Rua  das  Flores  71,  an  English 
family  hotel  in  a  quiet  situation,  pens.  2400-3000  rs.  —  Avenida  Hotel 
i  PI.  li ;  F.  2),  Avenida  da  Liberdade  67,  good  second-class  house. 

Caf^s-Restaurants.  *Tavares,  Rua  do  Mundo  37  (PI.  E,  F,  3),  D.  800 
ami  1000  is.;  Imperial,  Rua  Magalhaes  Lima  124,  opposite  the  Avenida 
Palace  Hotel,  also  superior,  D.  700  rs. ;  Suisso,  Largo  de  Catuoes  8,  oppo- 
site the  E.  side  of  the  Central  Station.  —  Beer.  L'crvejaria  Jansen,  entr. 
near  the  Hot.  Braganca  (see  above;  side-entrance  Rua  do  Alecrim  30); 
Oervejaria  Trindade,  Rua  da  Trindade  110. 

Post  and  Telegraph  Office  (Correio  e  Telegrapho;  PI.  F,  5)  in  the 
Pra?a  do  Commercio,  corner  of  Rua  do  Arsenal,  in  which  last  is  the  entrance 
to  the  poste-restante  office.  Also  numerous  branch-offices  (estacSes 
Hares).  Postage  of  letters  (cartas)  for  Portugal  and  Spain  20  rs. ;  post-cards 
(bilhete  postal)  10  rs. ;  for  abroad  (para  o  estrangeiro)  50  and  20  rs. 
respectively ;  registration-fee  (registado)  50  rs. 

Cabs  (Trens  de  Praca)  in  the  principal  squares,  elegant  vehicles  with 
two  horses  for  2  or  4  pers.,  but  the  tariff  is  high.  The  hirer  should  ask 
the  driver  (cocheiro)  for  a  ticket  or  token  (seiiha).  The  tariff  is  called 
tabella.     'Impedido'  means  engaged. 

Per  drive  (por  corrida) 
Per  hour  (as  horas) 

Two  hours 

Three  hours     .... 
Four  hours 

In  the  old  town  1 

To  the 


1-2  pers. 

3-4  pers. 

1-2  pers. 

3-4  pers 

400  rs. 

500  rs. 

1000  rs. 

1200  rs. 

600  „ 

700  „ 

600  „ 

700  „ 

1200  „ 

1400  „ 

1200  „ 

1400  ., 

1500  „ 

1800  „ 

1500  „ 

M800  .. 

1800  „ 

2200  „ 

1800  „ 

2200  . 

The  city  boundary  is  the  Estrada  da  Circumvallaeao  (p.  9),  and  for 
the  W.  suburbs  Alges  (beyond  Belem).  After  the  first  hour  the  time  is 
reckoned  by  1/i  hours.  If  the  cab  is  dismissed  outside  the  town  the 
driver  is  entitled  to  a  return-fare.  At  night  (1  a.m.  till  sunrise)  the  far«s 
are  doubled.  Luggage  up  to  30  kilos  (66  lbs.)  free,  up  to  50  kilos  (110  lbs.) 
200  rs.,  over  50  kilos  400  rs. 

Taximeter  Cabs  (Trens  com  Taximeter)  are  rather  cheaper. — Motor 
Taximeters  (Atdomovies  da  Praga),  stand  in  the  Rocio  (PL  F,  3,  1),  comp. 
the  tariff  written  in  French. 

Lifts  and  Cable  Tramways  (Ascensores  or  EUvadores),  mostly 
every  3  min.,  from  8  a.m.  to  1  a.m.  The  fare  up  is  called  svbida,  down 
descida,  return  ida  e  volta. 

1.  From  the  Rua  da  Santa  Justa  (PI.  F,  4;  near  the  Rua  Aurea)  to  the 
Lfcrgo  do  C'armo  (PI.  F,  4).    Fare  up  20,  down  10,  return  20  rs. 

2.  From  the  Calcada  da  Gloria  (PI.  F,  3;  W.  side  of  the  Avenida  da 
Liberdade)  to  the  Alameda  de  Sao  Pedro  de  Alcantara  (PI.  E,  F,  3),  20  rs. 

3.  From  the  Pra<;a  de  Camoes  (PI.  E,  4)  to  Sao  Bento  (PI.  D,  3)  and 
the  Largo  da  Estrella  (PI.  C,  2,  3),  50  rs. 

4.  From  the  Rua  da  Palma  (near  the  Theatro  Apollo;  PI.  G,  3)  to  the 
Largo  da  Graea  (PI.  H,  3,  4);  up  40,  down  20  rs. 

5.  From  the  Calijada  da  Lavra  (PI.  F,  3)  to  the  Travessa  do  Thorel 
(PI.  F,  2,  3),  near  the  S.  end  of  the  Campo  dos  Martyrcs  da  Patria,  20  rs. 

Tramways  (C'arris  de  Ferro)  are  to  be  preferred  to  cabs  owing  to 
the  hilly  nature  of  the  towrn  and  the  badly  paved  streets.  The  starting- 
point  of  the  tramway-lines  important  to  the  traveller  is  the  Rocio  (PI.  P,  3 
4);  cars  proceeding  hence  to  the  S.  via  the  Rua  Augusta  return  vi  1  the  Rua 
Aurea.    To  the  W.  cars  follow  the  narrow  Rua  do  Arsenal  to  the  Largo 

8     Route  2.  LISBON.  Practical  Notes. 

do  Corpo  Santo  (PL  B,  5),  where  the  line  forks  into  an  outer  line,  skirt- 
ing the  quay,  and  an  inner  line  (comp.  the  Plan);  on  the  latter  the 
'Santo  Amaro  Pampueha'  car  alone  passes  the  museum  (p.. 14).  On  both 
lines  the  'Belem',  'AlgeV,  or  'Dafundo'  cars  proceed  to  Belem  (p.  14). 
—  The  terminus  of  the  route  is  indicated  on  the  boards  at  either  end 
of  the  cars.  On  the  return-journey,  or,  in  the  case  of  circular  tram- 
ways, in  the  reverse  direction,  cars  have  different  name-boards  (given 
below  in  brackets).  Boards  in  the  streets  bearing  the  word  lparagem' 
indicate  stopping-places  (beckoning  necessary).  —  Pare,  within  the  first 
zone,  30  rs.;  for  every  addit.  zone  10  rs.  extra.  —  The  three  following 
circular  lines  are  of  special  importance. 

1.  'Rio  de  Janeiro '  Car  ['Rocio']:  Rocio - Avenida  da  Liberdade 
(PI.  F,  E,  3-1;  p.  11) -Rua  Alexandre  Herculano  (PI.  E,  1)-Travessa  Sao 
Mamede  (PI.  E,  2)-Rua  da  Escola  Polytechnica  (PI.  E,  2)-Jardim  Botanico 
(p.  ll)-Praga  do  Rio  de  Janeiro  (PI.  E,  2,  3) -Alameda  de  S&o  Pedro  de 
Alcantara  (PI.  E,  F,  3;  p.  ll)-Rua  do  Mundo  (PI.  E,  F,  3,  4)-Rua  do 
Alecrim  (PI.  E,  4,  5)-Rua  do  Arsenal  (PI.  E,  F,  5)-Rua  Aurea  (PI.  F,  5,  4)- 
Rocio.    Fare  all  the  way  (Circulag&o  completa)  50  rs. 

2.  'Rua  Gomes  Freire'  Car  ['Graca']:  Rocio  -Rua  Augusta  (PI.  F,  4)- 
Rua  da  Conceicao  (PI.  F,  b)-Si  (PL  G,  5;  p.  13) -Largo  do  Contador  Mor 
(PL  G,  4;  comp.  p.  13) -S&o  Vicente  de  Fora  (PL  H,  4;  p.  13) -Rua  da 
Graca  (PL  H,  3) -Largo  dos  Quatro  Caminhos  (PL  H,  3),  returning  by  the 
same  route  as  far  as  the  Rua  da  Conceicao  (see  above),  thence  via  Rua 
Aurea,  Rocio,  Rua  da  Palma,  Rua  de  Sao  Lazaro  (PL  G,  3,  2),  Rua  Gomes 
Freire  (PL  G,  2,  1),  Rua  Conde  de  Redondo  (PL  F,  1),  and  the  Avenida 
(p.  11)  to  the  Rocio.     Fare  80  rs. 

3.  'Largo  das  Duas  Egiiejas'  Car  ['Estrella']:  Upper  end  of  Rua 
Garrett  (PL  E,  F,  4) -Rua  do  Alecrim  (PL  E,  4,  5) -Rua  Vinte  e  Quatro 
de  Julho  (PL  E,  D,  5,  4) -[Largo  de  Santos  (PL  C,  4) -Rua  de  Sao  Domingos 
(PLC,  4,  3) -Rua  de  Buenos  Ayres  (PL  C,  3)  -  Largo  da  Estrella  (PL  C,  3,  2)  - 
Rua  Domingos  Sequeira  (PL  C,  2) -Rua  Ferreira  Borges  (PI.  C,  2,  1)-Rua 
do  Campo  de  Ourique  (PL  0,  1)-Rua  Sao  Joao  dos  Bern  Casados  (PL  C, 
D,  1)-Rua  das  Amoreiras  (PL  D,  1)- Largo  do  Rato  (PL  D,  1)-Rua  da 
Escola  Polytechnica  (PL  D,  E,  2,  3)-Jardim  Botanico  (p.  11)  -  Alameda  de 
S&o  Pedro  de  Alcdntara  (p.  11)  -  Rua  do  Mundo  (PL  E,  F,  3,  4)  -  Rua  Garrett. 

Steamers  to  and  from  London,  Liverpool,  Southampton,  S.  America, 
etc.  (comp.  pp.  xviii-xx  and  R.  1).  Also  the  Messageries  Maritimes  from 
Bordeaux  to  Lisbon ;  the  Empreza  Nacional  de  Navegacdo  for  Madeira, 
and  the  Empreza  Insulana  de  Navegacdo  for  the  Azores  (comp.  also  R.  3). 
Agent  for  the  Rotterdam  Lloyd,  German  East  African,  Hamburg-Amer- 
ican, and  Hamburg  &  S.  American  Lines,  E.  George  (p.  9) ;  for  the  Com- 
pafiia  Trasatlantica,  H.  B/trnay  &  Co. 

Banks.  London  &  Brazilian,  Rua  do  Commercio  96;  Cridit  Franco- 
Portiigais,  Rua  Augusta  61;  Banco  de  Portugal,  Rua  Aurea  (entr.  Rua 
do  Commercio  148);    Weinstein  &  Co.,   Rua  do  Commercio  49  (1st  floor). 

Theatres  (from  end  of  Oct.  to  March ;  boxes  are  called  camarotes, 
stalls  cadeiras,  the  pit  platia  geral).  Theatro  de  Sao  Carlos  (PL  F,  4), 
Largo  de  Sao  Carlos,  for  Italian  operas  and  ballet;  Theatro  da  Repu- 
blica  (PL  E,  F,  4,  5),  Rua  Antonio  Maria  Cardoso,  for  Spanish,  Italian,  or 
French  plays  and  operettas;  Nacional  (PL  F,  3),  Praga  de  Dom  Pedro, 
for  Portuguese  plays;  also  several  places  for  variety  entertainments. 

Bull  King  {Praca  de  Touros;  PL  G,  1),  reached  from  the  Rocio  by 
the  'Campo  Pequeno'  or  'Lumiar'  tramway-cars;  parties  should  charter 
cabs  in  good  time  (return-fare  ca.  3000  rs.).  Bull-fights,  less  cruel  than 
in  Spain,  Sun.  and  holidays  (Easter  to  the  end  of  June);  tickets  at  Pra§a 
dos  Restauradores  18. 

British  Minister,  Hon.  Sir  Francis  H.  Villiers,  Rua  Sao  Francisco  de 
Borja  63  (PL  B,  4).  — U.  S.  Minister,  Henry  T.  Gage,  Largo  do  Carmo  18 
(PL  F,  4). 

Consuls.  British,  P.  A.  Somers  Cocks,  Travessa  da  Ribeira  Nova  26; 
vice-consul,  H.  E.  Jones. — U.  S.  Consul-General,  Louis  H.  Aymi,  Ave- 

Situation.  LISBON.  2-  Route.     9 

nida  da  Liherdade  196  (PI.  P,  1);  vice-consul,  H.  E.  Bradford.  —  Lloyd's 
Agents,  Rawes  &  Co.,  Rua  do  Commercio  31  (PI.  F,  5). 

Goods  Agent.  E.  George,  Rua  da  Prata  8  (PI.  F,  5).  — Tourist 
A.GBHTS,  Thos.  Cook  &  Son,  Rua  Aurea  52  (PI.  F,  5). 

Churches.  English  (St.  George's),  with  cemetery  (PI.  C,  2),  Rua 
da  Estrella;  services  at  11  &  7;  chaplain,  Rev.  E.  P.  Lewis,  D.  D.  — 
Presbyterian  (PI.  B,  4),  Rua  da  Arriaga  13;  services  at  11  &  7.30;  minister, 
Rev.  R.  M.  Lithgow. 

Club.  Royal  British  Club,  Rua  de  Sao  Francisco  de  Paula  1  (PI. 
B,  4),  also  for  temporary  members. 

Sights.  The  Churches,  few  of  which  are  interesting,  are  open  from 
7  to  10  a.m.,  the  Cathedral  till  1p.m. 

Museu  d'Artilheria  (p.  14),  on  week-days  10-3,  free. 

Museu  Nacional  das  Bellas  Artes  (p.  14),  Sun.,  Thurs.,  and  holidays, 
11-4,  free;  on  other  days  12-2,  by  leave  of  the  director  obtained  through 
the  attendant.  When  the  main  door  is  closed  the  entrance  is  to  the  left, 
through  the  gateway  of  the  barracks  and  the  garden. 

Museu  Nacional  dos  Coches  (p.  14),  daily,  exc.  Frid.,  12-5,  free. 

Visitors  having  only  a  few  hours  at  their  disposal  on  land  should 
avail  themselves  of  one  of  the  circular  tramway-lines  (p.  7)  to  obtain  a 
general  survey  of  the  town.  The  Graca  Church  (p.  13;  *View)  should  be 
visited  in  the  morning  ('Gracja'  tramway) ;  in  the  afternoon,  Alameda 
de  Sao  Pedro  de  Alcantara  (p.  11)  or  Estrella  Church  (p.  12).  The  trip 
to  Belem  (p.  14)  should  on  no  account  be  omitted. 

Two  Days.  1st.  Forenoon  :  Praqa  do  Commercio  and  Rocio  (pp.  10, 11) ; 
Avenida  da  Liberdade  (p.  11);  *Alameda  de  Sao  Pedro  de  Alcantara 
(p.  11);  *  Botanic  Garden  (p.  11);  Estrella  Church  (p.  12;  *View).  After- 
noon: Belem  (p.  14).  —  2nd.  Excursion  to  *Cintra  (p.  15),  requiring  at  least 
half  a  day.  —  Bull-fights,  see  p.  8. 

Lisbon,  Portuguese  Lisboa,  the  capital  of  the  new  republic  of 
Portugal  (comp.  p.  10),  the  see  of  an  archbishop,  a  fortress,  and 
also  an  important  commercial  city,  with  357,700  inhab.,  lies  in 
38°  42'  N.  lat.  and  9°  11'  W.  long.,  on  the  broad  Bay  of  the  Tagus, 
which  forms  an  excellent  harbour  just  above  the  comparatively 
narrow  (1-2  M.)  mouth  of  the  river  (see  p.  xxix).  The  town  rises 
in  picturesque  terraces,  affording  many  charming  views,  while  the 
luxuriance  of  its  public  gardens  is  almost  unrivalled  in  Europe 
Lisbon  is  certainly  a  very  beautiful  city,  and  its  ardent  admirers 
have  compared  it  even  with  Naples  and  Constantinople. 

The  towu,  which  is  girdled  by  the  Estrada  da  Circumvallagdo, 
a  road  5  M.  long,  consists  of  several  quarters.  On  the  E.  lies  the 
old  town,  or  Lisboa  Oriental,  on  the  slope  of  the  Collina  do  Cas- 
tello.  On  the  low  ground  between  the  old  town  and  the  new  is  the 
( 'iilnde  Baixa,  which  has  sprung  up  since  the  earthquake  of  1755. 
To  the  W.  is  Lisboa  Occidental,  the  modern  quarter.  Along  the 
Tagus  extend  quays  and  docks,  constructed  in  1887,  and,  after  a 
serious  collapse,  restored  in  1894-1905.  The  harbour  is  entered 
by  5000  vessels  annually,  one-third  of  them  being  under  the  British 
flag,  one-tenth  under  the  French,  and  one  tenth  under  the  German. 
The  Portuguese  vessels  are  chiefly  engaged  in  trading  with  the 
country's  African  colonies  and  with  S.  America. 

The  ancient  name  of  Lisbon  was  Ulisipo  or  Olisipo,  which  led  early 
Greek  travellers  and  scholars  to  connect  the  place,  but  erroneously,  with 

10     Route  S.  LISBON.  History. 

tlic  legends  of  Ulysses.  Under  the  Romans,  thanks  to  its  splendid  harbour, 
it  ranked  as  the  "second  city  in  Lusitania,  and  alternately  with  Merida, 
the  capital,  was  frequently  the  residence  of  the  Roman  governors.  From 
407  to  585  it  was  occupied  by  the  Alans,  and  from  585  to  715  by  the 
Visigoths,  and  after  the  battle  of  Veger  de  la  Frontera  (711)  it  fell  into 
the  hands  of  the  Moors,  who  called  it  Aloshbuna  or  Lishbuna.  In  1147 
it  was  retaken  by  king  Affo?iso  Henriques,  aided  by  an  army  of  Crusaders. 
The  bulk  of  these  were  Englishmen ;  and  thus  the  siege  of  Lisbon  is 
doubly  interesting  as  it  was  'the  first  instance  of  the  close  connection 
between  the  two  nations  (England  and  Portugal)  which  has  lasted  down 
to  the  present  century'  (H.  M.  Stephens). 

The  importance  of  Lisbon  began  under  Affbnso  III.  (1248-79),  who 
transferred  the  royal  residence  hither  from  Coirubra  (1260).  The  great 
discoveries  made  by  the  Portuguese  at  the  end  of  the  15th  cent.,  and 
the  conquest  of  India  by  Francisco  aV Almeida  (d.  1510)  and  Affonso  de 
Albuquerque  (d.  1515),  greatly  benefited  the  capital,  which  soon  became 
the  richest  town  in  Europe,  and  recovered  rapidly  even  from  the  effects 
of  the  earthquakes  of  1531  and  1575.  But  the  sixty  years  of  Spanish 
dominion  (1580-1640),  the  defeats  of  the  Spanish  and  Portuguese  fleets 
in  the  war  with  Holland,  and  the  loss  of  India  were  severe  trials.  The 
earthquake  of  1755  laid  half  the  city  in  ruins.  The  beginning  of  the 
19th  cent,  brought  the  French  invasion,  the  removal  of  the  royal  residence 
to  Rio  de  Janeiro,  the  Peninsular  War,  the  loss  of  Brazil,  and  the  utter 
decadence  of  Lisbon.  Since  the  period  of  revolutions ,  and  since  the 
partial  bankruptcy  of  the  country  in  1892,  Lisbon  lias  again  risen  from 
a  state  of  decay  to  be  a  great  and  handsome  city,  thanks  largely  to  the 
initiative  of  the  German  Prince  Ferdinand  of  Saxe-C'oburg-Kohary, 
consort  of  Queen  Maria  II.,  and  to  his  sons,  Pedro  V.  (1853-61)  and 
Luis  I.  (1861-89).  Party  strife  in  the  next  reign  led  to  the  dictatorship 
of  the  minister  Joao  Franco,  and  on  1st  Feb.  1908  Lisbon  witnessed  the 
assassination  of  Carlos  I.  and  the  crown-prince  Luis  Philippe  (comp.  p.  14). 
Carlos's  second  son  then  ascended  the  throne  as  Manuel  II.  He  had, 
however,  only  reigned  two  years  when  the  establishment  of  the  Republic 
forced  him  to  go  into  exile  (5th  Oct.,  1910).  President  of  the  provisional 
government  Theophilo  Braga.    The  republican  colours  are  green  and  red 

a.   Cidade  Eaixa,  Lisboa  Occidental  and  Oriental. 

Most  of  the  public  buildings  in  Lisbon,  erected  almost  exclus- 
ively after  the  earthquake  of  1755,  are  situated  in  the  Praca 
do  Commercio  (PI.  F,  5).  In  the  centre  of  the  square  rises  au 
Equestrian  Statue  of  Joseph  I.  (1750-77);  on  the  S.  side  is  the 
Caes  das  Colunmas,  a  quay  affording  a  superb  view  of  the  bay  of 
the  Tagus,  with  its  busy  shipping,  and  of  the  S.  bank  (Outra  Banda), 
with  the  castle-hill  of  Palmella  in  the  distance. 

To  the  N.  of  this  square  begins  the  rectangularly  planned 
Cidade  Baixa  ('lower  city'),  once  a  bay  of  the  Tagus,  the  three 
chief  streets  of  which,  running  to  the  N.,  are  the  Rua  Augusta, 
spanned  by  a  triumphal  arch,  the  Rua  d'Ouro  or  Aurea  (to  the  left), 
and  the  Rua  da  Prata  (to  the  right).  These  streets  afford  interesting 
glimpses  of  the  towering  masses  of  the  houses  of  Lisboa  Occiden- 
tal (to  the  left),  with  the  Carmo  church,  and  of  Lisboa  Oriental 
(to  the  right),  with  the  cathedral  and  the  castle  of  St.  George.  At 
the  N.  end  of  the  Rua  Augusta  and  the  Rua  Aurea  lies  the  — 

Pkaca  de  Dom  Pedro  Quarto  (PI.  F,  3,  4),  commonly  called 

Avenida.  LISBON.  2-  Route.     \\ 

O  Rocio,  one  of  the  chief  tramway  stations  (p.  7).  Owing  to  the 
peculiar  wavy  pattern  of  its  mosaic  pavement  the  Rocio  has  re- 
ceived from  the  British  sailors  the  nickname  'Roly-poly  Square'. 
The  square  is  adorned  with  two  bronze  fountains  and  a  marble 
column  bearing  a  bronze  Statue  of  Pedro  IV.  (d.  1834;  emperor 
of  Brazil,  1S26-31).  Above  the  S.W.  corner  of  the  square  rises 
on  massive  substructures  the  picturesque  ruined  church  of  Igreja 
do  (  armo,  destroyed  by  the  earthquake  of  1755.  We  may  reach 
it  by  the  'ascensor'  No.  1  (p.  7).  On  the  N.  side  rises  the  Theatro 
Narional  (p.  8).  The  Market  in  the  adjacent  Praga  da  Figueira 
(PI.  F,  4),  to  the  E.,  deserves  a  visit  in  the  early  morning. 

From  the  W.  side  of  the  theatre  we  proceed  past  the  Central 
Station  (p.  6)  to  the  *Avenida  da  Liberdade  (PI.  F,  E,  3-1), 
a  magnificent  promenade,  100  yds.  wide  and  more  than  1/2  M.  long, 
with  luxuriant  vegetation,  especially  palms,  and  affording  charming 
views.  It  is  most  frequented  on  Sundays  and  holidays  towards  even- 
ing, when  the  fashionable  world  may  be  seen  driving  and  riding.  At 
the  beginning  of  the  Avenida  is  the  Praga  dos  Restauradores,  with 
the  Monumento  dos  Restauradores  de  Portugal,  recalling  the  re- 
volt of  1640,  when  the  yoke  of  the  Spanish  'Intrusos'  was  shaken  off. 

To  the  left,  at  the  beginning  of  the  Avenida  Promenade,  is  the 
steep  Calgada  da  Gloria,  through  which  a  funicular  tramway  (No.  2; 
p.  7)  ascends  to  the  *  Alameda  de  Sao  Pedro  de  Alcantara 
(PI.  E,  F,  3),  where  we  enjoy  a  magnificent  view  of  the  bay,  to  the 
8.,  and  of  Lisboa  Oriental,  with  St.  George's  Castle  and  the  churches 
of  Graga  and  do  Monte  (p.  13),  to  the  E.  Far  below  lie  the  Avenida 
da  Liberdade,  the  Central  Station,  the  Rocio,  and  the  Baixa. 

From  the  S.  angle  of  the  gardens  the  Rua  do  Mundo  (PI.  E, 
F,  3,  4)  descends  to  the  Largo  da  Misericordia,  and  past  the  Jesuit 
church  of  Sao  Roque,  a  sumptuous  late-Renaissance  edifice  by  Fil. 
Terzi,  an  Italian  architect  (1566),  to  the  Praga  de  Luis  de  Camoes 
(p.  12).  We  proceed,  however,  to  the  N.W.  of  the  Alameda  and 
follow  the  Rua  de  Dom  Pedro  Quinto  to  the  — 

Puaca  do  Rio  de  Janeiro  (PI.  E,  2,  3),  with  a  fountain  and 
attractive  pleasure-grounds,  occupying  the  highest  site  in  Lisboa 
Occidental.  From  the  W.  angle  of  the  grounds  we  obtain  a  fine 
view  of  the  Estrella  church  (p.  12)  and  the  Tagus. 

Proceeding  in  the  same  direction  we  next  follow  the  Rua  da 
Escola  Polytechnica  to  the  Polytechnic  School  (PI.  E,  2),  which 
comprises  an  interesting  Natural  History  Museum  (entrance  on 
the  N.W.  side),  an  Observatory,  and  a  Meteorological  Station. 
To  the  Polytechnic  belongs  also  the  — 

-Botanic  Garden  (PL  E,  2;  open  to  the  public),  founded  in 
1875,  and  for  luxuriance  of  vegetation  the  finest  in  Europe.  The 
lower  part  of  the  garden  contains  a  magnificeut  avenue  of  palms 
and  numerous  southern  plants.  It  is  reached  by  a  road  from  the  S.E. 

12     Route  2.  LISBON.  Estrella  Church. 

angle  of  the  Polytechnic,  and  there  is  a  side-entrance  in  the  Rua 
Nova  da  Alegria.  In  the  upper  part  are  the  Estufas  or  greenhouses. 

We  descend  to  a  lower  exit  of  the  garden  opening  into  the 
Avenida,  cross  the  latter  and  ascend  by  the  Ascensor  da  Lavra 
(p.  7)  to  the  E.  town.  From  the  Campo  dos  Martyres  da  Patria 
(PI.  F,  G,  2),  the  terminus  of  the  funicular,  the  tramway  'Santo 
Andre'  (infrequent  service),  or  the  circular  line  'Gra§a'  below  its 
E.  side,  lead  to  the  Rua  da  Palma  (funicular  No.  4,  p.  7).  There- 
after through  Lisboa  Oriental,  see  below. 

We  may  travel  also  by  the  'Graca'  tramway  (in  returning  called 
'Rua  Gomes  Freire')  in  the  reverse  direction,  starting  from  the  Si  Pa- 
triarchal and  proceeding  to  the  Nossa  Senhora  da  Graca  church  on  the 
way  out,  and  descend  by  the  funicular. 

From  the  Botanic  Garden  the  'Estrella'  tramway  brings  us 
via.  the  Largo  do  Rato  (PI.  D,  1)  to  the  Aqueducto  das  Aguas 
Livres,  constructed  in  1729-49.  It  leads  us  farther  to  Buenos 
Ayres,  the  high-lying  W.  quarter  of  the  city,  to  the  vicinity  of  the 
cemeteries,  and  to  the  Jardim  da  Estrella  (PI.  C,  2). 

The  Estrella  Church  (PI.  C,  3) ,  officially  known  as  the  Ba- 
silica do  Santissimo  Coracdo  de  Jesus,  was  built  in  1779-96.  It 
is  crowned  with  a  lofty  dome  over  the  crossing,  and  its  interior 
is  sumptuously  fitted  up. 

The  *Ascent  or  the  Dome  (entrance  by  5th  door  on  the  right;  fee 
100  rs.)  amply  repays  the  fatigue.  The  stairs  in  the  N.W.  tower  ascend 
first  to  the  flat  roof  of  the  church,  where  we  already  have  a  fine  view. 
We  then  pass  through  the  double  lining  of  the  dome  into  a  gallery  sur- 
rounding its  interior.  A  ladder  finally  leads  to  the  Lantern,  the  view 
from  which  (best  in  the  afternoon)  is  the  most  extensive  in  Lisbon  and 
includes  the  whole  of  the  city,  the  S.  bank  of  the  estuary,  and  the  ocean. 

The  Jardim  da  Estrella  is  flanked  on  the  W.  by  the  Rua  da 
Estrella  which  ascends  to  the  English  Cemetery  (Cemiterio 
doslnglezes;  PI.  C,  2;  visitors  ring;  fee  50-100  rs.),  laid  out  in 
1717,  the  oldest  Protestant  burial-ground  in  Portugal.  It  contains 
the  grave  of  Henry  Fielding  (1707-54),  author  of  the  immortal 
'Tom  Jones'.  Here  too  is  the  English  Church  (p.  9). 

To  return  from  this  point  we  take  the  funicular  No.  3  (p.  7), 
past  the  Palacio  das  Cortes  (PI.  D,  3;  Chamber  of  Deputies), 
to  the  Praca  de  Luis  de  Camoes  (PI.  E,  4;  pron.  Kamoengsh), 
which  is  embellished  with  a  monument  of  the  famous  poet  Camoes 
(1524-80),  the  author  of  the  Lusiads,  a  great  national  epic  cele- 
brating the  noble  deeds  of  his  countrymen. 

From  the  Praga  de  Camoes  we  return  through  the  Rua  Garrett 
and  the  Rua  do  Carmo  (PI.  F,  4),  the  busiest  streets  in  the  town, 
with  the  best  shops,  to  the  Rocio  (p.  11). 

Time  permitting,  we  may  now  pay  a  short  visit  to  Lisboa 
Oriental,  which  is  best  reached  by  the  funicular  line  No.  4  (p.  7). 

Lisboa  Oriental.  LISBON.  2.  Route.      13 

From  the  terminus  in  the  Largo  da  Graga  (PI.  H,  3,  4)  we  pass  round 
the  old  Graga  monastery  (now  barracks)  to  the  church  of — 

Nossa  Senhora  da  Graca  (PI.  G,  H,  3,  4;  262  ft.),  situated  on 
a  hill  which  affords  a  fine  view  of  Lisboa  Occidental  and  the  lower 
town,  while  the  harbour  is  concealed  by  St.  George's  Castle  (see 

We  now  return  to  the  barracks  just  mentioned  and  enter  the 
Kua  da  Graga  to  the  N. ,  whence  the  Travessa  do  Monte  leads  im- 
mediately to  the  left  to  the  (5  min.)  chapel  of  Nossa  Senhora  do 
Monte  (PI.  G,  H,  3;  328  ft.).  The  extensive  *View  from  this  point 
embraces  the  greater  part  of  Lisbon,  the  harbour,  the  S.  bank,  and 
the  region  to  the  N.E.  as  far  as  Santarem. 

From  the  Rua  da  Graga  the  circular  tramway  'Rua  Gomes 
Freire'  descends  to  the  old  Augustinian  monastery  of  Sao  Vicente 
de  Fora  (PI.  H,  4),  now  the  seat  of  the  Patriarch  of  Lisbon.  The 
church,  a  late-Renaissance  building  of  1582,  lost  its  dome  in  the 
earthquake  of  1755.  The  cloisters  contain  the  Pantheon  Meal,  the 
burial-place  of  the  Portuguese  monarchs  of  the  House  of  Braganza 
from  the  time  of  John  IV.  (d.  1656)  onwards. 

We  take  the  same  circular  tramway-line  as  far  as  the  Largo  do 
Oontador  Mor  (PI.  G,  4).  Thence  we  walk  through  the  Travessa  do 
Funil  to  the  Rua  do  Chao  de  Feira,  and  through  the  St.  George's 
Gateway  to  the  Castello  de  Sao  Jorge  (PI.  G,  4),  an  ancient 
Moorish  stronghold  and  once  a  royal  residence,  but  now  used  as 
barracks  and  a  military  prison,  where  we  apply  at  the  guard-house 
for  leave  to  see  the  fine  view  from  the  S.  Terrace.  If  so  disposed 
we  may  descend  to  the  cathedral,  which  stands  about  halfway  up 
the  castle-hill  and  is  known  as  the  — 

Se  Patriarchal  (PI.  G,  5),  the  oldest  church  in  Lisbon,  founded 
in  1150,  but  rebuilt  in  the  Gothic  style  in  the  14th  cent.,  and  al- 
most entirely  modernized  after  the  earthquake  of  1755.  From  the 
cathedral  the  Rua  da  Conceigao  brings  us  back  to  the  lower  town. 

b.  The  Streets  on  the  Tagus.   Belem. 

In  the  Rua  da  Alfandega,  a  few  paces  to  the  E.  of  the  Praga  do 
Commercio  (p.  10),  rises  the  church  of  — 

Nossa  Senhora  da  Conceicao  Velha  (PI.  'C.V.';  G,  5). 
The  *Fagade,  in  the  richest  'Emmanuel  style'  (see  p.  14),  is  a 
relic  of  the  church  of  Nossa  Senhora  da  Misericordia,  which  was 
destroyed  by  the  earthquake  of  1755.  A  little  farther  on,  between 
Nos.  42  and  44  we  get  a  glimpse  of  the  Casa  dos  Bicos,  built  in 
the  16th  cent,  by  Braz,  a  son  of  Affonso  de  Albuquerque  (p.  10). 
It  derives  its  name  from  the  facetted  stones  of  the  fagade  ('bico' 
meaning  beak  or  point).   All  the  electric  tramways  proceed  farther 

14     Route  2.  LISBON.  Belem. 

to  the  Arsenal  do  Exercito  (PL  H,  4, 5) ,  containing  the  Artillery 
Museum  on  the  first  floor  (adm.,  see  p.  9). 

From  the  N.W.  corner  of  the  Praca  do  Commercio,  where  king 
Carlos  and  the  crown-prince  were  brutally  assassinated  in  1908,  the 
Rua  do  Arsenal  leads  to  the  Largo  do  Municipio  (PI.  F,  5),  in  the 
centre  of  which  stands  a  so-called  Pelourinho,  or  pillory,  as  a  sym- 
bol of  the  civic  jurisdiction. 

The  tramway  'Santo  Amaro  Pampueha'  passes  the  Museu 
Nacional  das  Bellas  Arfces  (PI.  B,  0, 4;  adm.,  see  p.  9),  Rua 
das  Janellas  Verdes  57,  which  contains  art-industrial  collections 
and  a  picture-gallery.  (Note  in  Room  G,  on  the  N.  wall,  No.  282, 
St.  Jerome,  by  Alb.  Dilrer.) 

The  outer  line,  skirting  the  Tagus  and  affording  fine  views, 
passes  the  Mereado,  or  fish-market  (PI.  E,  5),  which  is  worth  see- 
ing in  the  early  morning. 

The  two  'Belem'  tramway-lines  (Alges  andDafundo)  lead  through 
the  suburb  of  Junqueira  to  that  of  Belem  (Brit,  vice-consul, 
C.  J.  F.  Duff).  The  Praga  de  I)om  Fernando  with  a  bronze  statue, 
13  ft.  in  height,  of  Affonso  de  Albuquerque  (p.  10)  is  adjoined  on 
the  N.  by  the  Pa^o  de  Belem.  In  the  S.E.  corner  of  the  building 
is  the  Museu  National  dos  Coehes  (adm.,  see  p.  9),  with  about 
thirty  historical  state-carriages. 

Farther  to  the  W.  we  reach  in  5  min.  the  Pra^a  de  Vasco  da 
Gama,  with  the  famous  — 

**Convento  dos  Jeronymos  de  Belem  (Bethlehem;  tram- 
way from  the  Praga  do  Commercio,  PL  F5,  in  ca.  1/2  hr.).  This 
Hieronymite  monastery,  founded  in  1499  in  memory  of  Vasco  da 
Gama's  voyage  of  discovery,  but  used  as  an  orphanage  (Casa  Pia) 
since  1834,  is  still,  in  spite  of  infelicitous  alterations,  the  most 
brilliant  example  of  the  fantastic  'Emmanuel  style'  (Arte  Manue- 
lina),  of  the  time  of  Emmanuel  I.  the  Great,  a  picturesque  blend  of 
late-Gothic,  Moorish,  and  Renaissance  features  with  motifs  from 
the  gorgeous  edifices  of  the  East  Indies. 

The  church  of  Santa  Maria,  at  the  S.E.  angle  of  the  mon- 
astery, the  burial-place  of  king  Emmanuel  and  his  successors,  has 
a  superb  portal  by  Joao  de  Castilho  (sculptured  by  Nicholas  'the 
Frenchman'),  which,  according  to  Mr.  Fergusson,  resembles  in 
design  and  detail  the  chapel  at  Roslin  (see  Baedeker's  Great 
Britain).  The  church  is  open  from  early  morning  till  9,  and  also 
after  2.30  p.m.  —  Adjoining  the  "W.  portal  of  the  church  is  the 
entrance  (where  we  ring;  fee  100-150 rs.)  to  the  orphanage  and  to 
the  grand  *  Cloisters,  the  master-work  of  Joao  de  Castilho. 

On  the  Tagus,  about  1/2  M.  to  the  S.W.  of  the  monastery,  rises 
the  *Tower  of  Belem  (Torre  de  Belem),  erected  in  1520  to 
guard  the  mouth  of  the  river  (best  viewed  at  a  distance). 

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Cintra.  LISBON.  2-  Route.      15 

c.  Excursion  to  Cintra. 

1772  li.  Kailway  (in  3/4-l  hr.).  Nine  expresses  in  summer,  besides 
several  slow  trains  (tranvias),  but  fewer  in  winter  (fares  530,  360,  230  rs.), 
starting  from  the  Central  Station  (p.  6). 

The  train  passes  through  a  tunnel  l'/2  M.  long  to  (33/4  M.) 
Campolide  in  the  valley  of  the  Alcantara.  To  the  left  are  the  arches 
of  the  aqueduct  (p.  12).  At  (13  M.)  Cacem  our  line  diverges  to 
the  left  from  the  railway  to  Alfarellos  (Coimbra  and  Oporto). 

The  country  becomes  more  hilly;  eucalypti,  pines,  and  olives 
abound.    To  the  left  rise  the  hills  of  Cintra. 

1772  M.  Cintra.  —  Hotels.  *Gr.-H6t.  Costa,  Netto,  Lam-ence, 
Nunes,  Central,  dej,  or  D.  800  rs.,  some  closed  in  winter. 

Tkamway  from  the  station  (to  the  left  of  the  exit)  to  the  Praga  da 
Republics  (20  rs.).  —  Gabs  (good;  with  two  horses)  to  the  Castello  da  Pena 
2500  rs.;  to  the  Quinta  do  Monserrate  and  back,  2000  rs.;  but  lower  fares 
are  often  accepted  on  application  to  the  cab-owner  himself. 

If  time  presses,  we  may  visit  both  the  Castello  da  Pena  and  the 
Quinta  de  Monserrate  in  4-5  hrs.  (cab  -1500  rs.,  bargaining  advisable). 
Energetic  pedestrians  require  scarcely  more  time.  Donkeys,  only  to  be 
recommended  to  gentlemen  travelling  alone,  are  a  doubtful  advantage, 
nor  will  those  in  haste  find  the  services  of  drivers  or  guides  of  much 
avail;  the  usual  price,  after  bargaining,  is  400-500  rs.  But  it  is  more 
enjoyable  to  devote  a  forenoon  to  the  Castello  da  Pena,  and  the  afternoon 
to  the  Paco  de  Cintra  and  the  Quinta. 

Cintra  (680  ft.;  pop.  5000),  a  favourite  summer  resort,  lies  at 
the  N.  base  of  the  granitic  Serra  de  Cintra,  on  a  spur  between 
two  ravines,  amidst  groves  of  evergreen  oaks  and  pines,  and  sur- 
rounded by  charming  country-houses.  Immediately  above  the  little 
town  rises  a  steep  rock,  crowned  by  the  Moorish  castle.  Beyond 
this  rises  the  Pena  with  the  palace. 

The  centre  of  traffic  is  the  Praca  da  Republica,  with  its  late- 
Gothic  Pelourinho  (p.  14)  and  the  main  entrance  to  the  palace. 

The  *Paco  de  Cintra,  formerly  the  Royal  Palace,  was 
begun  by  John  I.  (1383-1433)  on  the  foundations  of  a  Moorish 
palace  and  completed  early  in  the  16th  cent,  by  Emmanuel  the  Great. 
The  older  parts,  built  by  Moorish  hands,  show  a  mingling  of 
Moorish  and  late-Gothic  elements,  while  the  newer  parts,  partic- 
ularly the  E.  wing,  are  in  the  'Emmanuel  style'  (p.  14).  The  most 
characteristic  features  of  the  exterior  are  two  conspicuous  conical 
kitchen-chimneys,  the  horseshoe  and  toothed  arches  of  the  Moorish 
windows,  and  the  Moorish  battlemented  parapet.  The  mural  tiles 
and  the  honeycombed  wooden  ceilings  in  the  interior  are  other 
survivals  of  the  Moorish  period.  Visitors  are  shown  round  by  the 

The  Avenida  Candido  dos  Reis,  the  road  leading  to  the  S.  from 
the  Largo  of  that  name,  brings  us  in  s/4  hr.  to  the  Castello  dos 
Mouros  (1408  ft.).    The  castle  consists  of  two  parts,  to  which  a 

16     Route  2.  LISBON.  Cintra. 

double  wall,  much  modernized,  ascends.  A  visit  to  it  takes  more 
time  than  travellers  in  a  hurry  can  afford. 

About  1ji  hr.  farther  on  we  reach  the  Porta  Principal  of  the 
Park  of  Pena,  where  we  alight  (cameras  must  be  given  up).  The 
officials  are  not  allowed  to  act  as  guides;  the  services  of  others 
should  be  declined.  The  park  contains  over  400  species  of  trees 
and  shrubs. 

The  *Castello  da  Pena  (1732  ft.),  perched  on  a  steep  rocky 
hill,  was  built  in  1840-50  in  the  style  of  a  mediaeval  castle,  partly 
within  an  old  monastery,  by  the  Prince-Consort  Ferd.  of  Coburg. 
The  main  tower  is  a  copy  of  the  tower  of  Belem  (p.  14).  The  castle 
is  approached  by  two  gates  and  a  cutting  in  the  rock  ('corredor'). 
The  'galeria'  of  the  castle  affords  delightful  views. 

In  the  Interior  (adm.  free)  we  pass  through  the  Vestibule,  with  a 
pyramidal  tower,  into  the  old  Convent  Church,  with  its  superb  Renais- 
sance altar  brought  from  Belem,  and  into  the  two-storied  cloisters.  The 
apartments  contain  many  pictures  (including  an  example  of  Adr.  Brouwer) 
and  costly  Hispano-Moorish  majolicas.  The  'Sala  deVeados'  is  embellished 
with  stags'  antlers.  The  *Dome  above  it  is  perhaps  the  finest  point  of 
view  in  the  Serra  de  Cintra,  but  its  ascent  requires  a  steady  head.  The 
eye  ranges  over  Estremadura,  from  Cape  Espichel  on  the  S.E.  to  the  Ber- 
lengas  Islands  (p.  4)  on  the  N.  To  the  N.E.  rises  the  huge  facade  of  the 
palace  of  Mafra.  To  the  E.  we  obtain  glimpses  of  Lisbon  and  the  plain 
to  the  S.  of  the  Tagus.  To  the  S.  rises  the  summit  of  the  Cruz  Alta, 
and  to  the  W.  lies  the  boundless  Atlantic. 

We  now  enter  the  Jardirn  das  Camelias  or  castle-garden, 
where  the  camellias,  rhododendrons,  and  azaleas  present  a  mar- 
vellous wealth  of  blossom  in  spring;  then,  passing  a  well  and 
several  fish-ponds,  we  soon  reach  a  side-exit  from  the  grounds, 
where  the  carriage  should  be  ordered  to  meet  us. 

The  *  Cruz  Alta  (1736  ft.),  the  highest  of  the  Cintra  hills,  which 
affords  a  view  similar  to  that  from  the  dome  of  the  castle,  may  be 
ascended  in  20  min.  by  a  path  diverging  in  the  park  to  the  S.,  near  the 
Porta  Principal,  and  passing  the  Statue  of  Vasco  da  Gama. 

A  favourite  walk  near  Cintra  is  the  *Caminho  de  Collares 
skirting  the  hills.  This  road,  bordered  with  beautiful  evergreens, 
leads  past  charming  country-houses  (the  Penha  Verde  and  others). 
On  the  right,  about  2  M.  from  Cintra,  is  the  famous  — 

**Q,uinta  de  Monserrate  (adm.  200,  on  Sun.  and  holi- 
days 300  rs.),  the  property  of  Sir  Fred.  Cook,  Visconde  de  Monser- 
rate. The  grounds,  a  visit  to  which  takes  1-2  hrs.,  extend  far  over 
hill  and  dale,  and  are  unique  in  Europe  in  magnificence  of  vege- 
tation. From  the  entrance  we  turn  to  the  left,  cross  a  brook,  and 
follow  its  left  bank,  where  we  enjoy  a  delightful  view  of  the  palace 
beyond  the  lofty  tree-ferns.  We  then  pass  an  artificial  ruin,  walk 
round  the  palace  (no  adm.),  and  re-ascend  to  the  entrance. 

See  also  Baedeker's  Spain  and  Portugal. 


Route  •  Page 

3.  Madeira 17 

Excursions  from  Funchal,  24. 

4.  The  Canary  Islands .     .     28 

Teneriffe,  32.  —  Gran  Canaria,  43. — Palma,  47. 

3.  Madeira. 

Steamboat  Lines.  1.  Union  Castle  Line,  steamers  weekly  from  South- 
ampton to  Madeira  in  3'/.>  days  (on  their  way  to  S.  and.  E.  Africa);  fares, 
1st  cl.  15-17  guineas,  2nd  10-12  gs.  (return  in  each  case  about  2/3more); 
also  summer  tours  to  Madeira,  Las  Palmas,  or  Teneriffe  and  back,  18  or 
12  gs.,   or,    with   a   week's   board    in   one   of    the   islands,    20  or  14  gs. — 

2.  Royal  Mail  Steam  Packet  Co.,  fortnightly  from  Southampton  (for  Brazil) 
via  Vigo  and  Lisbon  to  Madeira  (fares  111.  10s.  or  HI.) ;  also  fortnightly 
from  London  round  voyage  to  Gibraltar,  Tangier,  Casablanca,  Mazagan, 
Saffi,  and  Mogador,  returning  via  Las  Palmas,  Teneriffe,  and  Madeira 
(fare  from   22  gs. ;   single  to  Madeira  or   Canary  Islands  from  15  gs.). — 

3.  Booth  Line  (for  Brazil),  thrice  monthly  from  Liverpool  to  Madeira; 
10Z.,  return  1%1.  10s.  —  4.  Yeoward  Bros.  Line,  weekly  from  Liverpool 
to  the  Canaries  calling  on  alternate  voyages  at  Madeira;  comp.  p.  28. — 
5.  Federal,  Hoidder,  &  Shire  Lines,  from  Liverpool  fortnightly,  for 
Australia  or  New  Zealand,  calling  at  Madeira,  Las  Palmas,  or  Teneriffe, 
10  gs.  —  6.  Em/preza  Nacional  de  Navegacao,  from  Lisbon  to  Madeira, 
1st  and  7th  of  each  month;  hi.  6s.  3d.  or  Si.  12s.  3d.,  return  Ql.  0s.  8d.  or 
61.  3s. — 7.  Emprcza  Insulana,  from  Lisbon  to  Madeira,  20th  of  each  month  ; 
41.  5s.  or  31.  3s.  9d.,  return  11.  13s.  or  51.  14s.  9d.  —  During  the  winter 
season  the  Mediterranean  steamers  of  the  White  Star  and  Cunard  Lines 
(p.  118)  call  once  monthly  at  Madeira,  and  the  Transports  Maritimes  (p.  120) 
occasionally  touch  at  Madeira. 

The  communication  between  Madeira  and  the  Canary  Islands  (R.  4)  is 
very  defective. 

The  Archipelago  da  Madeira,  or  Madeira  group  of  islands, 
consists  of  Madeira  itself,  the  largest  of  the  group,  37  by  14  M., 
Porto  Santo  (rising  1663  ft.  above  the  sea),  6^2  by  3  M.,  which 
lies  261/2  M.  to  the  N.E.  of  Madeira,  and  the  three  uninhabited 
Desertas.  These  are  the  islets  of  Chdo  (341ft.),  12»/2  M.  to  the 
S.E.  of  Madeira,  Deserta  Grande  (1611  ft.),  and  Bugio  (1349  ft.). 
Madeira  lies  in  33°  N.  lat.,  between  the  Azores  and  the  Canary  Is- 
lands (R.  4),  620  M.  to  the  S.W.  of  Lisbon,  370  M.  to  the  N.W.  of 
Cape  Juby  (p.  104),  and  275  M.  to  the  N.  of  Teneriffe  (p.  32).  The 
population  of  the  islands,  which  are  said  to  have  been  uninhabited 
when  discovered  by  the  Portuguese  in  1419,  is  now,  in  an  area  of 
314  sq.  M.,  about  150,000.  All  the  islands  are  of  volcanic  origin. 
In  Madeira,  above  the  prinireval  diabase  rock  (p.  29),  numerous 

Baedkkkk's  Mediterranean.  2 

18     Route  3.  MADEIRA. 

eruptions  since  the  miocene  epoch  have  formed  a  number  of  extinct 
craters  (lagoas),  and  as  in  the  Canaries  have  raised  the  soil  1150  ft. 
above  its  original  level.  The  main  ridge  of  the  island,  running  from 
W.  to  E.,  and  culminating  in  the  Pico  Ruivo  ('red  peak';  6060  ft.), 
frequently  rises  in  rocky  pinnacles.  In  examining  the  geological 
structure  of  the  island  one  is  struck  with  'the  constant  mingling  of 
solid  masses  of  basalt  and  lava  with  strata  of  loose  tufa  and  ashes, 
the  whole  being  interspersed  with  upright  dykes  of  lava'.  The 
only  tablelands  are  the  Paul  da  Serra,  on  the  W.,  and  the  smaller 
Santo  Antonio  da  Serra,  on  the  E.  On  the  S.  and  N.  slopes  of  the 
central  range  we  observe  a  series  of  very  curious  and  grand  basins 
(curraes,  sing,  curral),  which  are  enclosed  by  high  rocks,  and  are 
connected  with  the  sea  by  deep  ravines,  testifying  to  the  enormous 
erosion  caused  by  water  and  wind.  Narrow  strips  of  coast,  strewn 
with  rounded  fragments  of  basalt,  occur  only  at  the  mouths  of  the 
few  streams,  and  on  the  largest  of  these  lies  Funchal,  the  capital 
of  the  island,  on  its  S.W.  margin. 

The  mild  and  wonderfully  equable  climate  of  Madeira  which 
since  1850  has  attracted  numberless  invalids,  chiefly  English,  to 
its  shores,  is  due  partly  to  its  southern  position,  tempered  by  the 
surrounding  ocean,  but  mainly  to  the  influence  of  the  Gulf  Stream, 
which  sends  from  the  Azores  an  offshoot,  known  as  the  Canary 
branch,  towards  the  W.  African  coast.  On  the  sunny  S.  coast  in 
particular,  which  is  free  from  fog  and  is  sheltered  from  the  pre- 
vailing N.W.  wind  by  the  above-mentioned  main  ridge,  the  mean 
and  almost  unvarying  temperature  of  the  three  winter  months  (at 
Funchal  61°  Fahr. ;  minimum  50°)  is  considerably  higher  than  that 
of  the  favourite  Mediterranean  resorts  (Nice  48°  Fahr.,  Ajaccio  52°, 
Algiers  54i/20,  Malaga  55°),  while  the  summer  temperature  is 
lower  (at  Funchal  in  Aug.  i01l2°i  maximum  92°).  Dust  is  almost 
unknown.  The  rainfall  (at  Funchal  271/,  inches;  but  more  in  the 
mountains  and  on  the  N.  coast),  chiefly  in  sudden  and  heavy  showers, 
occurs  mostly  between  October  and  February  or  March.  The  lowest 
snow-line  is  1970  ft.  above  the  sea.  The  relative  moisture  of  the 
air  (67  per  cent)  at  Funchal  is  moderate,  notwithstanding  the 
proximity  of  the  sea.  As  in  the  Canaries,  the  mountains  are  gen- 
erally cloud-capped  about  midday,  except  during  the  prevalence 
of  the  Leste,  the  wind  blowing  from  the  African  desert  (p.  29), 
which  in  Madeira  is  not  specially  unpleasant. 

Thanks  to  the  genial  climate,  the  abundant  winter  rains,  and  the 
system  of  irrigation  by  means  of  open  channels  (levadas),  whereby 
water  is  brought  down,  partly  through  tunnels  (furos),  from  its 
mountain  sources,  the  fields  and  gardens  of  Madeira,  'Flor  do 
Oceano',  show  an  almost  tropical  luxuriance  of  vegetation.  Side  by 
side  with  pines,  junipers,  and  deciduous  European  trees,  such  as 
the  plane,  the  chestnut,  the  maple,  the  oak,  and  the  walnut,  of 

MADEIRA  3.  Route.     19 

which  there  are  many  splendid  specimens,  are  seen  countless  ever- 
green trees  and  shrubs  of  tropical  and  subtropical  origin.  Among 
these  are  palms,  araucarias,  hickory-trees,  cork-trees,  camphor- 
trees,  figs,  palm-lilies  (yuccas;  p.  233),  magnolias,  eucalypti,  bam- 
boos, papyrus-bushes,  tree-ferns,  and  aloes.  A  few  isolated  dragon- 
trees  (p.  30),  the  laurel  (vinhatico),  and  the  tilwood  tree  (Oreodaphne 
fcetens),  a  kind  of  bay-tree  scarcely  occurring  elsewhere,  are  survi- 
vals of  the  primaeval  forest  destroyed  by  the  Portuguese  discov- 
erers, and  now  lingering  only  in  the  remote  ravines  and  on  the 
slopes  of  the  N.  coast.  To  that  forest  the  island  owes  its  name 
(madeira,  'wood';  Isold  di  Legname  on  old  Italian  charts).  The 
hill-sides  are  now  largely  clothed  with  tree-like  erica  and  broom 
(Genista  madeirense,  G.  virgata,  furze,  etc.),  large  bilberry-bushes 
(Yaccinium  madeirense),  stemless  ferns,  and  box,  forming  a  kind  of 
evergreen  underwood.  In  the  gardens  of  Funchal,  enclosed  by  high 
walls,  the  traveller  feasts  his  eyes,  especially  in  May,  on  a  most 
exuberant  flora,  comprising  roses,  rhododendrons,  azaleas,  camel- 
lias, callas,  bignonias,  daturas,  fuchsias,  hydrangeas,  honeysuckle, 
and  a  superb  red  and  purple  bougainvillea.  The  garden-walls, 
field-roads,  and  hill-terraces  are  everywhere  overgrown  with  vines, 
but,  as  in  the  Canary  Islands,  the  wine-culture  has  suffered  since 
1852  from  the  grape-disease  (O'idium  Tuckeri)  and  from  the  com- 
petition of  port-wine  (p.  4).  Among  favourite  brands  are  Malvasia 
or  Malmsey,  a  sweet  dessert-wine,  Boal,  and  the  astringent  Ser- 
ried. Like  the  Vega  of  Malaga  (p.  89),  the  S.  coast  of  Madeira 
yields  the  sugar-cane,  which  forms  the  chief  crop  of  the  island, 
bananas,  sweet  potatoes  (p.  89;  Portug.  batata  doce),  cherimolias, 
cotfee-plants,  yams  (Dioscorea  batatas;  Portug.  inhame),  and  early 
vegetables,  which  last  are  exported  chiefly  to  England.  Pine-apples 
thrive  in  hot-houses  only.  The  natives  live  mostly  on  maize  and 
the  fruit  of  a  kind  of  cactus  (Opuntia  Tuna)  which  grows  abun- 
dantly on  all  the  rocks. 

Madeira  also  possesses  several  charming  home-industries,  pro- 
ducing embroidery,  lace,  silk  shawls,  basket-work,  inlaid  laurel- 
wood,  and  feather-flowers.  Funchal,  the  only  considerable  harbour 
in  the  island,  is  an  important  coaling  and  provisioning  station  for 
steamers  bound  for  S.  Africa  and  for  America.  The  heavy  customs- 
dues,  which  render  living  dear,  the  over-population  of  the  island, 
and  the  poverty  of  the  peasantry  cause  a  considerable  emigration, 
chiefly  to  S.  America. 

Season  and  Mode  of  Travel.  Madeira  is  au  admirable  health 
and  rest  resort  at  all  seasons ,  except  perhaps  for  sufferers  from  neu- 
rasthenia or  gastric  disorders;  but  in  summer  the  Monte  (p.  24)  and 
lia  are  preferable  to  the  lower  sites.  Tourists,  on  the  other  hand, 
will  find  July,  Aug.,  and  Sept.  the  best  months  for  their  purpose,  as  the 
hotels  are  cheaper  and  less  crowded,  the  days  are  long,  and  the  dry 
weather  favours  excursions  into  the  interior.  At  Funchal  English,  French, 
and  in   the   larger  hotels  German   are  much  spoken,    but  in  the  interior 


20     Route  s.  MADEIRA. 

Portuguese  only.  Those  unacquainted  with  the  language  of  the  natives 
are  then  dependent  on  the  help  of  their  horse-attendants  (arrieiros)  or 
guides  (guias  or  chapas),  many  of  whom  speak  a  little  English.  At  the 
principal  hotels  and  shops  English  money  is  readily  received,  but  small 
Portuguese  change  is  required  for  fees  and  other  minor  outlays.  Beggars 
abound,  but  their  importunities  should  invariably  be  disregarded  (comp. 
also  p.  xxv). 

The  streets  of  Funchal  and  the  hill-roads  are  paved  with  round  and 
slippery  cobbles  of  basalt,  against  which  india-rubber  heels  afford  pro- 
tection. The  most  popular  vehicles  are  the  bullock-cars  (carros  de  bois; 
seated  for  4  persons;  400-1000  rs.  per  hour).  For  steep  descents  the  carro 
do  monte  or  carrinho,  a  kind  of  running  sledge,  is  employed  (400-1200  rs. 
per  drive).  The  longer  excursions  on  the  extremely  hilly  routes  so  char- 
acteristic of  Madeira  are  best  taken  on  horseback.  The  horses  of  An- 
dalusian  race  are  wonderfully  wiry  and  sure-footed  (per  hour  500  rs. ; 
arrieiro ,  or  attendant,  800-1000  rs.  per  day).  Ladies  and  invalids  use 
the  hammock  or  litter  (rede),  a  costly  conveyance  (2-4  bearers,  at  500- 
600  rs.  each  per  hour).    Finger-posts  are  entirely  lacking. 

The  few  Vendas,  or  country-inns,  and  the  houses  of  the  mountain 
engineers  (to  which  travellers  are  admitted  by  leave  from  the  office  of 
the  Obras  Publicas  at  Funchal,  Rua  do  Conselheiro  Vieira  80)  afford  very 
primitive  quarters.  Travellers  should  therefore  be  provided  with  rugs, 
preserved  meats,  candles,  insect-powder,  and  good  drinking-water.  As  in 
the  Alps,  strong  boots  with  nails  and  a  hasta  or  bord&o,  a  long  stick 
with  an  iron  spike,  are  desirable  for  mountaineering, 

Among  Books  on  Madeira  may  be  mentioned  A.  Samler  Brown's 
Guide  to  Madeira,  the  Canary  Islands,  and  the  Azores  (10th  ed.,  London, 
1910;  2s.  6^.);  Leaves  from  a  Madeira  Garden,  by  Chas.  Thomas-Stanford 
(London,  1910;  5s.);  Yate  Johnson's  Handbook  of  Madeira  (London,  1885); 
Madeira,  by  Ellen  M.  Taylor  (2nd  ed.,  London,  1889);  Madeira  Islands,  by 
A.  J.  D.  Biddle  (2nd  ed.,  London,  1900;  2  vols.);  Madeira,  Old  and  New, 
by  W.  H.  Koebel  (London,  1909;  10s.  6d.);  The  Flowers  and  Gardens  of 
Madeira,  by  the  ikisses  Du  Cane  (London,  1909;  7s.  6d.). 

The  Steamers  arriving  from  the  N.  skirt  the  W.  coast  of  Porto 
Santo  (p.  17),  an  island  in  the  form  of  a  tableland,  surrounded 
by  five  reef-islets;  its  inhabitants  (about  2300)  live  mostly  in  the 
little  town  of  Villa  Baleira.  Beyond  Porto  Santo  we  obtain  a 
superb  view  of  the  abrupt  and  furrowed  N.  coast  of  Madeira, 
with  the  curiously  shaped  Penha  d'Aguia  (p.  27). 

Farther  on  appears  the  long  E.  promontory  of  Madeira,  a  rocky 
peninsula  worn  by  the  surf,  and  connected  with  the  islet  of  Ponta 
de  Sao  Lourengo  by  a  grand  rocky  gateway  called  the  Ponta  do 
Furado.  We  steer  round  the  Hheo  de  Fora,  an  outlying  islet  with 
a  lighthouse  {Farol;  348  ft.),  visible  from  a  distance  of  28  M., 
towards  which  the  steamers  from  Lisbon,  Gibraltar,  and  Morocco 
direct  their  course,  passing  to  the  S.  of  Porto  Santo. 

To  the  S.,  beyond  the  low  island  of  Chdo,  rise  the  Deserta 
Grande  and  Bugio,  the  largest  of  the  Desertas  (p.  17),  a  group 
of  islands  deserted  for  lack  of  water,  and  now  owned  by  Mr.  C.  J. 
Cossart,  of  Madeira.  British  sportsmen  desiring  to  shoot  wild  goats 
there  or  hunt  seals  (Monachus  albiventer)  in  the  ocean-caves  of  the 
Deserta  Grande  must  obtain  permission  from  the  owner. 

Geogr  Anst.vfWagner  &Debes ,  Leipzig 

Madeira.  FUNCHAL.  3.  Route.     21 

The  thinly  peopled  and  somewhat  bare  >S.E.  coast  of  Madeira, 
with  the  three  little  harbours  of  Canical,  Mackico,  and  Santa 
Cruz,  shows  clearly  the  geological  formation  of  the  island  (comp. 
pp.  17, 18).  Off  Porto  Novo,  in  particular,  we  are  struck  with  the 
rich  colouring  of  the  Pico  dos  Iroses,  where  the  sombre  basaltic 
and  lava  rock  contrasts  with  brick-red  strata  of  ashes  and  blood- 
red  masses  of  slag. 

Very  beautiful  is  the  approach  to  the  *Bay  of  Funchal,  which 
is  bounded  on  the  E.  by  the  bold  Cabo  do  Garajdo,  and  on  the 
W.  by  the  Ponta  da  Cruz,  a  spur  of  the  Pico  da  Ponta  da  Cruz 
(p.  25).  From  the  narrow  strip  of  coast  the  lanes  of  the  old  town 
mount  the  steep  hill-side  between  the  three  river-beds  (which  are 
generally  dry),  while  several  groups  of  houses  extend  up  to  the 
Pico  Fort  (p.  23)  and  the  Levada  dc  Santa  Luzia  (p.  24).  Farther 
up,  stretching  to  the  terrace  of  the  Monte  (p.  24),  are  gardens  and 
vineyards,  from  which  peep  many  white  quintas  or  country-houses. 
On  the  plateau  behind  Forte  Ilheo  (p.  24)  are  seen  the  charming 
gardens,  with  their  tall  araucarias,  belonging  to  the  "VV.  suburb  of 
Funchal,  the  finest  residential  quarter.  Of  the  barren  mountains 
in  the  background  the  highest  peak  visible  from  the  sea  is  the 
Pico  de  Santo  Antonio  (p.  25),  to  the  N.W.  of  the  town. 

Funchal.  —  Arrival.  The  steamers  cast  anchor  in  the  open 
roads,  which  are  much  exposed  to  the  surf  when  the  wind  is  from  the 
S.  or  S.W.  The  passenger's  luggage,  including  hand-bags  and  small 
packages,  is  conveyed  from  the  steamer,  in  charge  of  a  g/iarda  fiscal, 
direct  to  the  Alfandega,  or  custom-house  (PI.  1;  C,  D,  2).  Tobacco,  spirits, 
and  unused  articles  are  specially  dutiable.  The  charge  for  landing  is 
about  500  rs.  for  each  person,  but  should  be  ascertained  beforehand,  with 
the  aid  of  the  hotel-porter  if  necessary.  In  stormy  weather  passengers 
are  landed  at  the  Pontinha  (PI.  B,  3),  a  small  pier  beyond  the  Forte  Ilheo. 
At  the  custom-house  a  declaration  has  to  be  filled  up,  for  which  the  fee 
is  60 rs.;  the  luggage  is  then  usually  retained  till  midday,  and  when  it 
is  finally  cleared  the  passenger  gives  a  receipt  for  it  (250-300  rs.  more). 
For  the  transport  of  luggage  to  the  hotel  by  bullock-car  not  more  than 
1000  rs.  should  be  paid  (an  agreement  should  be  made  beforehand).  The 
Madeira  clock  is  59  min.  behind  Greenwich  time. 

Hotels  (mostly  in  the  English  style;  almost  all  with  beautiful 
gardens;  crowded  from  Dec.  to  April).  In  the  W.  suburb  *Reid's  Palace 
Hotel  (PI.  a;  A,  3),  situated  on  a  basalt  rock  and  commanding  fine 
views,  with  sea-baths,  etc.,  pens.  10-25s.  (or  in  the  dependance,  Villa 
Victoria,  8s.  6<2.-18s.);  Hot.  Bella  Vista  (PI.  b,  B  2;  Jones's),  above  the 
Itua  da  Imperatriz  Dona  Maria,  pens,  from  8s.;  Hot.  Royal  (PI.  c,  A3; 
Adams's),  Rua  da  Imperatriz  Dona  Amelia,  pens,  from  8s. ;  Pension  Qotsi- 
sana  (Reuter's),  Estrada  Monumental  (PI.  A,  3),  8-12s. ;  Pension  Almeida 
(PI.  f ;  A,  3),  by  the  Redondo.  —  In  the  old  town,  Reid's  Carmo  Hotel 
(PI.  d;  D,  1),  Rua  do  Carmo,  8s.  6cZ.-I8s. ;  Gr.-Hot.  Central  (Swiss  land- 
lady), near  the  pier  (Caes;  PI.  C,  2);  Hot.  Universal  (PI.  e;  C,  2),  Largo 
da  Be,  pens.  1200  rs.,  a  Portug.  house.  —  Ou  the  Monte  (p.  24;  comp. 
inset  plan),  with  splendid  views,  Monte  Palace  Hotel  (PI.  g) ;  Hot. 
Belmonte  (PI.  h);  Reiu's  Mount  Park  Hotel  (PI.  i),  pens.  7s.  6(Z.-10s. ; 
all  three  near  the  terminus.  Wine,  always  an  extra,  is  dear.  The  Agua 
Miuero-Xatmal  of  Porto  Santo  is  a  good  table-water  (GO  rs.  per  small  bottle). 

Apartments  for  the  winter  in  numerous  quintas  or  villas,  furnished, 
but  without  bed  or  table  linen;  from  Oct.  to  June  40J.  and  upwards. 

22     Route  3.  FUNCHAL.  Madeira. 

Restaurants.  Phenix,  Pra§a  da  Rainha  (PI.  C,  2);  Golden  Gate, 
Entrada  da  Cidade  7  (PI.  C,  2;  with  American  bar).  —  English  Tea  Rooms, 
Cafe  Monaco.  —  Wine.    Vaccaria  do  Souza,  Rua  de  Joao  Tavira. 

Post  &  Telegraph  Office  (Estagao  Telegrapho-Postal;  PI.  5,  C2), 
Entrada  da  Cidade. 

Theatre.  Theatro  de  Dona  Maria  Pia  (PI.  16;  C,  2),  opposite  the 
Jardim  Municipal.  —  Evening  Concerts  twice  a  week  in  the  Jardim  Munici- 
pal, etc. 

Shops  in  the  Praca  da  Constituiijao,  Rua  do  Aljube,  Rua  do  Consel- 
heiro  Vieira,  etc.;  bargaining  necessary;  the  prices  are  higher  when  the 
purchaser  is  attended  by  a  guide.  Pedlars  often  charge  more  than  the 
shopjs.  —  Embroidery,  etc.,  at  Ad.  v.  Breymann's.  Rua  do  Conselheiro 
Vieira  77. —  Wines,  etc.,  sold  at,  Breymann's;  also  by  Blahdy  Bros.  &  Co. 
(see  below);  Cossart,  Gordon,  &  Co.,  Rua  do  Principe  78;  Krohn  Bros. 
&  Co.  (see  below).  —  Photographic  Materials,  Bazar  do  Povo,  Largo 
de  Sao  Sebastiao. 

Banks.  Blandy  Bros.  &  Co.,  Rua  da  Alf  andega  26 ;  Reid,  Castro,  &  Co., 
Largo  de  Sao  Sebastiao  5;  Banco  de  Portugal,  Largo  daSii;  Krohn  Bros. 
&  Co.,  Rua  do  Carmo  2;  L.  da  Rocha  Machado,  Rua  da  Alf  andega  27. 

Physicians.  Dr.  Grabham,  Valle  Formoso;  Dr.  Scott,  Quinta  Peres- 
trello;  Dr.  Machado,  Rua  das  Merces  1  (PI.  C,  1);  Dr.  Stevens,  Villa 
Ramose.  —  Chemists.  Pharmacia  Central,  Rua  Bettencourt  2;  Botica  dos 
Dois  Amigos,  Largo  do  Collegio. 

Carriages  and  Horses  (p.  20)  at  De  Soaza's,  Rua  do  Bispo.  Bullock- 
cars  (p.  20)  in  the  Entrada  da  Cidade;  saddle-horses  (poor)  in  the  Largo 
de  Sao  Pedro  and  the  Rua  de  Joao  Tavira. — Litters  (p.  20)  in  the  Largo 
de  Sao  Sebastiao. 

Motor  Cabs  in  the  Entrada  da  Cidade  (tariff  by  zones;  per  drive 
90-500  rs. ;  to  Camara  de  Lobos  and  back  800  rs.). 

Horse  Tramway  (electric  line  projected)  from  the  Praija  da  Con-  to  the  railway-station  of  Pombal  (starting  V4  nr-  before  each 
train;  50  rs.).  —  Rack  &  Pinion  Railway  (Caniinho  de  Ferro  do  Monte) 
from  the  Estacao  do  Pombal  (PI.  C,  1)  via  Levada,  Livramento,  Sant'  Anna, 
and  Flameugo,  to  the  Monte  (p.  24);  7  trains  daily  in  20  min. ;  fare  300, 
return  400  rs. 

British  Consul,  Cajrt.  J.  Boyle,  Reid's  Palace  Hotel  (p.  21) ;  vice- 
consul,  E.  Sarsfleld.  —  Lloyd's  Agents,  Blandy  Bros.  &  Co.  (see  above). 

Steamboat  Agents.  Blandy  Bros.  &  Co.  (see  above)  for  the  Union 
Castle,  Royal  Mail  Steam  Packet  Co.,  Booth,  Hamburg- American,  and 
Woermann  Lines,  the  Empreza  Nacional  de  Navegacjio  and  the  Empreza 
Insulana  de  Navegagao;  Leca,  Gomes,  &  Co.  for  Yeowards  Bros.  Line; 
Goncalves  &  Co.,  Rua  do  Conselheiro  Silvestre  Ribeira  2,  for  the  Hamburg 
&  South  American  Line;  J.  de  Freitas  Martins,  Rua  da  Alf  andega  52, 
for  the  North  German  Lloyd.  —  For  the  coasting  service  (Servico  costeiro) 
and  pleasure-trips  (Viagens  de  Recreio),  see  newspapers. 

Churches.  English  (PI.  4;  B,  1),  Rua  da  Bella  Vista  (Rev.  C.  Jones 
Bateman,  M.  A.),  services  on  Sun.  at  8  and  11  a.m.,  and  5.30  p.m.;  Pres- 
byterian (PL  15;  C,  2),  Rua  do  Conselheiro;  American  (PI.  8;  C,  2),  same 
street,  lower  down. 

Club.  English  Rooms,  in  the  Rua  da  Praia,  overlooking  the  sea, 
with  library  and  billiard-rooms.     Adni.  on  introduction. 

One  Day.  Visit  to  the  Monte  (p.  24)  in  the  forenoon;  drive  to  Camara 
de  Lobos  (p.  25)  in  the  afternoon. 

Funchal  ('place  of  fennel';  pop.  25,800),  situated  in  32°  38'  N. 
lat.  and  16°  55'  W.  long.,  the  capital  of  Madeira  and  the  seat  of  the 
Portuguese  governor  and  a  bishop,  is  remarkable  for  the  luxuriant 
subtropical  verdure  of  its  public  grounds  and  private  gardens. 

Madeira.  FUNCHAL.  3.  Route.      23 

On  the  Praqa  da  Ral\ha  (PI.  C,  2),  the  sea-promenade,  where 
we  have  a  view  of  the  Desertas  (p.  20),  rise  the  Palacio  de  Sao 
Lourengo  (PI.  10;  the  governor's  residence),  several  Club  Houses, 
and  a  signalling  tower  called  the  Pilar  de  Benger  (PI.  11 ;  \Benger's 
Folly').  The  Varadoures  Gate  (PI.  12;  D,  2),  to  the  E.  of  the 
custom-house,  is  the  sole  survival  of  a  town-wall  built  by  the 
Spaniards  early  in  the  17th  cent.;  adjacent  is  the  Fruit  and  Fish 
Market  (Mercado;  PI.  D,  2). 

Opposite  the  pier  (Caes;  PI.  C,  2)  the  Entrada  da  Cidade,  an 
avenue  of  planes,  leads  to  thePRACA  da  Constituicao  (PI.  13 ;  C,  2), 
adorned  with  pleasure-grounds,  in  the  centre  of  the  town. 

Adjacent  on  the  W.  is  the  *Jardirn  Municipal  (public  park; 
PI.  C,  2;  evening  concerts  twice  weekly,  otherwise  closed  in  the 
evening),  with  its  exuberant  wealth  of  vegetation  and  flowers.  On 
the  S.  side  is  the  Theatre  (p.  22).  —  To  the  E.,  in  the  Largo  da 
Se,  rises  the  insignificant  Cathedral  (Se;  PI.  C,  2),  with  a  fine 
ceiling  of  Spanish  juniper  (Portuguese  cedro). 

On  the  E.  side  of  the  park  runs  the  Eua  de  Sao  Francisco, 
leading  to  the  long  Rua  do  Coxselheiro  Vieira  (PI.  B,  C,  1,  2),  or 
Rua  da  Carreira  the  busiest  street,  at  the  N.W.  end  of  which  (on 
the  left)  is  the  entrance  to  the  Protestant  Cemetery  (Cemiterio 
Britanico;  PI.  3,  B  2). 

From  the  N.  side  of  the  Rua  do  Conselheiro  Vieira  we  ascend 
past  the  church  of  Sao  Pedro  (PI.  C,  1)  and  through  the  steep 
Canada  de  Santa  Clara  to  the  convent -church  of  Santa  Clara 
(PI.  B,  C,  1),  where  Zarco,  the  discoverer  of  Madeira,  is  buried. — 
Farther  to  the  N.  is  the  Canada  do  Pico,  whence  the  Rua  do  Castello 
to  the  left  leads  to  the  old  Spanish  Pico  Fort  (Forte  de  Sao  Joao 
do  Pico;  PI.  B,  1),  dating  from  1632,  famed  for  its  *View. 

From  the  E.  end  of  the  Rua  do  Conselheiro  Vieira  we  may  now 
cross  the  Largo  do  Collegio,  with  the  Jesuit  Church  of  that  name 
(PI.  C,  1),  to  the  Camara  Municipal,  or  town-hall  (PI.  2;  C,  1),  in 
the  Rua  dos  Ferreiros.  At  the  lower  end  of  the  same  street,  not  far 
from  the  Cathedral,  is  the  Largo  de  Sao  Sebastiao  (PL  7 ;  C,  2), 
where  the  Saturday  market  is  held. 

Crossing  the  neighbouring  Ribeira  de  Santa  Luzia  we  soon 
reach  the  Carmo  Church  (PI.  6;  D,  1).  —  Along  the  Ribeira  de 
Santa  Luzia  ascends  the  horse-tramway  (p.  22)  to  the  station  of 
the  Monte  railway,  near  which,  to  the  E.  (reached  by  the  Rua  do 
Pombal,  PI.  C  1),  is  the  Museum,  containing  valuable  natural 
history  collections  and  a  large  relief-map  of  the  island.  (Adm. 
on  application;  donation  to  poor-box.) 

In  the  E.  suburb  of  Santa  Maria  Maior,  beyond  the  Ribeira 
de  Santa  Luzia  and  the  Ribeira  de  Joao  Gomes,  is  the  Campo  de 
Dom  Carlos  Primeiro  (PI.  D,  E,  2 ;  drilling-ground),  skirting  the  sea, 
and  partly  planted  with  trees.    The  Spanish  Forte  de  Sdo  Thiayo 

24     Route  3.  MONTE. 

(PI.  E,  2 ;  now  barracks),  built  in  1614,  was  dedicated  to  St.  James 
the  Less  (Sao  Thiago  Menor),  the  patron  saint  of  Funchal.  Near  it 
is  the  church  of  Nossa  Senhora  do  Soccorro  (PI.  E,  2),  the  scene 
of  a  great  procession  on  1st  May. 

The  chief  streets  of  the  W.  Suburb,  beyond  the  Ribeira  de 
Sao  Jodo,  flanked  with  pretty  villas,  are  the  Rua  da  Imperatriz 
Dona  Maria  (PI.  B,  2)  and  the  Rua  da  Imperatriz  Dona  Amelia 
(PI.  A,  B,  3),  which  last  ends  at  the  Redondo  ('round  space')  near 
the  Ribeiro  Secco.  On  the  S.  side  of  the  road  are  the  Cemetery 
(Cemiterio  das  Angustias ;  PI.  B,  2)  and  the  Casino  Pavao  (PI.  B,  3), 
with  a  beautiful  garden  extending  to  the  abrupt  coast,  frequented 
by  English  and  American  visitors.  By  the  sea  runs  the  Caminho  da 
Pontinha,  leading  to  the  Pontinha  (p.  21)  and  the  harbour-battery 
of  Forte  Ilheo  (PI.  B,  3 ;  'island  fort',  Engl.  Loo  Rock). 

Excursions.  The  Rack  &  Pinion  Railway  (p.  22),  which  atLe- 
vada  station  crosses  the  Levada  de  Santa  Luzia  and  the  beautiful 
hill-promenade  of  that  name,  connects  Eunchal  with  the  *Monte 
(hotels,  see  p.  21),  a  village  on  the  hill  at  the  back  of  the  town, 
with  numerous  villas  nestling  amidst  beautiful  groves  of  planes 
and  oaks.  On  a  spur  of  the  hill,  close  to  the  terminus  of  the  rail- 
way (extension  projected),  rises  the  pilgrimage-church  of  Nossa 
Senhora  do  Monte,  known  by  English  visitors  as  the  'Mount  Church' 
(1962  ft.).  It  is  the  scene  of  the  Novena,  a  great  nine-days'  church- 
festival  held  in  summer.  The  terrace  of  the  church  (68  steps) 
commands  a  glorious  *View  of  Funchal,  the  coast  as  far  as  the 
Cabo  Girao  (p.  25),  and  the  blue  ocean  enlivened  by  its  passing 
ships.    A  little  below  the  church  is  a  sacred  well. 

A  little  to  the  E.  of  the  Monte  is  the  C'urralinho  ('little  curral'),  or 
Curral  dos  Romeiros  ('pilgrims'  ravine'),  overgrown  with  erica  and  vac- 
cinium  (p.  19).  This  miniature  curral,  a  gorge  of  the  Ribeira  de  Joao 
Gomes  (p.  23),  gives  a  very  imperfect  idea  of  the  grandeur  of  the  rocky 
ravines  (p.  18)  of  Madeira. 

Those  who  are  pressed  for  time  may  descend  to  the  town  in  10- 
12  min.  in  a  running  sledge  (p.  20),  by  the  Caminho  do  Monte;  but 
it  is  preferable  to  walk  back  (in  V/2  hr.)  by  the  level  *Caminho  das 
Tilias  which  we  reach  by  turning  to  the  left  above  the  church.  After 
about  1/4M.,  at  the  beautiful  Quinta  Machado  (with  a  view-tower), 
we  descend  to  the  left  by  the  steep  Caminho  dos  Saltos  (if  desired, 
by  running  sledge  ordered  beforehand;  600  rs.).  The  route  leads 
to  the  S.W.,  past  the  Quinta  Olavo,  the  Levada  de  Santa  Luzia 
(see  above),  and  the  Quinta  do  Dedo,  and  then  descends  to  the  S.E. 
through  the  plane-avenue  on  the  Ribeira  de  Santa  Luzia  (p.  23). 

A  *Side-path  leads,  above  the  Quinta  Olavo,  to  the  right,  across  the 
river-bed,  to  the  church  of  Sao  Roque  (1139  ft.;  view;  bullock-car  from 
Funchal  800  rs.),  whence  we  may  descend  by  the  steep  Caminho  de  Sao 
Roque  to  the  Pico  Fort  and  the  Clara  Nunnery  (p.  23). 

Madeira.  GRAN  CURRAL.  3.  Route.     25 

The  Rua  da  Imperatriz  Dona  Amelia  (p.  24)  is  continued  by 
the  *Estrada  Monumental,  a  road  which  affords  delightful  views. 
It  leads  from  the  Ponte  Monumental  (PI.  A,  3),  a  bridge  across 
the  Ribeiro  Secco,  past  a  number  of  sugar-cane  plantations  and 
vineyards,  and,  leaving  the  shore,  proceeds  to  the  S.W.  above  the 
ocean-cave  of  Forja  and  the  rocky  islets  of  Forja  and  Gorgolho. 
It  then  crosses  the  S.  slope  of  the  Pico  da  Ponta  da  Cruz  (863  ft. ; 
*Vkw),  an  old  crater,  near  the  promontory  of  that  name  (p.  21), 
and  skirts  the  beautiful,  but  not  very  safe  bathing-beach  of  Praia 
Formosa.  Farther  to  the  W.,  in  full  view  of  the  bold  central  range 
backing  the  Gran  Curral  (see  below),  we  cross  the  lower  bridge  of 
the  Ribeira  dos  Soccorridos  and  an  old  lava-stream  to  (5^2  H.) 
Camara  de  Lobos  (which  may  be  reached  by  motor-cab,  p.  22), 
a  strikingly  picturesque  fishing-village  (pop.  6200)  at  the  E.  base 
of  the  almost  perpendicular  *C'abo  Girdo,  with  a  small  natural  har- 
bour (Bahia).  The  best  wine  in  the  island  is  yielded  by  the  slopes 
in  the  vicinity.  Route  to  the  Gran  Curral  by  Jardim  da  Serra, 
see  p.  26. 

The  Excursion  to  the  Gran  Curral,  on  horseback  or  by  litter 
(p.  20),  takes  nearly  a  whole  day.  "We  start  early  and  take  pro- 
visions with  us.  From  the  W.  suburb  (p.  24)  we  follow  the  Rua 
das  Maravilhas  and  the  Caminho  de  Santo  Antonio  (PI.  A,  1,  2), 
between  garden-walls  and  vineyards,  to  the  N.W.  to  the  finely  situ- 
ated village  of  (2  M.)  Santo  Antonio  (985  ft.;  bullock-car  from 
Funchal  800  rs.).  We  descend  thence  to  the  N.W.  into  the  side- 
valley  of  the  Ribeira  do  Vasco  Gil,  with  its  pine-woods  and  rich 
pastures,  and  soon  obtain  a  view  towards  the  W.,  extending  to  the 
Cabo  Girao  (see  above)  and  the  Pico  da  Cruz  (p.  26).  "We  next  ascend 
the  steep  side-  valley  of  the  Ribeira  da  Lapa  to  the  (11  M.)  Ser- 
rado Saddle  (Eira  do  Serrado;  about  2900  ft.),  on  the  N.E.  margin 
of  the  Pico  Serrado  (see  below).  From  the  top  of  the  pass  we 
have  a  grand  view  into  the  great  and  well-watered  basin  of  the 
*Gran  Curral,  or  Curral  das  Freiras  ('nuns'  valley';  once  a 
pasture  belonging  to  the  convent  of  Santa  Clara),  enclosed  by  the 
lofty  rocks  of  the  central  mountains.  Far  below  us,  above  the  rock- 
strewn  bed  of  the  Ribeira  dos  Soccorridos,  we  descry  the  village 
of  Livramento  (2018  ft.),  with  its  little  church  and  cypress-shaded 

Those  who  do  not  care  to  face  the  rugged  descent  to  Livramento, 
and  the  steep  clamber  thence  to  the  Bocca  dos  Namorados  (p.  26), 
should  now  ascend  the  *Pico  Serrado  (3347  ft.;  'sawn-off  peak'), 
whence  we  survey  the  mountain-range  from  the  Pico  de  Santo 
Antonio  (5725  ft.)  and  Pico  Cidrdo  (5551  ft.)  to  the  Pico  Ruivo 
(p.  27),  the  Pico  Canario  (5500  ft.),  and  the  Pico  Grande  (p.  26). 

Longer,  but  still  grander,  is  the  excursion  to  the  "W.  margin  of 
the  Gran  Curral.  From  the  Estrada  Monumental  (see  above)  we  turn 

26     Route  3.  RABACAL.  Madeira. 

to  the  N.W.  past  the  Quinta  Nazareh,  nestling  amidst  araucarias, 
to  the  (2  M.)  village  of  Sao  Martinho  (765  ft.;  bullock-car  from 
Funchal  800  rs.),  situated  among  several  old  craters;  we  then  cross, 
to  the  W.,  the  ravine  of  the  Ribeira  dos  Soccorridos  by  the  upper 
bridge  and  mount  in  zigzags  to  the  (7  M.)  village  of  Estreito 
(1510  ft.).  Our  route  now  ascends  to  the  N.  to  the  (872  M.)  *Bocca 
dos  Namorados  (3445  ft.),  with  its  beautiful  chestnut-wood,  where 
we  enjoy  a  superb  view  of  the  Gran  Curral,  and  skirts  the  W.  margin 
of  the  Pico  dos  Bodes  (3718  ft.)  to  the  (10  M.)  Cova  da  Cevada, 
a  basin  affording  a  similar  view.  We  next  follow  the  top  of  the 
hill  to  the  N.W.,  between  the  Gran  Curral  and  the  E.  side-valleys 
of  the  Ribeira  Brava  (see  below),  to  (13  M.)  the  *Bocca  dos 
Corregos  (4466  ft.),  a  narrow  ridge  at  the  foot  of  the  perpendicular 
rocks  of  the  Pico  Grande  or  Rocha  Alta  (5420  ft.).  An  interest- 
ing return-route  is  afforded  by  descending  from  the  Cova  da  Cevada 
across  Jardim  da  Serra  (2523  ft.)  and  past  the  Pico  da  Cruz 
(3288  ft.)  to  Camara  de  Lobos  (p.  25). 

The  Excursion  to  Babacal  can,  if  time  presses,  be  accomplished 
in  one  day.  It  is  best  to  go  by  steamboat  to  Calheta  (3  times  weekly, 
in  IV2-2  hrs. ;  or  a  small  private  steamer  may  be  hired  of  Messrs.  Blandy 
Bros.,  p.  22).  The  steamer  calls  first  at  Camara  de  Lobos  (p.  25),  then 
skirts  the  sombre  rocky  slopes  of  C'abo  Girao  and  steers  past  Fajaa  dos 
Padres,  a  village  famed  for  its  wine,  to  the  village  of  Ribeira  Brava  (inn), 
where  we  obtain,  through  the  curral  of  that  name,  a  very  striking  glimpse 
of  the  Serra  d'Agua  (4610  ft.)  and  the  Pico  Grande  (see  above).  We  next 
pass  the  beach  of  Lugar  de  Baixo,  formed  by  a  landslip  in  1803,  the 
beautiful  cape,  Ponta  do  Sol,  and  the  village  of  Maqdalena,  peeping  out 
of  vines  and  bananas  amidst  the  grandest  scenery  of  the  S.  coast. 

At  the  village  of  Calheta  (bad  landing-place;  no  inn)  we  may  find 
litters  if  desired  (each  man  800-1000  rs.  per  day),  and  we  obtain  provisions 
and  torches  (fachos,  at  50  rs.).  We  now  walk  chiefly  through  pine-wood 
via.  Salao  to  the  (l'/a  hr.)  narrow  and  wet  tunnel  (about  650  yds.  in  length) 
of  the  lower  Levada  Nova  do  Rabacal.  At  the  N.  end  of  it  we  obtain 
a  very  striking  view  of  the  highest  part  of  the  valley  of  the  Ribeira  da 
Janella,  richly  wooded  with  evergreen  oaks  and  laurels.  A  path  over  the 
rocks  (which  needs  a  steady  head)  connects  this  levada  (or  conduit)  with 
the  upper  Levada  Velha,  constructed  in  1836-60,  and  with  (9'/2  M.)  the 
engineers'  houses  of  Rabacal  (3750  ft.;  adm.,  see  p.  20;  fee).  A  little 
to  the  N.E.,  on  the  so-called  Balcao,  we  enjoy  an  excellent  survey  of 
the  *  Waterfall  of  the  Risco,  which  plunges  from  a  rock,  330  ft.  high,  into 
a  ravine  overgrown  with  climbing  plants  and  ferns,  and  a  little  lower 
down  provides  the  water  for  the  old  conduit.  Crossing  the  viaduct  of 
the  latter,  we  skirt  the  new  conduit,  and  in  a  few  minutes  reach  another 
luxuriantly  overgrown  ravine,  that  of  the  *  Vinte  e  Cinco  Fontes,  where 
no  fewer  than  twenty-five  waterfalls  issue  from  a  narrow  basin. 

From  Babaeal  we  may  ascend  towards  the  E.  (with  a  guide)  to  the 
(2  hrs.)  plateau  of  Paid  da  Serra  (4656  ft. ;  'mountain  swamp'),  where 
fogs  often  prevail,  and  the  two  Tanquinhos  Houses  (about  4900  ft. ;  used 
by  the  engineers;  poor  quarters).  Near  them  rise  the  Pico  dos  Tanquinhos 
(5260  ft.)  and  the  *Pico  Ruivo  do  Paul  (5388  ft.),  both  of  which  afford 
grand  views  of  the  mountains. 

Scarcely  less  repaying  is  the  two  days'  Excursion  to  Santa  Anna 
on  the  N.  coast,  to  which  a  third  day  may  be  added  for  the  ascent  of  the 
Pico  Ruivo  or  the  Pico  Areeiro.  We  start  from  the  Canipo  da  Barca  at 
Funchal  (PI.  D,  1)   and  follow  the  Estrada  do  Conde  Carvalhal  (PI.  E,  1), 

Madeira.  SANTA  ANNA.  3.  Route.     27 

which  ascends  to  the  N.E.  in  windings  to  (33/4  M.)  Palhciro  do  Ferreiro 
(1857  ft.;  bullock -car  from  Funchal  1200  rs.).  the  finest  quinta  in  the 
island,  the  property  of  Mr.  John  Blandy  of  Funchal  (adm.  on  appli- 
cation). Farther  on  we  follow  the  road,  uphill  and  downhill,  to  (6  M.) 
Camacha  (2369 ft. ;  no  inn;  bullock-car  2500  rs.),  a  well-to-do  village  of 
basket-makers  in  a  charming  wooded  region,  with  many  villas  owned  by 
English  residents  in  Funchal.  Beyond  the  Pico  dos  Iroses  (p.  21)  the 
road,  now  less  attractive,  crosses  the  gorges  of  the  Ribeira  de  Porto 
Novo  and  Ribeira  de  Santa  Cruz,  and  then,  turning  to  the  N.,  reaches 
(13  M  )  Santo  Antonio  da  Serra  (2320  ft.),  a  poor  village  on  a  grassy- 
tableland.  We  descend  thence  to  the  N.W.  into  a  sequestered  valley 
carpeted  with  flowers  (Amaryllis  Belladonna,  etc.),  where  a  rough  path 
leads  to  the  (15'/2  M.)  Portella  Pass  (2021  ft.),  which  commands  a  superb 
*View  of  the  mountains  at  the  head  of  the  Metade  Valley  (see  below), 
of  the  N.E.  coast  from  the  Penha  d'Aguia  (see  below)  to  the  Ponta  de 
Sao  Lourengo  (p.  20),  and  of  the  island  of  Porto  Santo  (p.  20).  We  now 
descend,  at  first  by  a  zigzag  path,  through  vineyards  and  sugar-cane  plant- 
ations, to  (18  M.)  Porto  da  Cruz  (no  inn),  a  picturesque  little  seaport 
at  the  S.E.  base  of  the  abrupt  *Penha  d'Aguia  (1949  ft. ;  'eagle-rock'), 
the  most  curiously  shaped  hill  in  the  island.  We  next  ascend  the  saddle 
to  the  S.  of  the  Penha  d'Aguia,  noteworthy  for  its  marvellously  rich  veg- 
etation, and  descend  the  ravine  of  the  Ribeiro  Frio  (see  below)  to  Fayal, 
a  village  not  far  from  the  charming  Pescaria,  a  little  bay  to  the  N.W. 
of  the  Penha  d'Aguia.  The  church-terrace  here  affords  a  grand  survey  of 
the  valleys  of  the  Ribeiro  Frio,  the  Ribeiro  da  Metade,  and  the  Ribeiro 
Secco  (all  mentioned  below).  From  Fayal  we  then  cross  the  Cortadas  Pass, 
or  Bocca  do  Cortado  (1985  ft.),  to  (24  M.)  Santa  Anna  (1408  ft. ;  Hot.  Fi- 
gueira,  very  fair;  pop.  3200),  a  village  well  adapted  for  some  stay,  the 
capital  of  the  Comarca  de  Santa  Anna,  the  most  fertile  region  in  the  island 
(sugar-cane,  sweet  potatoes,  yams,  etc.).  From  Santa  Anna  a  rough  mule- 
track,  very  indistinct  at  places,  ascends  past  the  curious  basaltic  Homem 
em  P6  ('man  on  foot'),  and  lastly  over  the  saddle  by  the  Encumeada  Alta 
(5948  ft.),  to  the  top  of  the  Pico  Ruivo  (6060  ft. ;  p.  18),  which  commands 
a  most  imposing,  but  seldom  very  clear  panorama  of  the  central  chain, 
part  of  the  Gran  Corral  (p.  25),  and  the  E.  half  of  the  island. 

Turning  back  from  Santa  Anna,  we  first  wend  our  way  towards  the 
S.  to  the  Cora  da  Roda,  where  we  again  overlook  the  N.E.  coast  as  far 
as  the  Portella  Pass  and  the  Porto  da  Cruz;  we  then  cross  the  Ribeiro 
Secco  and  the  (29'/o  M.)  Cruzinhas  Ridge,  and  descend  into  the  valley  of 
the  "'Ribeiro  da  Metade,  a  gorge  vying  in  grandeur  with  the  Gran  Corral. 
A  zigzag  path  ('Quatorze  Voltas')  ascends  thence  to  the  little  venda  (inn) 
of  Cedro  Gordo,  and  then  crosses  the  Serra  de  Caramvja  into  the  (33  M.) 
valley  of  the  Ribeiro  Frio,  with  its  splendid  groves  of  tilwood  trees  (see 
p.  19),  laurel,  and  erica.  Above  the  village  of  that  name  rises  the  Balcao, 
a  rock  of  basalt  (near  the  not  easily  accessible  Levada  do  Furado), 
where  we  have  a  grand  *View  of  the  Metade  Valley  with  mountain- 
background.  Our  route  winds  up  the  rocks  of  the  Feiteiras  ('ferns')  and  the 
Pouso  Saddle,  with  its  fine  views,  to  the  (34^2  M.)  Pouso  or  Po'izo  Refuge 
(4603  ft.),  situated  on  a  dreary  plateau.  From  the  Pouso  Refuge  we  may 
without  difficulty  climb  the  Pico  Areeiro  (5893  ft. ;  l'/rl'/s  hr.),  a  famous 
point  of  view,  but  almost  always  capped  with  clouds.  The  bridle-path 
ascends  past  the  Observatorio ;  we  may  then  descend  direct  to  the  Vista 
dos  Navios. 

The  next  part  of  our  route,  from  the  Pouso  Refuge  to  the  Monte 
(p.  24),  is  uninteresting.  From  the  Vista  dos  Navios  ('view  of  ships'), 
whence  the  bay  of  Funchal  is  visible,  the  track  descends  to  the  head  of 
the  valley  of  the  Ribeira  de  Jodo  Gomes  (p.  23),  rounds  the  E.  slope 
of  the  Pico  do  Arrebentao  (3842  ft.),  to  which  point  a  running  sledge 
(p.  20)  may  be  ordered  from  Funchal,  and  then  descends  rapidly,  partly 
in  windings,  to  the  (39  M.)  Monte.   Thence  to  (41>/2  M.)  Funchal,  see  p.  24. 


4.  The  Canary  Islands. 

Steamboat  Lines.  1.  Union  Castle  IAne,  fortnightly  from  Loudon 
and  Southampton,  touching  alternately  at  Las  Palnias  and  Teneriffe;  fares 
to  either,  1st  el.  14-16,  2nd  9-11  gs.  (return  about  2/3  more).  For  summer 
tours,  comp.  p.  17.  —  2.  Royal  Mail  Steam  Packet  Co.,  see  p.  17. — 
3.  Peninsular  &  Oriental  Branch  Service,  from  London  monthly  for 
Australia,  calling  at  Las  Palmas ;  12L,  return  (tickets  interchangeable  with 
No.  5  from  Teneriffe)  20l.  —  4.  Bucknall  Line,  monthly  from  London  to 
Teneriffe;  10Z.,  return  18i.  —  5.  Aberdeen  (Thompson's)  IAne,  from  Lon- 
don and  Plymouth  monthly  for  Australia,  calling  at  Teneriffe;  13?.,  re- 
turn (also  valid  for  No.  3)  221.  —  6.  Aberdeen  (Rennie's)  Line,  from  Lon- 
don, about  once  every  10  days,  for  S.  and  E.  Africa,  calling  alternately 
at  Las  Palmas  and  Teneriffe;  10  or  81.,  return  18  or  14  I. — 7.  German 
East  African  Line,  once  every  3  weeks  from  Southampton  for  S.  Africa, 
calling  at  Las  Palmas  and  Teneriffe,  122.  10s.  or  11.  10s. ;  no  return-fares, 
hut  an  abatement  of  20  per  cent  is  allowed  on  the  fare  back  to  South- 
ampton, either  by  this  line,  by  the  Woermann,  or  by  the  Hamburg-Ameri- 
can Line.  —  8.  Woermann  Line,  monthly  from  Dover  to  Las  Palmas,  and 
monthly  to  Teneriffe;  fares  and  abatement  for  return,  same  as  No.  7. — 
9,  10.  New  Zealand  Line  and  Shaw,  Savill,  &  Albion,  each  monthly  from 
London  and  Plymouth  for  Teneriffe,  141.  or  111.  10s. ;  interchangeable  re- 
turn-ticket 22  or  17?. — 11.  Yeoivard  Bros.  Line,  from  Liverpool,  weekly 
pleasure  cruises  to  Teneriffe,  Grand  Canary,  and  back  (10-12  gs.),  also  single 
tickets  (6-8  gs.).  — 12.  Natal  Line,  from  London  fortnightly  for  S.  Africa 
calling  at  Las  Palmas,  fare  8  gs.,  return  15?.  2s.  6d. — 13.  Federal,  Houl- 
der,  &  Shire  Lines,  see  p.  17.  —  There  are  also  steamers  to  the  Canary 
Islands  from  Cadiz  (see  p.  58),  Genoa  (see  p.  114),  Naples,  and  Trieste 
(see  p.  425).  —  It  should  he  noted  that  almost  all  the  British  lines  have 
recently  raised  their  fares  by  ten  per  cent  in  consequence,  it  is  said,  of  a 
rise  in  the  price  of  coal.  Inquiry  as  to  this  'surtax'  should  therefore  be 
made  in  every  case. — The  direct  steamers  perform  the  voyage  (1707  M. 
from  Southampton  to  Teneriffe)  in  5-6  days;  the  coasting  steamers  (via, 
Oporto,  Lisbon,  etc. ;  about  2250  M.)  take  much  longer. 

In  addition  to  the  above-mentioned  steamers  communication  among 
the  islands  themselves  is  effected  by  the  small  cargo -boats  of  the  Com- 
paflia  de  Vapores  Correos  Interinsulares  Canarios  which  ply  9  times 
monthly  between  Teneriffe  and  Las  Palmas  in  6  hrs.  (fare  20  or  15  pesetas); 
and  by  those  of  the  Servicio  de  Pailebotes  which  ply  weekly  from  Tener- 
iffe to  Las  Palmas,  and  weekly  to  Santa  Cruz  de  la  Palma.  Inquiry  as 
to  the  sailings ,  which  often  vary,  should  be  made  on  the  spot.  The 
Spanish  cuisine  on  board  these  local  boats  is  not  very  inviting 

The  Canary  Islands  (Islas  Canarias  or  Afortunadas,  i.e. 
'fortunate  islands') ,  the  Makdron  Nesoi  or  Insulae  Fortunatae 
of  antiquity,  in  27°  30'  to  29°  26'  N.  lat.,  and  13°  15'  to  18°  2'  W. 
long.,  lie  off  the  coast  of  Mauretania,  the  nearest  point  being  Cape 
Juby  (p.  104).  There  are  in  all  thirteen  islands,  forming  a  Spanish 
province  of  a  total  area  of  3305  sq.  M.,with  a  population  of  364,000. 
They  consist  of  two  groups.  The  E.  group  is  composed  of  Lanzarote 
(rising  to  2231  ft.  above  the  sea),  Fuerteventura  (2789  ft.),  and 
five  smaller  islands  (Alegranza,  Graciosa,  etc.);  to  the  W.  group 
belong  Gran  Canaria  (6400  ft.),  Teneriffe  (12,175  ft.;  once  the 
meridian  used  by  the  Spaniards  and  the  Dutch),  Gomera  (4366  ft.), 
Palma  (7737  ft.),  and  Hierro  or  Ferro  (4643  ft.),  the  meridian 
used  by  France  since  the  time  of  Louis  XIII.  (1634).    Teneriffe, 



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CANARY  ISLANDS.  <•  Route.     29 

Gran  Canada,  and  sometimes  Palma  are  the  islands  usually  visited 
by  tourists;  the  others  chiefly  attract  botanists  and  geologists. 

The  Canaries,  supposed  by  some  geographers  to  form  part  of 
the  submerged  continent  of  Atlantis,  and  by  others  to  have  been 
outlying  spurs  of  the  Atlas  of  Morocco  (p.  93),  have  the  same  geolo- 
gical formation  as  Madeira  (see  pp.  17,  18,  19).  'In  Euerteventura 
especially  there  occur  masses  of  slag  and  lava,  thrown  up  by  count- 
less eruptions,  superimposed  on  the  diabase  formation,  which  is 
still  visible  in  many  places ;  and  in  Teneriffe  we  find  phonolithic 
and  trachytic  rocks  as  well  as  the  basaltic.  Grand  old  craters  (cal- 
deras)  exist  in  Ferro,  Gran  Canaria,  and  most  of  all  in  Palma  and 
Teneriffe.  The  enormous  basin  of  the  Cahadas  in  Teneriffe  has 
been  almost  entirely  filled  up  with  later  streams  of  lava  and  scoriae, 
which  have  formed  a  distinct  volcanic  cone,  the  great  Pico  de 
Teide,  12,175  ft.  in  height.'  The  last  considerable  eruptions  were 
those  of  1677  in  Palma,  of  1730-36  and  1824  in  Lanzarote,  and 
of  1705,  1706,  1796,  and  1798  on  the  N.W.  coast  of  Teneriffe,  all. 
of  which  caused  great  havoc.  On  the  occasion  of  the  eruption  of 
1909  in  Teneriffe  a  large  lava-stream,  accompanied  by  the  emission 
of  vapour  and  stones  from  the  central  crater  (see  p.  41),  burst 
forth  near  the  foot  of  the  Chahorra  (p.  42)  and  advanced  in  a  N.W. 
direction  towards  Santiago  and  El  Tanque  but  came  to  rest  before 
reaching  these  villages.  There  was  little  damage  and  no  loss  of 
human  life.  In  the  W.  islands,  which  like  Madeira  rise  very  abruptly 
from  the  sea,  the  effects  of  erosion  in  the  broad  valleys,  with  their 
rich  soil,  as  well  as  in  the  deep  ravines  (barrancos)  of  more  recent 
origin,  are  specially  noticeable. 

The  climate  of  the  Canaries  is  remarkable  for  the  striking 
contrasts  prevailing  between  the  E.  and  the  W.  groups  on  the  one 
hand,  and  between  the  lower  and  the  higher  levels  on  the  other. 
In  the  almost  treeless  islands  of  Lanzarote  and  Fuerteventura 
(62  M.  to  the  N.W.  of  Cape  Juby)  years  sometimes  elapse  without 
rainfall,  while  the  dreaded  tiempo  del  sur,  the  hot  and  extremely 
dry  wind  from  the  Sahara,  covers  them  with  dust  and  sand  and 
often  brings  swarms  of  locusts.  Even  more  disastrous  for  agricul- 
ture are  the  sandy  dunes  or  coast-hills,  thrown  up  by  the  currents 
off  the  African  shores,  the  sand  of  which  is  driven  inland  by  vi- 
olent N.  winds.  The  Gran  Canaria,  on  the  other  hand,  though  by 
no  means  free  from  the  locust  pest,  holds  an  intermediate  position 
in  point  of  climate  and  scenery  between  the  more  continental  E. 
group  of  islands  and  the  almost  wholly  oceanic  W.  group.  Owing 
to  the  influence  of  the  gulf-stream  (p.  18)  and  the  zone  of  high  air- 
pressure  prevalent  in  the  W.  Canaries  in  winter,  the  N.  coast  of 
Teneriffe  and  the  islands  of  Gomera  and  Palma  enjoy  a  remark- 
ably mild  and  equable  winter  climate  (the  mean  temperature  of 
vinter  at  Puerto  Orotava  being  60°  Fahr  and  the  minimum  51°). 

30    Route  4.  CANARY  ISLANDS. 

In  the  region  tempered  by  the  trade-wind  clouds,  which  gather  at 
a  height  varying  from  2300  to  5000  ft.  above  the  sea,  even  the 
summer  temperature  is  quite  bearable;  but  on  the  high  mountains, 
above  the  cloud-zone,  the  air  is  extremely  dry,  and  the  burning 
heat  of  the  day  is  suddenly  followed,  as  in  the  tropics,  by  a  severe 
chill.  The  rainfall  at  Santa  Cruz  de  Tenerife  averages  12  inches, 
at  Santa  Cruz  de  la  Palma  14  in.,  at  Puerto  Orotava  17  in.,  at 
Laguna  22  inches.    The  lowest  snow-line  is  about  3300  ft. 

The  vegetation  of  the  W.  islands,  the  Eldorado  of  botanists, 
surpasses  that  of  Madeira  in  variety,  though  not  in  luxuriance; 
but  it  is  confined  to  the  forest-zone  in  the  region  of  the  trade-wind 
clouds,  and  to  the  low  ground  irrigated  with  the  aid  of  these  clouds, 
where  the  soil  consists  of  disintegrated  diabase,  tufa,  and  lava.  On 
the  other  hand  large  tracts  of  land,  especially  in  the  Gran  Canaria 
and  on  the  S.  and  E.  coasts  of  Teneriffe,  are  entirely  destitute  of 
vegetation,  even  in  winter,  while  in  summer  the  verdure  of  the 
.cultivated  land  is  often  covered  with  a  mantle  of  grey  dust. 

The  Canary  Islands,  together  with  Madeira  and  the  Azores,  have 
been  described  as  a  region  'where  the  tertiary  flora,  destroyed  in 
Europe  during  the  glacier  epoch,  has  survived  and  developed,  at 
least  since  the  pliocene  age,  in  insular  solitude'.  To  the  primaeval 
African  flora,  the  same  as  that  of  the  original  'diabasic  Canaries', 
belong  in  particular  the  stately  Canary  pine  (Pinus  canadensis), 
several  species  of  laurel,  such  as  the  Laurus  canadensis,  the  viiiatigo 
(Persea  indica),  the  aloe,  the  oleander-leaved  Kleinia  neriifolia,  the 
cactus-like  euphorbias,  the  balo  (Plocama  pendula),  and  the  famous 
dragon-tree  (Dracaena  Draco).  Besides  the  endemic  trees  and  plants 
are  others  of  very  early  origin,  the  seeds  of  which  were  originally 
brought  over  from  India  or  America  by  the  gulf-stream.  During 
the  Spanish  period  countless  other  plants,  now  cosmopolitan,  were 
imported  from  America,  fruit-trees  from  Europe,  and  shrubs  from 
the  Mediterranean,  which  last,  favoured  by  the  climate,  develop 
into  bushy  trees.  In  the  gardens,  which  are  mostly  enclosed  by  high 
walls,  we  are  struck  with  the  gorgeous  wealth  of  bougainvilleas, 
gloxinias,  poinsettias,  bignonias,  daturas,  walbergias,  passifloras, 
and  many  other  flowers.  In  the  lower  and  more  tropical  districts 
grow,  side  by  side,  bananas  (pldtanos),  tomatoes,  sugar-cane  (cana 
de  azucar), yams  (Span. name),  tobacco,  oranges  and  lemons, prickly- 
pear  (Opuntia  Tuna),  coffee-plants,  Peruvian  pepper-trees  (pirnen- 
teros),  E.  Indian  bread-fruit,  mango  and  camphor  trees,  eucalypti, 
cork-trees,  tamarisks  (tarajales),  araucarias,  magnolias,  fig-trees, 
Japanese  medlars,  palms  (about  25  varieties),  notably  the  superb 
Canary  palm  (Phoenix  canadensis  or  Jubss  Webb),  the  date-palm 
(p.  171),  the  royal  palm  (Oreodoxa  regia),  and,  fn  Palma,  the 
cocoa-nut  palm.  The  vineyards,  yielding  the  famous  Malmsey 
(p.  19)  and  Vidueno  wines,  rise  on  the  S.  side  of  Teneriffe  from 

CANARY  ISLANDS.  *•  Route.     31 

the  lower  land  to  a  height  of  4070  ft.  above  the  sea-level.  In  the 
upper  cultivated  regions  the  chief  crops  and  fruits  are  wheat, 
potatoes,  lupins,  maize,  chestnuts,  walnuts,  and,  among  other 
European  fruits,  peaches.  On  the  rocky  sides  of  the  barrancos 
occur  everywhere  the  aloe,  the  cactus-like  Euphorbia  canariensis 
(Span,  carddri),  the  tabayba  (Euphorbia  Regis  Jubae),  the  orchilla 
lichen  (Roccella  tinctoria;  woad),  and  Sempervivum  (house-leek; 
some  CO  varieties).  At  the  bottom  of  the  barrancos  and  in  the 
cloud-region  we  encounter  beautiful  underwood,  composed  of 
evergreen  myrtles  and  laurels,  the  strawberry-tree  (Arbutus  cana- 
riensis), ericas,  stemless  ferns,  and  a  few  climbing  plants.  Above 
the  level  of  the  trade-wind  clouds  we  may  still  meet  with  the  cistus, 
the  Canary  pine  (up  to  7050  ft.  above  the  sea),  the  white  Cytisus 
proliferus  (Span,  escobon),  and  the  Adenocarpus  frankenoides  (Span. 
codeso),  a  kind  of  gorse.  The  Alpine  retama  (Spartocytisus  supra- 
nubius;  Span,  retama  bla?ica),  a  kind  of  broom,  the  commonest 
plant  in  the  Canadas,  grows  on  the  Peak  up  to  a  height  of  10,300  ft. ; 
but  a  few  mosses  and  lichens  alone  reach  the  summit. 

The  fauna  of  the  Canaries  is  remarkably  poor.  The  characteristic 
bird  is  the  canary  (Serinus  canariensis),  which,  as  in  Madeira,  is 
of  a  greenish-grey  colour,  while  the  yellow  canaries  are  imported. 
Mosquitoes,  especially  on  the  E.  and  S.  coasts  of  the  islands, 
fleas,  and  flies,  including  some  whose  bite  is  very  unpleasant, 
abound  in  summer.  The  more  important  fish  are  cod,  tunny,  and 
sardines.  Chief  among  domestic  animals  is  the  goat.  Camels  were 
introduced  from  the  continent  in  1405. 

The  islands,  which  were  probably  known  to  the  Carthaginians 
and  Ureeks,  were  for  a  time  occupied  by  king  Juba  II.  (p.  244) 
with  a  view  to  the  manufacture  of  purple  dye  from  the  juice  of  the 
Orchilla  (see  above).  At  that  period  the  population  consisted  chiefly 
of  the  so-called  Guanches  (from  guan,  son,  and  Chenerfe,  Tene- 
riffe),  whose  culture  down  to  the  middle  ages  was  still  that  of  the 
flint  age,  while  their  inscriptions  are  Libyan  in  character.  In 
1402-96  the  islands  were  conquered,  first  by  the  Normans,  under 
Jean  de  Betancourt,  at  the  instance  of  the  kings  of  Castile,  and 
later  by  the  Spaniards,  with  the  result  that  the  Guanches,  in  spite 
of  their  heroic  resistance,  were  largely  exterminated  or  sold  into 
slavery.  A  few  survivors  still  lingered  in  their  cave-dwellings,  as 
at  Atalaya  (p.  46)  and  Artenara  (p.  46),  but  others  intermarried 
with  Moorish  immigrants  (1405),  and,  in  the  Spanish  period,  with 
Norman,  S.  Spanish,  and  Irish  settlers.  Their  language  has  been 
extinct  since  the  17th  century.  A  few  peculiarities  of  the  present 
population,  which  somewhat  resembles  that  of  S.  Spain  and  of  the 
W.  Indies,  survive  in  the  costume  of  the  peasants,  consisting  of  a 
white  blanket  (matta)  wrapped  round  the  body  like  a  shepherd's 
cloak,  in  their  quaint  old  pottery,  in  the  whistling  language  of 

32     Route  4.  CANARY  ISLANDS. 

Gomera,  and  in  the  national  gofio,  a  kind  of  porridge  of  maize  and 
wheat.  The  Grand  Canary  contains  also  several  villages  of  negroes, 
descendants  of  the  slaves  on  the  sugar-plantations.  Among  the 
foreigners  there  are  2100  English,  600  French,  and  600  Germans. 

Santa  Cruz  de  Tenerife  and  Puerto  de  la  Luz  near  Las  Palmas, 
the  chief  ports  of  the  Canaries,  as  also  Puerto  Orotava  (p.  39),  Santa 
Cruz  de  la  Palma,  and  others,  all  declared  free  harbours  in  1852,  are 
rising  places  and  compete  with  Madeira  in  provisioning  the  ocean 
steamers.  The  trade  is  in  British,  Spanish,  and  German  hands. 
The  chief  exports  are  bananas,  tomatoes,  early  potatoes  and  other 
vegetables,  and  wine.  The  only  industry  of  any  importance  is  the 
embroidery  and  lace-making  of  Teneriffe  ('calado'  embroidery  after 
Mexican  patterns,  rosette-work  introduced  from  Paraguay,  the  rich 
Vilaflor  lace,  and  embroidery  in  relief  from  Venetian  and  Irish 
models).  The  cochineal  insect  (living  on  the  prickly-pear  plant) 
was  introduced  from  Honduras  in  1826,  and  for  many  years  its 
culture  yielded  large  profits  to  the  islanders,  but  the  discovery  of 
aniline  dyes  has  well-nigh  ruined  this  industry. 

The  best  Season  for  a  tour  in  the  Canaries  is  from  the  beginning 
of  March  to  the  end  of  May.  The  best  winter-quarters  for  invalids  are 
to  he  found  at  Puerto  Orotava  or  the  more  remote  Gttimar  in  Teneriffe, 
and  at  the  Monte  in  the  Grand  Canary.  Good  quarters  are  obtainable  also 
at  Santa  Cruz  and  Laguna  in  Teneriffe,  and  at  Las  Palmas  in  the  Grand 
Canary,  where  most  of  the  best  hotels  are  in  the  English  style,  and 
English  money  circulates  freely.  The  Spanish  'fondas',  where  the  national 
currency  is  in  vogue,  fall  short  of  modern  requirements,  while  the  country 
inns  are  mostly  wretched  taverns. 

The  chief  public  conveyances  in  the  islands  are,  in  Teneriffe,  the 
electric  tramway  from  Santa  Cruz  to  Tacoronte,  and  in  the  Grand  Canary 
the  harbour  tramway  at  Las  Palmas;  the  only  others  are  the  dirty  and 
often  crowded  coches  publicos,  the  very  expensive  four-seated  vehicles, 
and  the  tartanas  or  gigs.  For  mountain  excursions  horses  or  mules  are 
used,  the  arriero  or  attendant  serving  as  a  guide. 

Among  numerous  Books  on  the  Canary  Islands  are  Samler  Brown's 
guide  (see  p.  20);  Whitford's  The  Canary  Islands  as  a  Winter  Resort 
(London,  1890;  7s.  6d.);  Ward's  Vale  of  Orotava  (London,  1903);  C.  Piazzi 
Smyth's  Teneriffe,  an  Astronomer's  Experiment  (London,  1858) ;  and  Olivia 
Stone's  Tenerife  and  its  Six  Satellites  (London,  1889). 

Teneriffe,  Span.  Tenerife,  the  largest  and  most  populous  of 
the  islands,  51^2  M.  long,  31  M.  in  breadth,  and  781  sq.  M.  in 
area,  contains  about  140,000  inhab.,  mostly  living  on  the  N.  coast. 
The  island  is  composed  of  three  mountain-ranges,  chiefly  of  erup- 
tive rock  of  a  basaltic  character,  which  have  been  welded  together, 
probably  since  the  miocene  period,  by  great  phonolithic  and 
trachytic  eruptions.  These  are  the  Anaga  Mts.  on  the  N.E.,  the 
Teno  Mts.  on  the  N.W.,  and  the  Adeje  Mts.  in  the  Bandas  del  Sui 
Beyond  the  lofty  plain  of  Laguna  the  Anaga  range  is  prolonged  to 
the  Llano  de  la  Maja  by  the  massive  Cumbre.  In  the  centre  of 
the  island,  from  the  enormous  crater-ring  of  Las  Cafiadas,  and  high 



4.  Route.      33 

above  the  trade-wind  clouds,  towers  the  mighty  Peak  of  Teneriffe, 
or  Pico  de  Teide  (12,175  ft.),  visible  for  100  M.  around. 

Approaching  the  island  from  the  N.,  we  first  sight  the  sombre 
and  wildly  fissured  Anaga  Mts.  (3406  ft.).  We  steer  past  the  light- 
house (Faro;  811  ft.)  a  little  to  the  N.W.  of  the  Punta  del  Drago, 
whose  light  is  visible  for  40  M.,  theu  skirt  the  rocky  E.  coast,  with 
the  Punta  de  Anaga  and  Punta  Antequera,  and  at  length  cast 
anchor  in  the  open  roads  of  the  bay  of  Santa  Cruz. 

Santa  Cruz  de  Tenerife.  —  Arrival.  Passengers  are  con- 
veyed in  steam-launches  (faluas)  or  in  rowing-boats  to  the  pier  (Muelle; 
PL  C,  2;  landing  or  embarkation  1  peseta,  each  trunk  75  c).  The  hotels, 
which  send  their  porters  on  board,  charge  3-5  shillings  for  the  landing 
and  conveyance  to  the  hotel  of  each  passenger  and  his  luggage. 

"V^---    _ -,_  r"  --    yr  .-J  ->   -       -  Lapitania  General.       A2 

i^Sg'P^^SS^  SB        m         *' !crrTOS.  vT&epraJQS  C  2 

.  B  C 

Wagner  Jk.  I)ebes,Lerpzifl 

Hotels  (often  crowded  in  Feb.,  March,  and  April;  mostly  closed  in 
summer).  *Grand-Hot.  Quisisaha  (PI.  a;  A,  1),  on  the  hill-side  (about 
330  ft.)  to  the  N.W.  of  the  town,  1  M.  from  the  pier,  with  fine  views, 
R.  from  3s.,  P>.  2,  dej.  3,  D.  5,  pens.  12>/o-15s.  (but  more  in  Feb.  and 
March);  *Pino  de  Oro  (PI.  b;  B,  1),  to  the  N.  of  the  town,  s/4  M.  from 
the  pier,  also  finely  situated,  with  a  beautiful  old  park,  pens.  8-12*.; 
Hot.  Battknberg  (PI.  c;  A,  2),  in  the  Paseo  de  Ronda,  below  Quisisana. 
pens,  from  9g.  —  Camacho's  English  Hotel  (PI.  d;  B,  2),  Calle  San  Fran- 
cisco 11,  pens.  9-128.;  Hot.  Orotava  (dependance  of  the  'Humboldt  Kur- 

34     Route  4  SANTA  CRUZ.  Teneriffe. 

haus'  at  Puerto  Orotava,  p.  39),  Plaza  de  la  Coustituci6n,  R.  3-6,  B.  1, 
dt'j.  3,  D.  4V2,  pens.  8-12V2S. ;  Alexandra  (PI.  e,  B2;  Olsen's),  Calle  de 
Alfonso  Treceno,  pens,  from  7>/»S-,  commended;  Victoria  (PI.  f,  B  2; 
Holiustrbm's),  Plaza  de  la  Constitucion,  pens.  6-8s. ;  the  last  four  rather 
plain ;  wine  is  always  an  extra.     Table-water,  Agua  Firgas. 

Cafes.  Cuatro  Naciones,  Europa,  and  Beige,  all  in  the  Plaza  de  la 

Theatre.  Teatro  Isabel  Segunda  (PI.  B,  3),  adjoining  the  market.— 
Bull  Ring  (Plaza  de  Toros;  PI.  A,  2),  in  the  Paseo  de.Ronda;  'corridas' 
mostly  in  May.  —  Music  in  the  Plaza  de  la  Constituci6n  (PI.  B,  C,  3)  and 
the  Plaza  del  Principe  Alfonso  (PI.  B,  2)  alternately,  thrice  weekly,  8.30 
to  10.30  p.m. 

Shops.  Teneriffe  Handiwork  (p.  32):  Bazar  Nivaria,  Calle  San 
Francisco  11;  Bazar  Taoro,  corner  of  Calle  San  Francisco  and  Calle  San 
Jose.  Indian  dealers  otter  defective  goods  (bargaining  necessary).  —  Book- 
seller: Binitez,  Calle  San  Francisco  6. — Tinned  Foods :  Qtiintero  &  Co., 
Calle  San  Francisco  2.  —  Photographic  Materials:  Lohr,  Calle  San  Fran 
cisco  34;  Espinosa,  Plaza  de  la  Constituci6n. 

Bankers.  Hamilton  &  Co.,  Calle  de  la  Marina  15;  Miller,  Wolf  son,  & 
Co.,  same  street,  No.  1;  Aiders,  same  street,  No.  31;  Dehesa,  Calle  de 
Alfonso  Treceno  64. 

Steamboat  Agents.  Hamilton  &  Co.  (see  above),  for  the  Peninsular 
&  Oriental  Co.,  Union  Castle,  Aberdeen  (Rennie's),  Aberdeen  (Thompson's), 
Shaw,  Savill,  &  Albion,  New  Zealand,  Hamburg-American,  White  Star,  and 
other  lines;  Teneriffe  Coaling  Co.,  for  the  Royal  Mail  Steam  Packet  Co.; 
Ahlers  (see  above),  for  the  Hamburg  &  South  American,  German  East 
African,  and  Woermann  lines;  Elder,  Dempster,  £  Co.,  Calle  de  Alfonso 
Treceno  84,  for  the  Beige  Maritime  du  Congo,  the  Italian  'La  Veloce', 
the  Societe  de  Transports  Maritimes,  and  the  Vapores  Correos  Inter- 
insulares  Canarios;  Viuda  4,  Hijos  de  Jttan  de  la  Roche,  Calle  de  Alfonso 
Treceno  35,  for  the  Compaiiia  Trasatlantica;  Miller,  Wolf  son,  &  Co.  (see 
above),  for  the  Servicio  de  Pailebotes. 

Post  &  Telegraph  Office  (Correos  y  Telegrafos;  PI.  3,  C2),  Marina. 

Physicians.  Dr.  Otto,  Santa  Rita,  and  others.  —  Chemist.  SerrOf 
Calle  de  Alfonso  Treceno  7. — Baths  (baiios),  Plaza  de  la  Constituci6n. — 
Sea  Baths  (poor)  at  the  pier;  better  at  the  Club  Tinerfeiio. 

Cabs  ('coches  de  punta';  stands  in  the  Plaza  de  la  Constituci6n  ami 
the  Plaza  San  Francisco):  drive  in  the  town,  each  pers.  50  c.  (at  niglit 
one-half  more);  per  hour  1-2  pers.  2  pesetas,  each  addit.  pers.  50c;  to 
San  Andres  10  p.,  to  Tegueste  or  Tacoronte  20,  to  Giiimar  30,  to  Puerto 
Orotava  35,  to  Icod  de  los  Vinos  60  p.  (but  bargain  advisable). 

Electric  Tramway  from  the  Alameda  de  la  Marina  (PI.  C,  2)  through 
the  Calle  de  Alfonso  Treceno,  via,  Cuesta  and  Laguna  (1  hr. ;  fare  1  p.  30  c. ; 
change  carriages),  to  Tacoronte  (l3/4  hr. ;  fare  2  p.  60  c).  Cars  for  Laguna 
hourly  from  7  a.m.  to  8  p.m.;  to  Tacoronte  every  two  hours  till  5  p.m. 
The  cars  starting  at  7  and  3,  in  connection  with  the  diligence  mentioned 
at  p.  37,  are  usually  crowded;  motor-omnibus  from  Tacoronte  to  Puerto 
Orotava,  see  p.  37. 

Consuls.  British,  J.  E.  Crocker;  vice-consul,  R.  C.  Griffiths. — United 
States,  S.  Berliner. 

English  Church  in  the  upper  part  of  the  town;  service  in  winter. 

English  Club  (also  for  temporary  members),  adjoining  the  Gover- 
nor's Palace  (p.  35). 

Santa  Cruz  de  Tenerife,  a  fortified  seaport  with  30,300  inhab., 
and  the  capital  of  the  island  since  1821  when  it  superseded 
Laguna,  lies  picturesquely  in  28°  28'  N.  lat.  and  16°  15'  W.  long., 
on  a  bay  3  M.  broad  between  the  Valle  del  Bufadero  (p.  36)  and 

TenerifTc.  SANTA  CRUZ.  *•  Route.     35 

the  Barranco  de  Santos,  below  the  spurs  of  the  Anaga  Mts.  and 
the  plateau  of  Laguna.  Its  beautiful  patios,  or  courtyards,  recall 
those  of  Seville  aud  the  flat  roofs  with  their  miradores,  or  belve- 
deres, are  reminiscent  of  Cadiz.  The  harbour  is  entered  by  3500- 
4000  vessels  per  annum.  At  Regla,  to  the  S.  of  the  town,  is  a 
wireless  telegraph  station. 

The  town  was  heroically  defended  in  1797  against  the  British  fleet 
under  Nelson,  who  lost  his  arm  here  and  had  to  retire  after  heavy  loss- 
Near  the  old  Citadel  (now  Cuartel  Almeida;  PI.  C,  1)  stands  the  saluting, 
battery.  The  old  Castillo  de  San  Cristdbal  (PI.  C,  2,  3)  now  contains 
puhlic  offices. 

From  the  Alameda  de  la  Marina  (PL  C,  2),  near  the  landing- 
place,  we  soon  reach  the  Plaza  de  la  Constituci6n  (PI.  B,  C,  3) 
to  the  S.W.,  with  the  Governor's  Palace  (Gobierno  Civil;  PI.  5, 
B  2;  fine  patio),  the  club-houses,  and  the  cafds  (p.  34).  On  the 
side  next  the  sea  rises  the  Triunfo  de  la  Candelaria,  a  column 
in  honour  of  the  Virgin,  the  tutelary  saint  of  the  Canaries  (p.  36), 
erected  by  the  Spaniards  as  a  memorial  of  their  victories,  with  four 
Guauche  kings  as  worshippers. 

From  the  S.  side  of  the  Plaza  de  la  Constitucion  the  Calle  de 
la  Cruz  Verde  leads  to  the  Iglesia  de  la  Coxcepci6n  (PI.  B,  3), 
the  principal  church  in  the  town,  consisting  of  a  nave  with  double 
aisles,  and  situated  close  to  the  Barranco  de  Santos.  It  was  founded 
early  in  the  16th  cent.,  but  was  rebuilt  after  a  fire  in  1652.  The 
tower,  181  ft.  high,  affords  an  extensive  panorama. 

Interior.  The  central  chapel  of  the  aisle  on  the  left  contains  two 
Hags  captured  from  Nelson's  fleet  (see  above),  of  which  the  town  is  very 

Eroud.  Here  too,  by  the  high-altar,  is  a  stone  cross  originally  erected  outside 
y  Al.  Fernandez  de  Lugo  (p.  37)  in  1494  as  a  memorial  of  his  victories. 
The  pulpit,  in  Italian  marble,  is  by  Matias  Rodriguez  (18th  cent.).  The 
burial  chapel  of  the  artist  (entered  to  the  right  of  the  high-altar)  contains 
several  pretty,  but  unfinished  carvings  in  juniper-wood. 

Near  this  is  the  Mercado  (PI.  B,3),  a  covered  market  for  fruit 
and  other  commodities  (worth  visiting  in  the  early  morning). 

From  the  N.W.  angle  of  the  Plaza  de  la  Constitucion  the  Calle 
San  Francisco  leads,  a  few  yards  farther  on,  to  the  church  of  San 
Francisco  (PI.  6;B,2),  built  in  1680.  The  tower,  inlaid  with 
azulejos,  or  ornamental  tiles,  dates  from  1777. 

The  old  Franciscan  monastery  contains  at  present  the  Museum 
with  fine  art  and  anthropological  collections  (new  building  being 
erected  near  the  Ayuntamiento,  PI.  1,  B  2).  Beyond  it  lies  the  Plaza 
del  Principe  Alfonso  (PI.  B,  2). 

The  long  Calle  de  Alfonso  Treceno  (PI.  B,  A,  2),  or  Calle  de 
Castillo,  the  main  street,  connects  the  Plaza  de  la  Constitucion  with 
the  pretty  Plaza  de  Weyler  (PI.  A,  2).  The  Paseo  de  los  Caches  and 
the  Paseo  de  Honda  (PI.  A,  B,  2, 1),  a  charming  promenade  bordered 
with  pepper-trees,  oleanders,  and  geraniums,  lead  thence  to  the  N. 
through  the  villa  quarter  (Barrio  de  Ensanche). 

Baedeker's  Mediterranean.  3 

36     Route  4.  GOlMAR.  Teneriffe. 

Excursions  on  thk  E.  Coast  (cabs,  see  p.  34).  From  the  Paseo  de 
Ronda  we  may  go  past  the  Pino  de  Oro  Hotel  (p.  33),  or  by  the  Hotel 
Quisisana,  to  the  Conduit  (llevada),  skirt  this  and  the  right  bank  of  the 
Barranco  de  Almeida,  and  thus  reach  the  (1  hr.)  tunnels,  or  we  may 
continue  our  walk  to  the  (3  hrs.)  Aguere  Springs.  —  Starting  from  the 
harbour  the  fine  coast-road  leads  to  the  N.E.  to  the  mouth  of  the  Voile 
del  Bufadero,  which  lies  at  the  foot  of  the  Anaga  Mts.  and  is  defended 
by  a  fort;  from  here  we  may  go  on,  crossing  some  barrancos  and  skirting 
the  rocks,  to  the  dirty  fishing-village  of  (5  M.)  San  Andre's  (poor  inn).  Thence 
to  the  Cruz  de  Taganana,  see  p.  37.  —  Drive  from  Cuesta  (see  below)  by 
the  Carretera  del  Sur,  a  road  shaded  by  tamarisks,  to  the  S.W.,  along  the 
slope  of  the  bare  sunburnt  Cumbre  (p.  33),  up  and  down  hill,  through  many 
barrancos,  via  (8  M.)  San  Isidro  to  (IOV2  M.)  the  so-called  Halfway  House 
(tavern;  good  wine);  then  through  the  deep  Barranco  Hondo,  below  the 
village  of  that  name  (1310  ft.),  mostly  through  pine-woods  (pinal).  To 
our  right,  on  the  hill,  lies  the  village  of  Igueste;  to  our  left,  on  the 
Ladera  de  Candelaria,  is  the  village  of  Candelaria,  with  the  famous 
pilgrimage-church  of  the  Virgen  de  la  Candelaria.  Lastly  we  cross  a 
lava-stream  from  the  Garganta  de  Giiimar  (p.  40)  to  (20  M.)  Guimar 
(975  ft.;  Hot.  El  Buen  Retiro,  with  a  fine  garden,  pens.  8-10s.,  English, 
good;  Pens.  Sunnyside,  pens.  7s.),  a  village  of  2000  inhab.  in  a  sunny 
and  sheltered  site,  in  the  Valle  de  Guimar.  This  fertile  valley,  33/4  M. 
in  breadth,  bounded  on  the  S.  by  the  Ladera  de  Guimar,  and  on  the  W. 
by  the  ash-cone  of  the  Arafo  and  the  Monte  de  Izafla  (7380  ft.),  yields 
sugar-cane,  oranges,  and  bananas.  Luxuriant  vegetation,  including  gigantic 
arbutus-trees,  is  seen  also  in  the  Barranco  del  Rio,  to  the  W.,  above 
the  village.  From  the  S.  end  of  the  village  we  may  reach  (ca.  l'/a  br.) 
two  cave-dwellings  of  Guanches  (p.  31),  now  empty,  in  the  upland  valley 
of  the  Barranco  de  Badajoz.  Route  over  the  Pedro  Gil  Pass  to  Orotava, 
see  p.  40;  ascent  of  the  Peak  of  Teneriffe,  see  p.  41. 

The  Excursion  to  the  Orotava  Valley,  the  most  charming 
spot  in  the  island,  takes  1-1 1/2  days.  We  go  by  tramway  (p.  34)  to 
Tacoronte  and  drive  thence  to  Puerto  Orotava  (see  p.  37). 

The  shadeless  and  generally  very  dusty  Carretera  del  Norte,  the 
continuation  of  the  Calle  de  Alfonso  Treceno  (p.  35)  and  Rambla 
de  Pulido,  crosses  the  Barranco  de  Santos  and  ascends  the  N.W. 
slope  of  the  Plateau  of  Laguna  in  windings  affording  several 
fine  views.  The  country  is  parched  and  scorched  in  spite  of  the 
numerous  reservoirs  (estanques),  but  corn-fields,  tamarisks,  fruit- 
trees,  and  relics  of  prickly-pear  plantations  are  occasionally  seen. 

3  M.  Cuesta  (962  ft.;  inn).  The  road  to  Guimar  (see  above) 
diverges  here.  Farther  on,  as  we  approach  the  cooler  and  better 
watered  table-land,  the  vegetation  becomes  richer. 

6*/4  M.  Laguna.  —  Hotel.  Hot.  Aguere  &  Continental,  Carrera  57, 
pens.  10-12s.,  good. 

Laguna  or  La  Laguna  (1740  ft.) ,  once  the  capital  of  the 
Canaries  (see  p.  34),  now  a  quiet  little  country-town  (pop.  4900),  is 
a  favourite  summer  residence  of  the  wealthier  families  of  Santa 
Cruz.  The  old-fashioned  houses,  as  at  Villa  Orotava,  often  have 
pretty,  carved  balconies;  their  unglazed  windows,  closed  with  shut- 
ters only,  generally  have  a  postigo,  or  flap,  from  which  the  inmates 
can  view  the  street. 

venertjje.  LAGDNA.  *•  Route.     37 

The  Cathedral,  founded  in  1513  and  since  1908  in  course  of 
reconstruction,  contains  the  tomb  of  Alonso  Fernandez  deLugo,  the 
conqueror  of  Teneriffe  (1493-6).  From  the  Calle  Juan  de  Vera, 
diverging  to  the  N.,  we  follow  the  first  side-street,  the  Calle  de 
San  Agustin,  to  the  left,  to  the  old  Augustinian  monastery,  once  the 
university,  and  now  the  Institute  de  Canarias,  which  contains 
the  Biblioteca  Publica  (26,000  vols.)  and  a  small  natural  history 
collection.  To  the  right,  in  the  same  street  (No.  28),  is  the  Palacio 
Episcopal,  whose  patio  is  richly  adorned  with  flowers. 

From  the  E.  end  of  the  street  a  few  paces  bring  us  to  the  Plaza 
de  Adelantado,  No.  1  in  which  is  the  old  Palace  of  the  Nava  family. 

From  the  S.  side  of  the  Plaza  the  Calle  de  Santo  Domingo  leads 
to  the  Priests'  Seminary  (Seminario  Conciliar),  once  a  Dominican 
monastery.  In  the  side-street  opposite  No.  30  the  second  door  on 
the  left  leads  into  the  garden  of  a  Farm  Building  (finca)  which 
contains  a  venerable  dragon-tree  (p.  30;  fee). 

The  Iglesia  de  la  Conception,  at  the  W.  end  of  the  town,  con- 
tains a  fine  carved  pulpit. 

Excursions.  A  fine  drive  (12-15  p.)  may  be  taken  via  (41/2  M.)  Tegueste 
and  (5Va  M.)  Tejina,  not  far  from  the  gloomy  Barranco  de  las  Palmas, 
to  (10Va  M.)  the  fishing-village  of  Bajamar,  near  the  Punta  del  Hidalgo, 
a  headland  which  affords  a  splendid  survey  of  the  precipitous  N.  coast  of 
the  island.  —  We  may  also  hire  a  mule  (6  p.)  to  take  us  to  the  laurel  forests 
of  Las  Mercedes  or  La  Mina.  From  Las  Mercedes  we  may  ascend  past 
the  Cruz  el  Carmen  (about  2950  ft.)  with  its  rich  thicket  of  bushes  (Erica 
scoparia),  and  past  the  Cruz  de  Afur  (3405  ft.)  to  the  (3l/2  brs.)  *Cruz  de 
Taganana  (3068  ft.),  a  splendid  point  for  surveying  the  great  Peak  and 
the  E.  coast  as  far  as  Santa  Cruz.  We  may  then  descend  to  the  N.,  through 
a  magnificent  old  *Forest  of  Canary  laurel,  vinatigo  (p.  30),  tree-heath 
(Erica  arborea),  and  Pleiomeris,  to  the  village  of  Taganana  (689  ft.),  near 
which  the  tall  pinnacles  of  the  Hombres  de  Taganana  tower  above  the 
abrupt  rocky  coast.  Or  we  may  go  on  to  the  N.E.  to  the  Cruz  del  Draguillo 
(2205  ft.)  and  descend  thence  to  Igueste  and  San  Andres  (p.  36)  on  the  E. 
coast. — Another  excursion  from  Laguna  is  to  the  (2  hrs.)  ancient  Forest 
of  Agua  Garcia  (p.  38)  to  the  W. 

Beyond  Laguna  the  High  Road,  bordered  at  first  with  eucalypti, 
now  crosses  the  plateau  of  the  Rodeos  to  the  Laguna  Saddle 
(2008  ft. ;  watershed),  and  descends  thence,  affording  fine  *Views  of 
the  Cumbre  (p.  33),  the  Peak  itself,  and  its  spurs,  and  passing  the 
hills  of  Guamaza  famed  for  their  view  of  Tacoronte,  to  the  Bandas 
del  Norte,  the  far  cooler  and  greener  N.  coast  of  the  island. 

12  M.  Tacoronte  (1762  ft. ;  Camacho's  Tacoronte  Hotel,  on 
the  road  above  the  town,  pens,  from  9s.,  good;  pop.  4200),  beauti- 
fully situated,  is  well  adapted  for  a  longer  stay.  Near  it  is  produced 
the  best  wine  in  the  island,  and  its  orange-groves  are  famous. 

From  Tacoronte  to  Puerto  Orotava  a  motor-omnibus  of  the  Grand 
Hotel  (p.  39)  plies  daily  at  noon  in  connection  with  the  tramway  men- 
tioned at  p.  34  (V2 'ir- ;  fare  12  s.);  cab,  ordered  by  telephone  from  Santa 
Cruz,  in  2-2>/a  hrs.,  20-25  p. ;  diligence  (dirty)  at  9  and  5,  viS,  Villa  Orotava 
(3  hrs. ;  fare  3  p.),  to  Puerto  Orotava  (4  hrs. ;  4  p.). 


38     Route  4:  OROTAVA  VALLEY.  Teneriffe. 

Excursions.  The  road  to  the  N.E.  leads  past  the  slopes  of  the  Montafla 
del  Picon,  and  through  the  Valle  de  G/ierra,  to  (7  M.)  Tejina  (p.  37). — 
To  the  N.  we  may  descend  (IV2  hr.)  to  the  precipitous  rocks  on  the  Coast 
(650-980  ft.),  where  the  numerous  caves  are  said  to  have  once  been  in- 
habited by  the  Guanches  (p.  31).  — To  the  S.E.  lies  the  (l'/2  hr.)  primaeval 
*Forest  of  Agua  Garcia  (2588  ft.),  the  finest  in  Teneritfe,  with  its  huge 
erica  trees  overgrown  with  creepers,  its  venerable  laurels,  and  superb  tree- 
ferns.  Specially  charming  is  a  sequestered  nook  at  the  Madre  d'Agua, 
the  source  of  the  water-conduit. 

The  Puerto  Orotava  road  (conveyance,  see  p.  37),  whence  the 
route  to  Sauzal  diverges  to  the  right  a  little  farther  on,  passes 
through  wheat-fields,  vineyards,  and  orchards,  and  is  bordered  with 
tamarisks,  Canary  palms,  oleanders,  aloes,  and  hedges  of  geranium. 
The  steep  slopes  of  the  Cumbre  are  carefully  cultivated  in  terraces 
up  to  the  evergreen  zone  of  the  cloud-region.  Fine  view  of  the 
rock-bound  coast  and  the  blue  ocean  to  the  right. 

15  M.  Matanza  (1585  ft.;  'slaughter'),  the  scene  of  the  last  de- 
feat of  the  Spanish  invaders  (1494),  is  now  a  village  of  2000  in- 

Beyond  (17  M.)  the  little  town  of  Victoria  (1240  ft.),  where 
the  Guanches  sustained  a  decisive  defeat  in  1494,  the  road  forks. 
The  new  road,  to  the  left,  crosses  the  Barranco  Hondo,  a  ravine 
about  330  ft.  deep,  by  a  viaduct  (1909);  the  old  road  winds  down 
into  the  Barranco  Hondo.  The  two  roads  unite  at  the  church  of 
(20  M.)  Santa  Ursula,  a  palm-girt  village  (886  ft.;  2200  inhab.), 
on  the  crest  of  the  Lad,era  de  Santa  Ursula,  noted  for  its  wine. 
About  1  hr.  above  it  is  the  farm  of  La  Florida  (p.  40). 

Beyond  the  village  we  obtain  a  glimpse,  and  then,  at  the 
Humboldt  Corner,  a  full  and  glorious  view  of  the  **Orotava 
Valley,  the  Taoro  Valley  of  the  Guanches,  famed  at  once  for  its 
harmonious  outlines,  for  its  superb  colouring,  and  for  its  luxuriant 
vegetation.  The  valley,  about  7  M.  long  by  6  M.  wide,  probably 
formed  by  subsidence,  and  descending  rather  rapidly  to  the  sea  in 
terraces,  is  sprinkled  with  smiling  villages  and  countless  white 
country-houses,  embosomed  among  palms,  pines,  orange-trees,  rose- 
bushes, and  climbing  plants,  which  are  abundantly  watered  by 
cuttings  and  conduits  descending  from  the  cloud-region.  The 
tropical  character  of  the  landscape  is  enhanced  by  the  extensive 
plantations  of  bananas.  On  the  E.  and  W.  the  valley  is  flanked 
by  the  lava  slopes,  about  1000  ft.  in  height,  of  the  Ladera  de 
Santa  Ursula  and  the  Ladera  de  Tigaiga,  and  on  the  S.  it  is 
bounded  by  the  Cumbre,  with  the  'organ-pipes'  at  the  S.E.  angle 
(p.  40).  Far  above  its  steep  banks,  but  most  often  concealed  by 
the  trade-wind  clouds,  towers  the  majestic  pyramid  of  the  Peak. 
In  the  middle  of  the  valley  rise  three  eruptive  cones  of  recent 
origin,  the  Montana  de  la  Horca  (833  ft.;  p.  39),  the  Montana 
de  Chaves  (p.  42),  and  the  Montana  de  las  Gaiianias,  which  have 
sent  forth  lava-streams  descending  to  the  sea. 

TenerifTe.  PUERTO  OROTAVA.  •*•  Route.     39 

Beyond  the  Barranco  del  Pinito  the  direct  road  to  (24^2  M.) 
Villa  Orotava  (p.  40)  branches  off  to  the  left,  and  1  M.  farther 
on  another  road  from  that  town  joins  ours.  We  are  next  carried 
through  deep  barrancos  by  means  of  cuttings,  with  their  surprising 
variety  of  layers  of  slag  and  beds  of  lava,  and  at  the  Montana  de 
la  Horca  we  come  to  a  point  where  a  new  road  diverges,  to  the 
left,  for  Realejo  Bajo  (p.  42)  and  Icod  de  los  Vinos  (p.  43).  We 
descend  to  the  right  to  Puerto  Orotava,  passing  a  private  entrance 
to  the  Grand  Hotel  on  our  right 

27V2  M.  Puerto  Orotava. — Hotels  (often  crowded  in  March 
and  April).  *Gra)id  Hotel  (or  'Kurhaus  Humboldt';  about  330ft.),  in  a 
fine  open  situation  on  the  N.  slope  of  the  Montana  de  la  Horca,  with 
splendid  views  from  the  roof-terrace,  beautiful  grounds,  and  sea-baths 
on  the  Martianez  beach  (see  below),  R.  from  4s.,  pens.  12s.  6d.  -20s.;  for 
guests  ascending  the  Peak  the  hotel  provides  mule,  guide,  porter,  accom- 
modation in  the  Alta  Vista  hut,  and  food  for  two  days  for  an  inclusive  sum 
of  30s.  *Hot.  Martianez,  at  the  E.  end  of  the  town,  not  far  from  the  sea, 
once  a  nobleman's  chateau,  with  a  charming  garden,  pens.  12 -15s.;  Hot. 
Monopol,  Plaza  de  la  Iglesia,  R.  2s.  6rf.  -3s.,  pens.  8-10s.,  good  (all  three 
under  German  management);  Hot.  Marquesa,  Plaza  de  la  Iglesia,  pens. 
5-6s.,  Spanish,  well  spoken  of. 

Post  &  Telegraph  Office,  Calle  de  Quintana,  near  the  Plaza  de  la 

Barker.  T.M.Reid,  Calle  San  Juan.  —  Photographer.  Eaeza,  Calle 
de  la  Hoya.  —  Tenekiffe  Wobk.     Frariken,    Calle  de  Santo  Domingo  10. 

Physicians.  Dr.  Lishman,  Casa  Montana;  Dr.  Perez.  —  Chemist.  R. 
Gomez,  Calle  de  Santo  Domingo. 

Music  in  the  Plaza  de  la  Constitucion. —  Sortija  Riding  (tilting  at 
the  ring)  in  the  grounds  of  the  Grand  Hotel. 

Carriages.  To  Villa  Orotava  or  Realejo  10  p.;  to  Tacoronte  20-25  p.; 
to  Icod  dc  los  Vinos  25  p.  —  Omnibus  to  Villa  Orotava  twice  daily,  1  p. — 
Mule  (inulo)  to  Agua  Mansa  10  p.,  to  Guimar  121/..,  to  the  Peak  20  p. — 
Donkey  (burro),  5  p.  per  day  (according  to  bargain).  —  Guide  to  the 
Peak  20  p. 

Exglish  Church  (resident  chaplain)  in  the  grounds  above  the  Grand 
Hotel. — English  Cemetery  and  others  to  the  W.  of  the  town. 

Puerto  Orotava,  officially  called  Puerto  de  la  Cruz,  the  most 
popular  invalid  resort  in  +be  Canaries,  a  poor  little  seaport  with 
3100  inliab.,  lies  on  a  delta  formed  by  lava-streams.  The  Calle 
San  Juan,  the  main  street,  in  continuation  of  the  highroad,  de- 
scends, passing  near  the  Plaza  de  la  Constitucion,  with  its  garden- 
grounds,  to  the  Pier  (Muelle),  whence  the  produce  of  the  Orotava 
Valley  is  conveyed  by  small  boats  to  the  vessels  in  the  roads. 

In  the  Plaza  de  la  Iglesia,  to  the  E.  of  the  Plaza  de  la  Con- 
stitucion, are  the  Iglesia  de  la  Peila  de  Santa  Francisca,  with 
its  new  tower,  and  the  Casas  Consistoriales  or  town-hall,  with  its 
old-fashioned  wooden  balcony.  —  Mr.  R.  Gomez,  the  chemist  (see 
above),  possesses  a  small  Guanche  Museum  (adm.  lp.). 

To  the  E.  of  the  town  a  palm-avenue  leads  along  the  Barranco 

(artianez  to  the  bathing  beach  (Flaya  dc  Martianez).   Beyond 

the  ravine,  about  halfway  up  the  abrupt  coast-hill,  is  the  spring 

40     Route  4.  VILLA  OROTAVA.  Teneriffe. 

called  Fuente  de  Martianez. — A  zigzag  path  ascends  to  the  Sitio 
de  la  Paz  (492  ft.),  once  occupied  by  Ales,  von  Humboldt  (1814), 
and  now  containing  several  memorials  of  that  savant.  A  cypress- 
avenue  is  the  sole  relic  of  the  old  garden  (fee).  —  A  beautiful  walk 
may  be  taken  to  the  Barranco  de  las  Arenas.  V/2  hr.  to  the  E. 

To  the  S.  the  Camino  del  Puerto  (see  below)  leads  past  the 
Observatorio  (belonging  to  the  nautical  observatory  of  Hamburg) 
to  the  ^Botanic  Garden  (Jardiu  Botanico  or  de  Aclimatacion), 
laid  out  in  1788,  which,  though  sadly  neglected,  contains  exquisite 
tlowers,  superb  magnolias,  and  fine  specimens  of  royal,  Canary,  and 
exotic  palms,  dragon-trees  (p.  30),  and  fig-trees  (Ficus  imperialis 
and  Ficus  nitida;  p.  233). 

A  dusty  ioad  (donkey  3  p.)  leads  from  the  cemetery  at  the  W. 
end  of  the  town  to  the  Finca  los  Frailes  of  Dr.  Perez,  with  its 
splendid  avenue  of  palms.  The  road  ends  at  the  Pisco  doBurgado, 
with  its  fissured  lava  cliffs,  washed  by  huge  breakers. 

Pleasant  ride  (4-5  hrs. ;  donkey  4,  horse  8  p.)  by  Los  Frailes  to  Realejo 
Bajo  and  Realejo  Alto  (p.  42),  returning,  above  the  three  eruptive  cones 
(p.  38),  via  Cruz  Santa  (p.  41),  Perdomn,  and  Villa  Orotava. 

From  Puerto  Orotava  the  dusty  roads  mentioned  on  p.  39,  be- 
sides the  Camino  del  Puerto,  the  old  bridle-path,  lead  through  a 
garden-like  region  in  V^-Vj^hr.  to  Villa  Orotava  (1080-1480  ft.; 
Hot.  Suizo,  pens.  6-8 p.,  good;  Hot.  Victoria,  same  charges;  3600 
inhab.)  the  Arautdpala  of  the  Guanches,  now  the  capital  of  the 
Orotava  Valley.  The  antiquated  little  town,  which  has  fallen  into 
great  poverty  since  the  decline  of  the  cochineal  culture  (p.  32), 
occupies  almost  the  loveliest  site  in  the  whole  island. 

At  the  E.  entrance  is  the  Plaza  de  San  Agustin,  with  the  old 
Iglesia  de  San  Agustin  and  a  band-stand,  whence  we  have  a  fine 
view  of  Puerto  Orotava  and  the  sea.  Near  it  is  the  Villa  of 
Marquesa  Quinta,  now  owned  by  Dr.  Perez  (p.  39),  with  its  beau- 
tiful park;  on  the  highest  terrace  is  a  marble  mausoleum  (adm.  to 
both  1  p.). 

In  the  quarter  above  the  Iglesia  de  la  Conception  are  several 
chateaux  of  the  noblesse.  On  the  S.W.  side  of  the  town,  near  the 
monastery  of  San  Francisco  (now  a  hospital),  are  two  old  man- 
sions with  very  handsome  carved  balconies  (comp.  p.  36). 

An  excursion,  attractive  in  clear  weather  only,  may  be  made  to  the 
farm  of  Agua  Mansa  (3491  ft.),  in  the  S.E.  angle  of  the  Orotava  Valley, 
within  the  cloud-region,  IV2  hr.  to  the  S.E.  of  Villa  Orotava.  Steep 
bridle-path;  mule,  see  p.  39.  The  chestnut  and  erica  woods  are  succeeded 
in  the  Barranco  de  la  Arena  by  primaeval  *Pine  Forest,  near  which  is  an 
abrupt  slope  with  huge  columns  of  basalt,  known  as  the  Organos  (organ- 
pipes).  From  Agua  Mansa  we  may  either  ride  back  by  the  W.  margin 
of  the  Ladera  de  Santa  Ursula  (p.  38)  and  the  farm  of  La  Florida,  or 
we  may  cross  the  Pedro  Gil  Pass  (6522  ft.;  the  top  of  the  Cumbre,  to  the 
S.W.,  commands  a  striking  view  of  the  E.  coast  and  the  Grand  Canary) 
to  the  grand  basin  of  the  *Garganta  de  Giiimar,  and  along  the  lava- 
stream  of  1705,  past  Arafo,  to  (6-7  hrs.)  Giiimar  (p.  36). 


Tenerife.  PEAK  OF  TENERIFFE.  *  Route.     41 

The  Ascent  op  the  Peak  of  Teneriffe,  which  is  fatiguing  but 
without  danger,  takes  two  days  and  should  be  made  in  the  warmer  season 
(hotel  arrangement  for  the  ascent,  see  p.  39;  tariffs  for  mule  and  guide, 
also  see  p.  39).  The  excursion  affords  an  admirable  insight  into  the  ge- 
ological structure  of  the  island,  while  the  view  in  clear  weather  is  of 
unparallelled  grandeur.  The  equipment  most  needed  consists  of  riding 
leggings,  an  Alpenstock  (lanza),  stout  boots,  a  lantern,  rugs,  drinking- 
water,  abundant  provisions,  grey  spectacles  or  goggles,  and  lanoline  for 
the  face.  In  the  Canadas  (see  below)  the  guides  and  mule-drivers  often 
refuse  their  services  when  snow  is  falling.  The  shortest  way  to  the  peak 
is  by  the  bridle-path  from  Puerto  Orotava,  via  Cruz  Santa,  to  the  Portillo. 
In  about  10  hrs.  we  reach  the  refuge-hut  of  Alta  Vista,  the  keys  of  which 
are  brought  by  the  guide.  We  may  afterwards  descend  to  Icod  Alto  and 
Realejo  Alto  (p.  42;  about  8  hrs.),  where  a  vehicle  may  be  ordered  to  meet 
us;  or  we  may  descend  via  the  Llano  de  la  Maja  to  Guiniar  (p.  36;  10 hrs.). 

Our  route  ascends  through  every  climatic  zone  in  the  world.  From 
the  tropical  region  of  Puerto  Orotava  we  pass,  beyond  Cruz  Santa  (1500  ft.), 
through  the  Taoro  Basin  into  the  temperate  zone,  the  region  of  maize  and 
cereals,  where  numerous  cottages  are  shaded  by  chestnut-trees.  Leaving 
behind  the  thickets  of  Monte  Verde  and  following  the  Camino  del  Brezal 
with  its  view  of  the  sombre  Ladera  de  Tigaiga  (p.  38),  we  mount,  be- 
yond the  cloud-region,  a  wilderness  of  lava.  A  most  striking  change  of 
scenery  is  observed  at  the  Portillo  (6611  ft.),  lying  a  little  to  the  E.  of 
the  Fortaleza  (p.  42),  and  forming  the  entrance  to  the  *Montafias  de  las 
Caiiadas,  the  lowest  and  oldest  crater.  This  enormous  basin,  6-I2V2  M.. 
in  diameter,  girdles  the  base  of  the  Peak  with  its  ring-shaped  wall  of 
lava  rocks  (650-1650  ft.  high),  the  continuity  of  which  has,  however,  been 
broken  by  later  eruptions.  The  summit  of  the  Peak  is  rarely  free  from 
snow  except  in  August  and  September.  We  now  ride  across  the  Cafunhis 
Plateau  (midday-rest;  view  of  the  Peak),  a  desolate  expanse  of  pumice- 
stone,  overgrown  with  scanty  Eetama  (p.  31),  and  in  summer  enlivened 
by  a  few  goats.  Here  and  there  it  is  intersected  by  huge  lava-streams 
and  covered  with  isolated  eruptive  cones.  The  sky  is  generally  cloud- 
less, the  sun  intensely  hot,  and  the  air  marvellously  clear.  At  the  foot 
of  the  lower  portion  of  the  Peak,  not  far  from  the  spur  of  Los  Rastrojos 
(7562  ft.),  begins  the  toilsome  ascent  over  the  grey-white  pumice-stone 
of  the  Montaila  Blanca  (8691  ft.)  to  the  saddle  adjoining  the  pyramid- 
like peak.  The  zigzag  path  now  mounts  the  slopes  of  slag,  inhabited 
by  rarihits,  mostly  between  streams  of  black  obsidian,  to  the  Lomo  Tieco. 
In  the  midst  of  the  expanse  of  slag  shady  resting-places  are  formed 
here  and  there  by  great  blocks  of  lava,  such  as  the  Estancia  de  los 
Ingleses  (9711  ft.)  and  the  Estancia  de  los  Alemanes  (10,018  ft.).  Below 
the  spot  where  the  lava-streams  unite  to  form  the  sickle-shaped  Piedras 
Xegras  stands  the  refuge-hut  of  Alta  Vista  (10,728  ft.;  accommodation 
for  15  pers.  at  the  utmost,  at  5  p.  each).  From  this  point  we  already 
enjoy,  in  clear  weather,  an  imposing  view  of  the  E.  half  of  the  island, 
of  the  Grand  Canary  (p.  43),  and  even  of  Fuerteventura  and  Lanzarote 
(p.  28),  a  glorious  spectacle  mure  particularly  at  sunset,  when  the  Peak 
gradually  casts  its  shadow  over  the  sea  as  far  as  the  Grand  Canar3r. 

Next  morning  we  start  early.  The  winding  path  ascends  a  field  of 
Lava  to  (1  hr.)  the  Rambleta  (11,713  ft.),  the  central  crater-basin,  out  of 
which  towers  the  trachytic  cone,  covered  with  pumice-stone,  of  the  Piton 
or  Pan  de  Azucar  ('sugar-loaf'),  the  summit  of  the  **Peak  of  Teneriffe, 
or  Pico  de  Teide  (12,175  ft.;  'peak  of  hell').  In  «/s-8/4nr-  we  climlj  its 
slopes  to  the  Corona,  the  very  narrow  margin  of  the  Caldera,  the  in- 
Bigniticant  highest  crater  (77  by  110  yds.;  130  ft.  in  depth),  which  was  still 
aotive  in  the  middle  ages,  but  now  emits  a  few  jets  of  steam  only  from  its 
fumaroles  (comp.  p.  29).  When  the  horizon  is  perfectly  clear,  the  eye 
ranges  over  an  area  of  some  2200  sq.  M. ;  floating,  as  it  were,  in  the  midst  of 
the  boundless  expanse  of  the  ocean,  the  blue  of  which  seems  to  blend  on 
the  horizon  with   the  blue   of   the  sky,    we  can  sometimes  see  the  whole 

42     Route  4.  PEAK  OF  TENERIFFE.  Teneriffe. 

of  the  Canaries,  from  Palma,  Hierro,  and  Gomera  on  the  W.  to  the  far- 
distant  E.  group.  To  the  W.  we  look  down  upon  the  grand  crater  of  the 
Pico  Viejo  (see  below),  the  Chahorra,  and  the  Talus  de  Bilma,  studded  with 
countless  coloured  cinder-cones.  We  survey,  from  the  Fortaleza  on  the 
N.E.  to  the  Morro  del  Cedro  on  the  S.W.,  the  ring-shaped  wall  of  the 
Cafiadas,  with  the  pumice-stone  wilderness  of  the  Canadas  Plateau  and  the 
coloured  lava-masses  of  the  Azulejos  (see  below).  The  older  serrated 
mountains  in  the  island  (pp.  32,  33)  and  the  green  basins  of  Orotava  and 
Icod  are  generally  shrouded  by  a  sea  of  clouds  of  dazzling  whiteness. 

On  the  Descent,  which  experts  may  shorten  at  first  by  glissading 
down  the  cinder-slopes,  we  may  visit  the  Queva  del  Hielo  (11,044  ft.), 
a  fine  lava  cavern  a  little  below  the  Rambleta,  always  tilled  with  ice  and 
water.  From  the  Montana  Blanca  (p.  41)  we  then  turn  to  the  N.  to  the 
Fortaleza  (8300  ft.),  the  only  considerable  height  on  the  N.  margin  of  the 
Cafiadas  wall.  The  bridle-path,  very  steep  and  rough,  next  descends 
to  the  Corona  de  Icod  (about  2900  ft.),  the  highest  point  of  the  Ladera 
de  Tigaiga  (p.  38),  falling  away  to  the  E.  in  a  huge  rocky  slope,  and 
again  offering  a  glorious  view  of  the  Vale  of  Orotava.  Prom  Icod  Alto 
(1716  ft.)  we  may  descend  rapidly  to  the  N.E.  to  Reatejo  Alto  (see  below), 
or  we  may  wend  our  way  due  W.  to  Icod  de  los  Vinos  (p.  43). 

Round  the  CaSadas  is  an  interesting  but  toilsome  excursion.  From 
the  Portillo  (p.  41)  we  strike  to  the  S.  across  the  Canadas  Plateau  to  the 
rocks  of  the  Risco  Verde  (7130  ft.),  on  the  E.  margin  of  the  encircling  wall, 
where  a  lava  cavern  serves  for  night-quarters.  The  path  then  leads  to  the 
S.W.,  skirting  the  basaltic  rock  of  Las  Pilas  (7228  ft.),  passing  below 
the  Espigdn  Hill,  and  along  the  wildly  fissured  and  variegated  Roques 
de  la  Grieta  (7211  ft.),  where  a  new  Observatorio  has  been  built  near  a 
spring  (1909).  This  brings  us  to  the  Guajara  Hill  (8908  ft.),  near  the 
Guajara  Pass  (see  below).  Our  route,  now  running  to  the  W.,  crosses  the 
so-called  Azidejos  (9400  ft.),  a  lava  wall  consisting  partly  of  blue-green 
rock,  and  at  the  Boca  de  Tauze  (7021  ft.)  surmounts  the  huge  lava-streams 
(of  1798  and  1909,  comp.  p.  29)  of  the  Chahorra  (7743  ft.)  and  the  Pico  Viejo 
(10,289  ft.).  To  the  left  rises  the  Morro  del  Cedro  (8000  ft.),  the  highest 
hill  on  the  W.  side  of  the  crater-wall.  From  the  N.W.  side  of  the  Cafiadas, 
whose  girdle-wall  was  here  almost  entirely  destroyed  by  the  numerous 
cones  thrown  up  in  1705  and  1706,  we  next  reach  the  *Pinal  de  la  Guancha, 
the  finest  pine-forest  in  the  island.  Thence  we  traverse  the  huge  lava 
slopes  of  the  homo  de  Vega  (5168  ft.)  to  the  basin  of  Icod  de  los  Vinos 
(p.  43). 

A  somewhat  shorter  path  from  the  Portillo,  crossing  the  saddle  be- 
tween the  Rastrojos  and  the  Montana  Blanca  (p.  41),  leads  to  the  S.W., 
in  3'/2  hrs.,  direct  to  the  Guajara  Pass  (7992  ft.),  which  gives  access  to 
the  village  of  Vila/lor  (4842  ft. ;  inn),  finely  situated  on  the  S.  slope  of 
the  girdle-wall  of  the  Canadas  amid  pinewoods  and  luxuriant  orchards, 
and  noted  for  the  'Vilaflor  embroidery'  (p.  32).  From  the  brow  of  the  Llano 
de  los  Qtiemados  we  overlook  the  late-volcanic  terraces  of  the  Bandas  del 
Siir,  which  are  bare  and  thinly  peopled.  A  fine  excursion  from  Vilaflor  is 
made  via  Escalona  (3750  ft.)  and  Arona  (2198  ft.),  with  views,  towards  the 
W.,  of  the  islands  of  Gomera  and  Hierro,  to  the  little  town  of  Adeje  (935  ft.), 
situated  behind  the  Adeje  Mts.  (p.  32;  Roque  del  Carasco,  etc.),  the  ancient 
Guanche  capital  of  the  island.  Near  it  is  the  *Barranco  del  Inflerno,  the 
upper  half  of  which  is  the  grandest  ravine  in  Teneriffe. 

The  *High  Road,  which  at  the  foot  of  the  Montana  de  Chaves 
(p.  38)  sends  off  a  by-road  to  the  village  of  Bealejo  Alto  (1158  ft.), 
nears  the  sea  at  the  rocky  headland  of  Rambla  de  Castro. 

At  (271/2  M.  from  Santa  Cruz)  Bealejo  Bajo  (883  ft.)  the  La- 
dera de  Tigaiga  (p.  38)  comes  close  down  to  the  coast.  The  next 
stretch  of  road,  as  far  as  (321/.,  M.)  San  Juan  de  la  Bambla 

GBAN  OAXARIA.  4.  Route.     43 

(2000  inhab.),  situated  on  a  recent  lava-stream,  is  particularly  line. 
It  leads  past  abrupt  rocks  and  through  sombre  gorges  (Barrunco 
de  la  Torre,  Barranco Ruiz),  and  often  through  banana  plantations 
and  vineyards  extending  to  the  cliffs  of  the  coast. 

o7'/o  M.  Ieod  de  los  Vinos  (755  ft.;  Hot.  Ingles,  poor),  a 
small  town  with  2000  inhab.,  is  the  chief  place  in  the  *Vale  of 
Icocl,  which  is  bounded  by  the  Ladera  de  Tigaiga,  the  Lomo  de 
Vega,  and  the  Pinal  de  la  Guancha  (p.  42),  rivalling  the  Vale 
of  Orotava  in  fertility  and  beauty.  We  enjoy  here  a  magnificent 
*View  of  the  Peak,  towering  almost  immediately  above  the  coast, 
between  the  Fortaleza  and  the  Pico  Viejo  (p.  42).  A  garden  near 
the  Iglesia  Parroquial  contains  an  old  dragon-tree.  The  Guanches' 
Cave  below  the  village  is  not  worth  visiting  (fee  2  p.). 

A  pleasant  way  back  to  the  Yale  of  Orotava  is  the  bridle-path  via 
Guancha,  Icod  Alto  (p.  42),  and  Realejo  Alto  (p.  42). 

The  Graii  Canaria  or  'Grand  Canary'',  the  second-largest 
island  in  the  archipelago,  nearly  circular  in  form,  with  127,000 
inhab.  in  an  area  of  626  sq.  II. ,  lies  about  66  M.  to  the  S.E.  of  Tene- 
riffe.  The  best-watered  and  most  fertile  parts  are  the  environs  of  Las 
Palmas,  the  capital,  and  the  N.  coast.  The  barren  brown  mountains 
in  the  interior,  with  their  sharp  outlines,  culminate  in  the  Pico  de 
las  Nieves  (6400  ft.).  On  every  side  deep  barrancos  or  ravines  de- 
scend to  the  coast,  conspicuous  among  which,  as  we  near  the  island 
from  Teneriffe,  is  the  Barranco  de  Tejeda. 

The  Isleta  (748  ft.),  the  N.E.  promontory  of  Gran  Canaria,  once 
a  separate  island,  has  gradually  been  united  to  the  greater  island 
by  deposits  of  sea-sand  which  form  the  Istmo  de  Guanarteme. 
The  Lighthouse  (Faro)  on  the  Pnnta  Morro  de  la  Vieja,  on  the  N 
side  of  the  Isleta,  is  the  chief  landmark  for  steamers  coming  from 
Teneriffe  or  the  N. 

Beyond  the  Isleta,  in  the  Confital  Bay  opening  to  the  W.,  lies 
Puerto  de  la  Luz  (Hot.  Rayo,  with  cafe,  pens.  6  p.,  a  very  fair 
Spanish  inn;  comp.  Plan,  p.  46),  a  rapidly  rising  place,  the  chief 
port  of  Gran  Canaria,  and  the  best  harbour  in  the  islands.  The 
entrance  to  it  is  protected  by  a  breakwater  (rompeolas),  about 
1100  yds.  long,  and  by  the  Muelle  (mole)  de  Sauta  Catalina  (landing 
or  embarking  in  steam-launches  or  small  boats,  1  p.,  trunk  50  c.). 
The  hotel-agents  from  Las  Palmas  come  on  board. 

A  dusty  Road  leads  from  Puerto  de  la  Luz,  passing  many 
new  buildings,  the  mineral  baths  of  Fuente  de  Santa  Catalina 
(near  which  is  the  English  Church,  p.  45),  and  the  large  hotels 
named  at  p.  44,  to  (4y2  M.)  Las  Palmas.  (Tramway  in  about 
40  min.;  fares  20-40  c. ;  tartana,  a  kind  of  dog-cart,  2,  with  lug- 
gage 3-4  p.) 

44     Rotete  4. 


Gran  Canaria 

Las  Palmas.  —  Hotels.  Santa  Catalina,  .pens.  10-16.?.,  and  M6- 
tropole,  pens.  10-12S.,  both  on  the  road  to  the  harbour  (comp.  Plan,  p.  46), 
ca.  3/4  M.  to  the  N.  of  the  town,  with  beautiful  gardens  towards  the  sea, 
tennis-courts,  etc.;  both  closed  in  summer.  —  In  the  town:  Hot.  Contin- 
ental (PI.  c;  B,  2),  with  American  bar  and  pretty  garden,   pens,  from  8«. 

6d.,  knd  Quiney's  English  Hotel  (PI.  d;  B,  2),  E.  4-6,  B.  1,  D.  5,  pens. 
10-15S.,  both  in  the  Plaza  de  San  Bernardo  (p.  45),  in  a  quiet  and  pleasant 
situation.  —  Catalan  Hotel  (PI.  e;  B,  3),  Calle  de  los  Remedios  8,  pens.  6  p., 
and  Cuatro  Naciones  (PI.  f ;  B,  4),  Alameda  de  Colon,  with  cafe,  pens.  6  p., 
both  quite  Spanish.  —  The  best  table-water  is  Agua  Firgas. 

Post  Office  (Correos;  PI.  1,  B  4),  Plaza  de  Santa  Ana  (best  hours  12-4). 
Telegraph  Office  (Telegrafo;  PI.  5,  A  2),  Calle  de  Domingo  J.  Navarro  36. 

Gran  Oonaria.  LAS  PALMAS.  *■  Route.      45 

Theatre  (PI.  C,  8),  at  the  month  of  the  Barranco  Guiniguada. — Music 
in  the  Alameda  de  Col6n. 

Bankers.  Miller  Jc  Co.,  Muelle  de  Santa  Catalina,  in  Puerto  de  la  Luz; 
Blandy  Bros.  &  Co.,  Calle  Mayor  de  Triana  68,  and  others. 

Steamboat  Agents.  Miller  &  Co.  (see  above),  for  the  Union  Castle, 
the  Austro-Americana,  Aberdeen  (Rennie's),  Bucknall,  and  other  lines; 
Grand  Canary  Coawng  Co.,  for  the  Peninsular  &  Oriental  Co.  and  the 
Royal  Mail  Steam  Packet  Co.;  Bc.hrem ,  at  Puerto  de  la  Luz,  to  the  N. 
of  the  Muelle  de  Santa  Catalina,  for  the  German  East  African,  Woer- 
mann,  and  Hamburg-American  Lines;  Elder,  Dempster,  &  Co.,  Calle  Mayor 
de  Triana  93,  for  the  Vapores  Correos  Interinsulares  Canarios;  M.  Curbelo 
&  Co.,  Calle  de  Muro,  for  the  Compaiiia  Trasatlantica. 

Carriages  (stands  in  the  Plaza  de  Cairasco,  in  the  Plaza  de  San 
Bernardo,  and  near  the  theatre).  Drive  in  the  town  for  1-3  pers.  l'/2,  for 
4  pers.  2  p. ;  per  hour  2>/2  (or  for  a  tartana  or  dog-cart  2)  p. ;  to  Puerto  de  la 
Luz  5  (tartana  2)  p.;  to  the  Monte,  Telde,  or  Arucas  15  (tartana  127.2)  p.;  to 
Atalaya,  San  Mateo,  or  Teror  20  (tartana  15)  p. 

English  Church,  near  the  Hot.  Mctropole,  on  the  road  to  Puerto  de 
la  Luz  (corap.  Plan,  p.  4G). — English  Club  at  Puerto  de  la  Luz. 

Las  Palmas,  a  town  of  28,600  inhab.,  of  a  S.  Spanish  type  like 
Santa  Cruz  (comp.  p.  35),  the  seat  of  the  bishop  of  Gran  Canada, 
situated  in  28°  6'  N.  lat.  and  15°  12'  "W.  long.,  is  the  busiest  and 
wealthiest  town  in  the  whole  archipelago.  The  houses  of  the  well- 
to-do  townspeople,  built  of  pale-grey  tufa  or  blue  lava-basalt,  often 
enclose  beautiful  patios  filled  with  plants,  which  are  watered  by 
means  of  pipes  conducted  from  the  roofs.  On  the  hills  at  the  back  of 
the  town,  which  have  been  fortified  since  the  Spanish  and  American 
war,  are  sprinkled  many  gaily  painted  country-houses. 

Las  Palmas  is  divided  into  two  parts  (barrios)  by  the  Barranco 
de  Guiniguada:  on  the  N.  Triana,  and  on  the  S.  Vegueta. 

The  main  street  of  Triana,  with  its  numerous  shops,  in  line 
with  the  road  from  Puerto  de  la  Luz,  is  called  Calle  Mayor  de 
Triana  (PI.  B,  C,  1-3).  Beyond  the  Baranquillo  de  Mata  it  inter- 
sects the  Plaza  San  Telmo  (PI.  B,  1),  in  which  rises  the  Gobierno 
MUitar  (PI.  2;  B,  1). 

The  Paseo  de  Bravo  Murillo  (PI.  B,  A,  1)  ascends  the  gorge  to 
the  right  to  the  Carretera  del  Norte  (p.  47).  On  the  left  is  the 
Harbour  (PI.  B,  C,  1),  with  the  pier  (Muelle),  where  the  sea-breezes 
may  be  enjoyed  in  hot  weather. 

From  the  Calle  Mayor  de  Triana,  farther  on,  the  Calle  Constan- 
tino diverges  to  the  right  to  the  Plaza  de  San  Bernardo  (PI.  A,  B,  2), 
a  square  planted  with  Indian  laurels.  Near  the  S.  end  of  the  street 
the  Calle  del  General  Bravo  leads  to  the  Alameda  de  Colon  (PI.  B,  3), 
which  is  embellished  with  a  bust  of  Columbus  and  fine  royal  and 
date  palms  (p.  30).  In  this  square  rise  the  Iglesia  de  San  Fran- 
cisco (1689)  and  the  Casino. 

The  central  point  of  Vegueta  is  the  Plaza  de  Santa  Ana  (PI.  B,  4), 
where  the  guides  lie  in  wait  for  strangers.  The  bronze  dogs  at  the 
lower  end  of  the  plaza,  as  well  as  those  in  the  arms  of  the  town, 
recall  the  tradition  that  Juba  II.  (p.  31)  carried  away  some  dogs 
(canes)  from  the  island,  and  that  their  name  is  derived  thence. 

46     Route  4.  MONTE.  Gran  Canaria. 

The  Cathedral  (PI.  B,  C,  4;  San  Christobal),  founded  in  1497 
and  restored  in  1781,  with  its  heavy  facade  flanked  with  towers 
184  ft.  high,  contains,  in  the  first  chapel  of  the  left  aisle,  the  tomb- 
stone of  the  native  poet  Bart.  Cairasco  deFigueroa  (1540-1610),  and 
in  the  crypt  the  tomb  of  Viera  y  Clavijo  (1731-1802),  the  historian 
of  the  Canaries. 

The  Town  Hall  (Palacio  Municipal;  PI.  B,  4),  built  in  1842, 
contains,  on  the  third  floor,  the  Museo  Canario,  consisting  of  nat- 
ural history  collections  and  of  curiosities  from  the  Guanche  caverns 
of  the  Isleta  (p.  43)  and  other  places  (implements,  weapons,  and 
tools  in  basalt,  obsidian,  horn,  wood,  and  clay,  leather-work,  and 
mummies).   Adm.  free,  daily  11-3. 

For  a  prolonged  stay  the  Monte  is  preferable  to  Las  Palmas.  It 
is  reached  by  the  Carretera  del  Centre  (comp.  PI.  A,  5),  the  best 
road  in  the  island.  Ascending  from  the  suburb  of  San  Roque,  and 
soon  affording  splendid  views,  the  road  at  first  follows  the  Bar- 
ranco  de  Guiniguada  (p.  45),  and  then  winds  up  the  slopes  of  the 
Pico  del  Viento  (820  ft.). 

33/4  M.  Tafira  (1230  ft.;  Hotel  Victoria;  James's  Boarding 
House),  the  first  village  on  the  *Monte,  a  colony  of  villas  and  a 
favourite  winter  resort  of  the  English. 

8  M.  Santa  Brigida  (1572  ft.;  Hot.  Santa  Brigida,  in  a  fine 
open  situation  with  a  beautiful  park,  pens,  from  10s.  6d. ;  Quiney's 
Bella  Vista,  1/2  M.  below  the  other,  pens.  8-10s.),  a  finely  situated 
village  with  500  inhabitants. 

The  road,  still  unfinished,  goes  on  to  Telde  (p.  47),  passing  the 
curious  cave-village  of  Atalaya  (1720  ft.),  which  rises  in  terraces 
on  the  hill-side.  The  tufa  walls  of  the  cave-dwellings  are  hung  with 
mats.  The  industry  of  the  place  is  the  manufacture  of  pottery, 
notably  the  porous  water-jars  so  common  in  N.  Africa. 

The  ascent  of  the  *Pico  de  Vandama  (1838  ft.)  may  be  made 
from  Atalaya  or  direct  from  Santa  Brigida  (there  and  back  2  hrs. ; 
mule  3  p.).  This  hill,  overgrown  with  pines  and  tree-like  broom, 
overlooks  the  grand  mountain  landscape  of  the  E.  coast.  Very 
striking  is  the  view  of  the  *  Colder  a  de  Vandama,  a  huge  crater- 
basin  of  about  550  yds.  in  diameter  and  683  ft.  in  depth.  Its  floor 
is  planted  with  vines  and  cereals,  and  it  is  worth  while  to  ride 
down  into  it. 

The  Carretera  del  Centro  leads,  beyond  the  bifurcation  for  Atalaya, 
to  (13  M.)  the  little  town  of  San  Mateo  (2575  ft. ;  fair  inn),  superbly 
situated  among  the  mountains.  Rough  mule-tracks  lead  thence  to  the 
Pico  de  las  Nieves  (6400  ft.),  to  the  village  of  Tejeda  (3160  ft.)  in  the 
*Barranco  de  Tejeda  (p.  43),  and  to  the  cave-village  of  Artenara. 

Scarcely  less  attractive  than  the  Monte  road  is  the  *Carretera 
del  Sur,  which  leads  from  Las  Palmas,  at  first  passing  the  ceme- 
teries, then  skirting  the  rocks  of  the  E.  coast,  and  at  length  turning 



Palma.  SANTA  CRUZ.  4.  Route.     47 

inland,  piercing  the  lava-rock  by  a  tunnel,  to  Ginamar  and  (8  M.) 
Telde  (394ft.;  inn;  pop.  4000),  a  picturesque  little  town  amidst 
beautiful  orange-groves. 

The  Carretera  del  Norte,  crossing  the  Barranco  de  San  Lorenzo  and 
the  road  from  Puerto  de  la  Luz  (p.  43)  at  Tamaraceite,  and  farther  on, 
beyond  a  long  tunnel,  the  Barranco  de  Tenoya  above  the  village  of  that 
name,  leads  to  (10  M.)  Arucas  (1017  ft.;  two  inns),  an  industrial  little 
town  of  2900  inhab.,  at  the  foot  of  the  Montana  de  Arucas,  a  hill  affording 
tine  views.    The  sugar-cane  is  cultivated  in  the  vicinity. 

A  by-road  diverges  from  this  carretera,  beyond  the  Barranco  de  San 
Lorenzo,  to  (12V2  M.)  Teror  (1936  ft. ;  dirty  inn),  a  little  town  with  the 
famous  pilgrimage-church  of  the  Virgen  del  Pino  (16th  cent.). 

The  island  of  Palma,  or  La  Palma,  in  the  extreme  N.W. 
of  the  archipelago,  28^2  II.  long  and  17  M.  broad,  lying  about 
16^2  M.  to  the  W.  of  Teneriffe,  is  remarkable  for  its  fine  scenery 
and  superb  forests,  but  is  as  yet  rarely  visited  by  tourists.  The 
famous  Caldera,  the  largest  and  deepest  of  all  the  crater-basins 
in  the  islands,  opens  towards  the  W.  in  the  huge  Barranco  de  las 
Angustias,  while  many  smaller  gorges  render  the  N.  coast  in 
particular  very  difficult  of  access.  The  whole  of  the  S.  part  of  the 
island  is  of  recent  volcanic  origin  and  therefore  poorly  watered. 
The  population  (42,000,  in  an  area  of  280  sq.  M.)  is  confined  to 
the  S.E.  margin  of  the  island  and  the  middle  of  the  W.  slopes 
Many  of  the  natives  emigrate,  especially  to  Cuba. 

Starting  from  Santa  Cruz  de  Tenerife  (p.  33)  the  steamer  rounds 
the  Anaga  Mts.,  with  the  lighthouse  already  named  (p.  33),  and 
steers  to  the  W.  from  the  Punta  del  Hidalgo  (p.  37)  to  Palma. 
The  lighthouse  on  the  Punta  de  Teno  (23  ft.),  the  N.W.  point  of 
Teneriffe,  remains  visible  for  some  time.  The  bold  coast  of  Palma 
presents  a  grand  appearance  as  we  approach. 

Santa  Cruz  de  la  Palma.  —  Hotels.  Hot.  Miramar;  Hot. 
Espaflol;  Hot.  International;  Fonda  Verbena,  pens.  4-5  p.  —  Carriage 
to  Los  Llanos  45  p.  (also  motor-omnibus).  —  Mule  per  day  5-6,  to  Los 
Llanos  7>/s  p. 

Santa  Cruz  de  la  Palma,  the  only  considerable  port  (5700 
inhab.)  in  the  island,  lies  on  the  E.  coast,  on  an  open  bay  which 
is  much  exposed  to  sand-drifts.  The  houses  rise  in  terraces  on 
the  steep  hill-side,  overtopped  by  tall  Canary  palms.  The  chief 
export  is  tobacco,  which  is  little  inferior  to  that  of  Havana. 
Cigar-factory  of  J.  Cabrera  Martin. 

The  main  street,  in  which  rises  the  Town  Hall  (Ayuntamiento) 
of  1563,  leads  to  a  picturesque  triangular  plaza  with  the  church  of 
San  Salvador  and  several  handsome  houses.  Close  by  is  the  small 
Museum  (Museo  de  Historia  Natural  y  Etnografico).  A  beautiful 
palm-avenue  leads  through  the  upper  part  of  the  town. 

Excursions.  To  the  N.W.  we  may  ascend  through  the  Barranco  de 
la  Madera,  with  its  cave-dwellings  (Cuevas  de  los  Guanches)  to  the  loftily 
situated   pilgrimage-church   of   the    Virgen  de   las  Nieves   (16th  cent.); 

48     Route  4.  CALDERA.  Palma. 

thence  either  to  the  Montana  de  Tagoje  (ahout  3300  ft. ;  with  grand  view 
of  the  E.  coast,  of  Gomera  and  Teneriffe),  or  to  the  Pico  del  Cedro 
(7471  ft.)  on  the  E.  margin  of  the  Caldera  (see  helow),  round  which  we 
may  ride  to  the  Roqne  de  los  Muchachos  (7693  ft.)  on  the  N.  side. — To 
the  S.W.,  following  the  old  bridle-path  which  cuts  off  the  windings  of 
the  road,  we  may  walk  or  ride  to  (1  hr.)  Buena  Vista  (about  660  ft.), 
whence  a  rough  mule-track  ascends  to  the  (2  hrs.)  Ctimbre  Nueva 
(4593  ft.),  the  chief  mountain-pass  in  the  island,  where  we  have  a  grand 
*View  of  the  abrupt  rocks  and  the  pine-woods  of  the  central  chain,  of 
the  fertile  plains  to  the  W.,  and  of  the  distant  Peak  of  Teneriffe.  Then 
we  proceed  through  pine-forest,  past  the  venerable  'Pino  de  la  Virgen', 
to  El  Paso  (2060  ft.;  inn),  whence  we  may  ascend  the  Cumbrecita  (4445  ft.) 
and  the  Idafe,  the  sacred  mount  of  the  Guanchcs,  on  the  S.  margin  of 
the  Caldera.  Finally  we  descend  to  the  (3  hrs.)  little  town  of  Los  Llanos 
(1000  ft.;  poor  inn,  bargaining  advisable).  From  Los  Llanos  it  takes  a 
day  (7-8  hrs.,  there  and  back)  to  visit  the  *Caldera,  a  vast  basin,  nearly 
5900  ft.  deep  and  8-4'/2M.  in  diameter,  situated  in  the  heart  of  the  island 
and  rarely  quite  cloudless.  A  tedious  ride  up  the  Barranco  de  las 
Angi/stias  brings  us  to  the  farm-building  of  Tenera  (3642  ft.),  whence 
we  look  down  on  the  floor  of  the  Caldera,  which  is  partly  clothed  with 
pines.  The  best  way  to  return  from  Los  Llanos  to  Santa  Cruz  is  to  drive 
(34'/2  M.)  by  the  road  passing  Las  Manchas,  Fuencalicnte  (2297  ft.),  Mazo 
(1312  ft.),  and  Brefia  Baja;  or  we  may  ride  across  the  Cumbre  Vieja 
(6660  ft.),  the  pass   between  Las  Manchas  and  the  Barranco  Aduares. 


Koute  Page 

Geographical    and    Historical   Sketch.     Preliminary 
Notes 49 

5.  Gibraltar 52 

6.  From  Gibraltar  to  Seville 56 

a.  Via  Bobadilla  and  Utrera .56 

b.  Via  Tangier  and  Cadiz 57 

7.  Seville 59 

a.  The  Plaza  del  Triunfo  with  the  Alcazar  and  the  Cathe- 
dral, 61.  —  b.  The  Central  and  Eastern  Quarters  (Casa  del 
Ayuntamiento,  Casa  de  Pilatos,  University).  65. —  c.  The 
Western  and  South-Western  Quarters  (Museo  Provincial, 
Hospital  de  la  Caridad,  Public  Gardens),  66. 

8.  From  Seville  to  Cordova 68 

9.  From  Cordova  via  Bobadilla  to  Granada       ....     72 

10.  Granada 73 

a.  The  Lower  Town,  75.  — b.  Darro  Valley  and  Alhaicin,  78. 
—  c.  The  Alharabra,  79.  — d.  The  Generalife,  87. 

11.  From  Granada  via  Bobadilla  to  Malaga 88 

Andalusia,  the  southmost  region  of  Spain,  is  geologically  of 
somewhat  recent  origin.  In  the  tertiary  period  the  sea  still  washed 
the  southern  shores  of  the  Iberian  table-land,  until  a  pressure  acting 
in  a  direction  from  S.  to  N.  gradually  lifted  up  a  new  coast  in  long 
parallel  folds,  while  the  Mediterranean  forced  a  new  passage  to 
the  ocean  through  the  Straits  of  Gibraltar  (comp.  p.  xxix).  Latest 
of  all  appeared  the  Guadalquivir  Bay,  the  highest  point  of  whose 
coast  scarcely  rises  490  ft.  above  the  sea.  The  coast-hills,  which 
have  their  counterpart  in  the  Rif  Mts.  on  the  African  side  (p.  93), 
stretch  in  the  main  from  E.  to  W.,  descending  abruptly  to  the  sea. 
Transverse  fissures,  in  which  volcanic  activity  is  still  indicated 
by  frequent  earthquakes,  divide  the  coast  into  several  different 
chains,  which  culminate  in  the  Sierra  Nevada  (11,421  ft.;  'snow- 
mountain'),  the  highest  peak  in  Spain.  The  W.  chain  (Serrania 
de  Honda)  trends  round  to  the  N.  In  contrast  to  the  Andalucia 
Alta,  the  folded  region  facing  the  Mediterranean,  the  And'ilucla 
Baja,  the  basin  of  the  Guadalquivir,  opens  towards  the  Atlantic. 

i   Fuller  details  in  Baedckei-'s  Spain  and  Portugal. 
Baedeker's  Mediterranean.  A. 


The  Guadalquivir  (Arabic  Wdd  al-Kebir,  'the  great  river'),  the 
Baetis  of  antiquity,  rises  indeed  in  the  Sierra  de  Cazorla,  apart 
from  the  coast-mountains,  but  receives  its  more  copious  affluents, 
particularly  the  Guadiana  Menor,  from  the  Sierra  Nevada.  After 
a  wild  career  it  enters  the  plain  beyond  Montoro,  becomes  na- 
vigable at  Cordova,  and  even  carries  seagoing  vessels  at  Seville. 

The  History  of  the  country  dates  from  hoar  antiquity.  It  was 
the  Tarshish  of  the  Bible,  being  already  named  in  the  generations 
of  Noah  (Gen.  x.  4),  and  was  called  by  the  Greeks  Tartessos,  the 
home  of  precious  metals,  especially  of  silver,  the  source  of  the 
wealth  of  Tyre.  Here,  too,  are  the  rich  copper  mines  of  Rio  Tinto 
and  Tharsis,  which  were  already  worked  in  the  ancient  Iberian 
age.  The  Mediterranean  peoples  contented  themselves  with  visiting 
the  harbours  established  in  the  bays  of  the  coast,  leaving  it  to  the 
natives  to  bring  the  produce  of  the  interior  down  to  them  across 
the  mountains  or  by  the  river  Baetis.  Thus  arose,  probably  even 
before  the  foundation  of  Cadiz,  the  Phoenician  towns  of  Mdlaca 
(Malaga)  and  Kalpe  (Gibraltar),  besides  other  small  settlements. 
About  1100  B.C.  Gadlr  or  Gades,  the  westmost  of  these,  appears 
in  history,  and  afterwards  became  dependent  on  Carthage.  The  art 
of  writing,  the  first  and  most  potent  aid  to  commerce,  was  propagated 
from  Gades,  which  thereby  laid  the  foundation  of  the  higher  civili- 
zation of  the  peninsula.  Summoned  to  their  aid  by  the  Gaditanians, 
the  Carthaginians,  who  had  already  gained  possession  of  the  Balearic  ■ 
Islands,  invaded  Iberia.  After  the  Punic  Wars  (p.  345)  came  the 
domination  of  the  Romans,  who  in  27  A.D.  gave  the  whole  of 
S.  Spain  the  name  of  Proviucia  Baetica.  On  the  break-up  of  the 
Roman  Empire  Andalusia  was  overrun  by  the  Vandals  (p.  322),  the 
Suevi,  and  the  Visigoths.  At  length  the  Arabs  and  the  Berbers  of 
Morocco  obtained  a  footing  here,  after  they  had  crossed  the  Straits 
of  Gibraltar  under  Tarik  (p.  54).  By  them  this  region,  and  after- 
wards the  whole  peninsula  which  they  conquered,  were  named  El- 
Andalus  ('land  of  the  West').  Down  to  the  13th  cent,  the  Moors 
occupied  Andalusia,  and  it  was  not  till  1492  that  Granada  was 
captured  by  Ferdinand  V.,  the  Catholic. 

These  vicissitudes  in  the  country's  history  are  still  reflected  in 
its  present  Inhabitants.  Half  African,  half  European,  like  the 
Maltese,  the  Sicilians,  and  the  Sardinians,  the  Andalusians  have 
inherited  something  of  the  character,  the  customs,  and  the  lan- 
guage of  all  the  nations  that  once  held  sway  in  this  region.  To 
this  day  the  Andalusian  dialect  swarms  with  Arabic  words;  almost 
all  the  terms  used  in  agriculture  and  irrigation  are  Arabic.  The 
popular  dances  and  music  are  of  Oriental  origin.  To  their  Oriental 
ancestry  the  Andalusian  (Andahiz,  Andaluza)  also  owes  his  exu- 
berant imagination.  There  can  be  no  greater  contrast  than  that 
which  the  calm  and  proud  Old-Castilian  presents  to  the  volatile 


and  excitable  Andalusiau,  who  is  apt  to  substitute  fancy  for  fact, 
who  sees  everything  as  through  a  magnifying  glass,  and  who  is 
therefore  much  given  to  exaggeration  (fanfarrunadas).  On  the 
other  hand  nothing  can  be  more  charming  thau  the  bearing  of  an 
Andalusiau  'maja',  who  is  admired  rather  for  her  wit,  her  grace, 
and  her  power  of  repartee  than  for  her  beauty.  The  Sal  Andaluza 
is  as  proverbial  as  the  Attic  'salt'  of  the  ancients. 

Andalusia  can  boast  of  possessing,  not  only  some  of  the  finest 
and  most  interesting  Moorish  Buildings  in  Spain,  such  as  the 
mosque  at  Cordova,  the  Giralda  and  Alhambra  at  Granada,  but 
also  several  of  the  grandest  monuments  of  the  'rcconquista'  period. 
Among  these  are  the  Alcazar  of  Seville,  one  of  the  most  brilliant 
creations  of  the  so-called  Mudejar,  or  Moorish-Christian  style,  and 
the  grand  cathedrals  of  Seville  and  Granada  in  the  Gothic  and 
'plateresque',  or  Spanish  early-Renaissance,  styles.  —  Nor  is  the 
Scenery  of  this  region  less  attractive.  Andalusia  may  be  said  to 
stand  in  the  same  relation  to  Spain  as  Sicily  to  Italy,  or  as  Pro- 
vence to  the  rest  of  France.  It  combines  all  that  the  rest  of  the 
peninsula  possesses  locally  or  partially.  To  the  E.  are  vast  plateaux 
and  steppes,  frozen  in  winter  and  parched  in  summer;  to  the  S. 
rise  snow-clad  mountains;  on  the  S.W.  are  the  sand-dunes  of  the 
Atlantic  coast;  olive-groves  thrive  on  the  Guadalquivir;  and  on 
the  shores  of  the  Mediterranean  are  well-watered  vegas  where  the 
cotton-plant,  the  banana,  and  the  sugar-cane  flourish. 

Mediterranean-  Travellers  will  hardly  have  time  for  more  than  a 
circular  tour  from  Gibraltar  to  Tangier,  Cadiz,  Seville,  Cordova,  Granada, 
and  back  to  Gibraltar,  or,  in  unfavourable  weather,  to  Algeciras,  Boba- 
dilla,  and  Seville  only.  The  Spanish  railways  (see  the  Guia  general  de 
Ferrocarriles ;  1  p.,  smaller  edition  75  c.)  are  far  inferior  to  the  British 
or  to  the  French,  and  their  speed  is  very  low.  The  natives  travel  mostly 
iu  the  second  or  third  class,  but  the  carriages  cannot  be  recommended. 
The  first  class  often  has  a  berlina,  or  eoupc-carriago  with  four  seats, 
which  affords  an  unimpeded  view  (higher  fare). 

In  the  larger  towns  one  may  book  luggage  (facturar  el  equipaje) 
1-2  hrs.  before  the  departure  of  the  train,  at  the  despacho  central,  or 
town-office.  Booking  it  at  the  station  itself  is  a  very  slow  process.  As 
iu  France  luggage  up  to  30  kilos  (06  lbs.)  is  free.  The  ticket  for  it  is  called 
a  talun  or  bolttin  de  equipaje.  The  porter  (mozo),  often  most  impor- 
tunate, receives  30-50  c.  or  more. 

Andalusia  possesses  few  first-class  hotels.  The  better  second-class 
inns  are  similar  to  the  French  and  Italian.  Even  for  a  stay  of  a  single 
day  it  is  usual  to  pay  an  inclusive  charge  for  bed  and  board  (pupilaje, 
from  6  to  20  p.).  Dejeuner  or  lunch  (11-1  o'clock)  is  called  almuerzo; 
dinner,  comida  (at  or  after  7);  table-wine,  vino  comitn  or  de  mesa.  No 
allowance  is  made  for  meals  omitted.  An  extra  charge  is  often  made  for 
breakfast  (coffee,  etc.),  which  Spanish  travellers  usually  take  in  their  own 
rooms.  Notice  of  departure  should  be  given  as  early  as  possible,  lest  a 
whole  additional  day  be  charged  for.  The  usual  "fee  to  the  servants 
(camareru,  Waiter;  muehacha,  chamber-maid;  mozo,  boots),  who  are  apt 
to  be  lazy  and  inattentive,  is  1  p.  per  day,  divided  among  them,  or  more 
in  proportion  for  families. 

The  beer-houses  are  called  cervecerias.  The  cafes  are  usually  open 
in  the  afternoon  and  evening  only.     Cafe  con  leche  is  coffee  with  milk; 


52     Routes.  GIBRALTAR.  Practical 

cafd  solo  is  without  milk.  Newspapers  (periddicos)  are  not  provided  by 
the  cafes.  Tobacco  aud  cigars  are  a  government  monopoly;  the  shop  is 
called  estanco;  there  are  also  special  shops  for  the  better  Havana  cigars. 

The  post-offices  {correo),  even  in  the  larger  towns,  are  often  open  for 
a  few  hours  only.  The  hours  for  obtaining  poste-restante  (cartas  en  lista) 
or  registered  letters"  cartas  certiflcadas)  are  often  changed;  the  addressee 
must  show  his  visiting-card  (tarjeta)  at  the  office.  Stamps  [sellos  de  correo ; 
for  the  town  10,  country  15,  abroad  25  c.)  and  post-cards  (tarjetas  postales. 
10  c.)  are  obtainable  at  the  tobacco-shops  only.  Telegrams  (telegramas) 
must  be  prepaid  with  special  stamps  (sellos  de  teligrafos),  for  the  sale  of 
which  there  are  separate  offices. 

The  Spanish  peseta  (p.),  divided  into  100  centimos  (c),   is   scar 
equal  to  the  franc  in  value.     The  only  valid  banknotes  are  those  of 
Madrid  Banco  de  Espafla.    The  5  p.  piece  is  popularly  called  a  duro 
the  10  c.  and  5  c.  copper  coins  are  often  termed  perro  grande  and  perro 
chico  ('big  and  little  dog')  in  jocular  allusion  to  the  lions  in  the  coat-of- 
arms.    Change  should  be  examined  carefully,  as  base  coin  is  common. — 
At  Gibraltar  the  currency  is  English,  but  Spanish  money  is  received,  except 
at  the  post  and  telegraph  office. 


5.  Gibraltar. 

Arrival.  The  ocean-going  steamers  land  and  embark  their  passengers 
in  their  own  steam-tenders  at  any  time  before  sunset  at  the  Commercial 
Pier  (fare  for  each  pers.  is.  either  way).  The  tariff  for  small  boats  is  Is.  6rf. 
for  a  row  in  the  harbour,  or  to  or  from  the  steamboats,  for  1-2  pers., 
and  Is.  for  each  addit.  person;  luggage  up  to  56  lbs.  free;  excess,  6d. 
per  56  lbs.;  or  a  bargain  may  be  made  (l-2s.  for  passenger,  incl.  luggage). 
In  bad  weather  the  tariff  is  raised,  in  accordance  with  the  signals  (red, 
blue,  bluish-white),  to  one-third  more,  or  double,  or  triple  fare.  The 
porters  are  notorious  for  their  extortionate  demands.  The  charge  for  con- 
veying luggage  to  the  hotel  should  be  fixed  beforehand.  —  The  Custom 
House  Examination  at  the  harbour-gate  is  confined  to  tobacco,  spirits, 
and  weapons.  Foreigners  require  a  permit  from  the  Police  Office  (PI.  2) 
to  spend  the  day  on  shore,  and  if  they  intend  to  spend  the  night  the 
permit  must  be  renewed  by  their  landlord.  Between  5.30  and  8.15,  accord- 
ing to  the  season,  a  cannon-shot  (gun-fire)  announces  the  closing  of  the 
Land  Port  (p.  55).     The  other  gates  remain  open  till  11. 

Hotels  (the  inclusive  charge  for  the  day  should  be  ascertained). 
Hot.  Bristol  (PI.  a),  Cathedral  Square,  quiet  and  pleasant;  Grand  Hotel. 
(PI.  b)  and  Hot.  Cecil  (PI.  c),  both  in  Waterport  St.;  these  three  have 
high  charges,  from  10-12s.  a  day  and  upwards;  Hot.  Paris  (PI.  f),  opposite 
the  post-office,  new,  pens.  8-15  fr. — Plainer:  Hot.  Continental  (PI.  d), 
Turnbull's  Lane;  Hot.  Victoria,  Church  St.,  caf e-restaur. ;  Nuevo  Hot. 
EspaSol  (PI.  e),  Irish  Town,  pens.  8s.,  tolerable.  —  The  drinking-water 
(rain-water  from  cisterns)  is  not  good.  —  Cafes.  Universal,  Church  St. ; 
also  at  the  Assembly  Rooms  (p.  53). 

Cabs  (stands  at  Waterport  Gate,  Commercial  Sq.,  and  Cathedral  Sq.). 
Drive  for  1-2  pers.  in  the  lower  town,  between  Waterport  Gate  and 
Alameda,  6d. ;  in  the  upper  quarters  (Governor's  St.)  9a!.;  to  Catalan 
Bay  Is.  3d.;  to  the  lighthouse  Is.  4d. ;  to  Governor's  Cottage  Is.  9d. —  Per 
hour,  for  1-2  pers.,  Is.  6d. ;  for  each  addit.  1I2  hr.  6d. ;  3d.  extra  for  each 
addit.  pers.,  or  5a7.  extra  for  the  longer  drives  (lighthouse,  Governor's 
Cottage,  etc.).  —  Each  trunk  2d. — The  tariff  is  in  force  only  from  daybreak 
till  midnight.    A  bargain  should  be  made  beforehand. 

Post  Office  (PI.  1),  Waterport  St.;  week-days  7  a.m.-8  p.  m.  (on  Sun. 
8-10  a.  m.).  The  overland  English  mail  closes  at  6.45  a.  m.  —  Telegraph 
Office,  same  place;  6  a.  m.  till  midnight.  Tariff  to  England  30*.  or  (via 
Malta)  6d.  per  word;  to  the  United  States  Is.  id. -Is.  lid.  per  word.;i  clcl.VCtmrepcioti         ,u's-"b^l.v 

n  v,  \\y  r  a  ],     v,  it  i)  r  \  d 



I:  38  000 

Notes.  GIBRALTAR.  6.  Route.     53 

Banks.  Anglo-Egyptian,  Market  St.,  opposite  Police  Station  ;  Larios 
Hermanos,  Irish  Town;  Thos.  Cook  &  Son  (tourist-agents),  Waterport  St. 

—  Numerous  money-changers. 

United  States  Consul,  R.  L.  Sprague;  vice-consul,  A.  D.  Hayden. 

—  Lloyd's  Agents,  Smith,  Imossi,  &  Co.,  Irish  Town. 

Theatre.  Assembly  Rooms  (PI.  8),  in  the  Alameda,  with  open-air  cafe. 

Steamboat  Lines  (comp.  'Gibraltar  Chronicle').  Peninsular  & 
Oriental  (Smith,  Imossi,  &  Co.,  Irish  Town),  weekly  between  London, 
Marseilles,  and  Port  Said  (for  Australia  and  China;  comp.  RR.  17,  67); 
Orient  Royal  (Smith,  Imossi,  &  Co.),  fortnightly  between  London,  Mar- 
seilles, and  Port  Said  (for  Australia;  comp.  RR.  17,  67);  Cunard  (M.  H. 
Bland  &  Co.,  Cloister  Bdg.),  between  New  York  and  Trieste  (RR.  15a,  16); 
White  Star  (Th.  Morsley  &  Co.,  Irish  Town  11),  2  or  3  times  monthly  to 
Naples  (and  Genoa;  RR.  16,  15a),  or  via  Algiers  to  Genoa;  North  German 
Lloyd  (J.  Onetti  &  Sons,  Engineer  Lane),  fortnightly  to  Algiers,  Genoa, 
Naples,  and  Port  Said  (comp.  RR.  1,  15  b,  24,  67),  also  fortnightly  between 
New  York,  Algiers,  Naples,  and  Genoa  (comp.  RR.  16,  24);  the  Hamburg- 
American  (J.  Carrara  &  Sons,  Waterport  St.)  has  excursion-steamers  only; 
German  Levant  (J .  Rugeroni&Son,  Commercial  Sq.),  occasionally  to  Algiers; 
Hall  Line  (W.  J.  S.  Smith,  Bomb  House  Lane),  weekly  between  London, 
Lisbon,  Cadiz,  and  Malaga  (comp.  RR.  1,  6  b);  Royal  Mail  Steam  Packet 
(Bland  &  Co.,  see  above),  every  other  Wed.  for  Tangier,  Mogador,  Teneritfe, 
etc.  (RR.  14,  3,  4) ;  Transports  Maritimes  (Imossi  &  Son),  21st  of  each  month 
for  Madeira  and  S.  America ;  Oldenburg-Portuguese  (A.  Mateos  &  Sons, 
Pitman's  Alley)  twice  monthly  to  Tangier  and  Mogador  (R.  14) ;  Navigation 
Mixte  (A.  Mateos  &  Sons),  every  other  Wed.  night  to  Tangier,  Oran,  and 
Marseilles  (RR.  18,  19);  Vapores  C'orreos  de  Africa  (J.  Onetti  &  Sons;  at 
Algeciras,  A.  Gil  Pineda),  from  Algeciras  to  Tangier  and  Cadiz  (see  R.  6b). 

—  Local  steamers  to  Algeciras  and  Tangier,  comp.  R.  6. 

One  Day  (or  even  less  when  time  presses).  Walk  through  the  town  to 
the  Alameda  (p.  55);  visit  to  Europa  Point  (p.  55)  and  perhaps  Catalan 
Buy  also  (p.  56).  —  Foreigners  are  not  admitted  to  the  fortifications,  photo- 
graphing or  sketching  which  is  prohibited. 

Gibraltar,  a  town  of  23,450  inhab.  (incl.  the  garrison  of 
5100  men),  the  key  of  the  Mediterranean,  and  one  of  the  most 
important  coast-fortresses  in  the  world,  in  British  possession  since 
1704,  aud  headquarters  of  the  Atlantic  Fleet,  lies  on  the  W.  slope 
of  a  huge  rock, which  is  connected  with  the  Spanish  mainland  by 
a  sandy  isthmus  only.  The  famous  rock  bounds  the  Bay  of  Alge- 
ciras or  Gibraltar  on  the  E.  'It  is  the  very  image  of  an  enormous 
lion,  crouched  between  the  Atlantic  and  the  Mediterranean,  and  set 
there  to  guard  the  passage  for  its  British  mistress'  (Thackeray). 

The  rock  is  composed  of  Jurassic  limestone,  overlying  Silurian 
slate,  and  extending  from  N.  to  S. ;  it  is  3  M.  long  and  s/4  M.  in 
breadth,  with  a  saddle  separating  Mt. Roclcgun  (1356  ft.),  the  lower 
hill  on  the  N.,  from  the  Signal  Station,  the  Highest  Point  (1396  ft.), 
and  the  Sugar  Loaf  Hill  (O'  Hara's  Tower,  1361  ft.)  on  the  S. 
Its  grey  masses  ascend  gradually  in  terraces  on  the  W.  and  S.  sides, 
and  rise  almost  perpendicularly  on  the  E.  and  N.  sides. 

The  Town  op  Gibraltar  ('North  Town')  covers  a  third  of  the 
W.  slope  to  the  N.,  while  the  remaining  two-thirds  are  occupied 
by  the  Alameda,  numerous  pretty  villas,  the  barracks  of  the  South 
Town,  and  the  Lighthouse  on  Europa  Point.    The  houses  rise  in 

54     Routed.  GIBRALTAR.  History. 

terraces  to  a  height  of  260  ft.;  the  streets  are  narrow  and  dark, 
and  are  relieved  by  few  squares.  The  natives  are  chiefly  Spaniards 
and  descendants  of  many  different  Mediterranean  races.  The 
numerous  Moroccans,  mostly  dealers  from  Tangier,  indicate  the 
proximity  of  the  African  coast.  The  cleanness  of  the  town  and  the 
absence  of  beggars  produce  a  pleasant  impression.  The  Coal  Stores 
on  the  South  Mole  (along  with  those  of  Algiers  and  Malta)  supply 
the  vessels  bound  for  the  Suez  Canal  (about  1200  annually).  There 
is  little  other  trade  except  the  import  of  cattle  and  provisions  from 
(lalicia  and  Morocco. 

The  ancient  name  of  the  rock  was  Kalpe,  while  the  hills  on  the 
African  side  were  called  Abyla  (now  Sierra  Bullones;  p.  103).  Together 
they  were  known  as  the  '  Pillars  of  Hercules',  the  entrance  to  the  ocean. 
Under  the  protection  of  the  divine  Hercules-Melkarth ,  the  Phoenicians 
ventured  through  the  straits,  even  as  far  as  Britain,  whence  they  brought 
the  earliest  tidings  from  the  North  and  also  cargoes  of  tin,  which  they 
mixed  with  copper  to  produce  bronze.  Kalpe  was  also  the  name  of  the 
first  Phosnician  settlement  on  the  bay  of  Gibraltar,  while  C'arteia,  on 
the  inner  part  of  the  bay,  was  probably  of  ancient  Iberian  origin.  Carteia 
was  still  an  important  harbour  under  the  Carthaginians,  and  in  171  B.  C. 
it  became  the  first  Roman  colony  in  the  whole  peninsula.  Nothing  is 
recorded  of  the  period  which  succeeded  the  invasion  of  the  Vandals  (p.  322). 
At  length  in  711  the  bay  re-appears  in  history,  when  Mima,  the  governor 
appointed  by  the  Caliph  of  Damascus,  sent  the  Berber  Tdrik  ibn  Ziyad 
across  from  Ceuta  to  the  bay  of  Algeciras  on  an  expedition  against  Spain, 
in  which  he  defeated  the  Visigoths  at  Veger  de  la  Frontera,  near  Cape 
Trafalgar  (p.  58).  Impressed  by  the  commanding  position  of  the  rock  of 
Gibraltar,  Tdrik  afterwards  erected  a  fort  upon  it,  which  formed  the 
nucleus  of  the  Moorish  castle  (p.  55).  From  him  is  derived  the  name  of  Jebel 
Tdrik,  'mountain  of  Tarik',  corrupted  into  Gibraltar.  In  1309  Gibraltar 
was  captured  by  Ad.  Peres  de  Gttzmdn  (el  Bueno)  for  Ferdinand  IV.  of 
Castile;  the  Moors  recaptured  it  in  1333,  but  in  1462  lost  it  again  to  the 
Spaniards.  In  consequence  of  the  plundering  of  Gibraltar  by  Algerian 
pirates  under  Kheireddin  (p.  221),  Charles  V.  ordered  the  fortifications 
to  be  reconstructed  and  new  ramparts  to  be  built  from  the  S.  side  of  the 
town  to  the  crest  of  the  hill.  In  1610  the  Spanish  Admiral  Mendoza  caused 
the  last  Moriscoes  of  Andalusia  to  be  sent  back  to  Morocco  from  this  very 
port,  where  their  ancestors  had  so  long  held  sway,  and  whence  they  had 
gone  forth  to  conquer  the  whole  peninsula.  After  having  undergone  ten 
sieges  at  various  periods,  the  fortress  was  surprised  and  captured  by  the 
British  fleet  unter  Adm.  George  Rooke  and  Prince  George  of  Hesse- 
Darmstadt  in  1704,  during  the  Spanish  War  of  Succession,  and  was  stoutly 
and  successfully  defended  by  them  during  a  six  months'  bombardment 
by  the  Spaniards  and  the  French  (1704-5).  The  thirteenth  siege  (1727) 
and  the  'great  siege'  by  the  French  and  the  Spaniards  (1779-83)  were  also 
unsuccessful,  the  British  commander  then  being  Gen.  Eliott,  afterwards 
Lord  Heathfield.  By  the  Peace  of  Versailles,  in  1783,  Great  Britain  was 
confirmed  in  her  possession  of  the  historic  rock. 

The  older  Fortifications  on  the  coast,  from  Land  Port  on  the  N.  to 
Europa  Point  on  the  S.,  those  on  the  S.  slope  of  the  rock  above  Europa 
Point,  and  those  on  the  N.  side  (the  famous  underground  galleries,  p.  55) 
have  in  late  years  been  strengthened  by  the  construction  of  a  fort  mi  the 
summit  of  the  hill,  armed  with  guns  of  the  largest  calibre. 

From  the  Old  Mole,  dating  from  1309,  and  lately  prolonged 
by  the  North  Mole,  we  pass  through  the  Old  Mole  Gate  (the  outer 
gate  of  the  harbour),  and  then,  beyond  the  Market,  through  the 

Europa  Main  Road.  GIBRALTAR.  5.  Route.       55 

inner  Waterpwt  Gate,  which  stands  on  the  site  of  the  old  Moorish 
wharf.    This  brings  us  to  the  S.E.  to  Casemates  Square. 

Adjacent,  on  the  S.,  is  Waterport  Street,  with  the  chief 
buildings,  forming,  together  with  the  parallel  street  to  the  W. 
called  Irish  Town,  the  chief  business  quarter. 

Waterport  Street  is  prolonged  to  the  S.  by  Church  Street. 
Beyond  Commercial  Square  and  the  Exchange  (PI.  3)  we  come  to 
the  Catholic  Cathedral  (PI.  4),  on  the  left,  originally  a  mosque, 
but  restored  by  the  'Catholic  kings'  (p.  75)  after  1502;  there  now 
remains  little  worth  seeing  except  the  Moorish  orange-court.  — 
A  little  farther  on,  on  the  same  side  is  the  Supreme  Court  (PI.  7), 
with  its  pretty  garden.  To  the  right,  in  Cathedral  Square,  stands 
the  Anglican  Cathedral  (PI.  6),  built  in  the  Moorish  style. 

The  southmost  part  of  this  line  of  streets  is  Southport  Street, 
where,  on  the  right,  rises  the  Convent,  once  a  Franciscan  estab- 
lishment, now  the  Government  House  (governor,  Sir  Arch.  Hunter), 
the  garden  of  which  contains  a  venerable  dragon-tree  (p.  30).  At 
the  S.  end  of  this  street  is  Southport  Gate,  which  is  always  open, 
dating  from  the  time  of  Charles  V.,  but  restored  in  1883.  Outside 
I  lie  gate,  on  the  left,  is  the  small  Trafalgar  Cemetery,  where  the 
British  who  fell  at  the  battle  of  Trafalgar  (p.  58)  are  buried. 

The  Alameda,  beyond  the  gate,  a  fine  promenade  with  rich 
subtropical  vegetation,  was  laid  out  by  Governor  George  Don  in 
1814.  A  military  band  plays  near  the  Assembly  Rooms  (p.  53)  on 
Sun.  and  Wed.  from  3-5,  or  in  summer  in  the  evening.  To  the  W. 
we  overlook  the  Naval  Harbour,  with  its  dockyard,  quays,  and 
long  South  Mole. 

A  little  to  the  E.  of  the  Southport  Gate  is  Prince  Edward's 
Gate,  a  second  exit  to  the  S.  from  the  town,  whence  the  "Europa 
Main  Road  ascends  gently  along  the  W.  slope  of  the  rock,  above 
the  Alameda  Gardens,  between  gardens  and  villas.  Below  it,  on  the 
right,  farther  on,  are  the  Naval  Hospital  and  the  Buena  Vista 
Barracks.  Lastly,  a  little  way  short  of  a  signal-station,  we  descend 
between  the  fissured  rocks  of  the  Europa  Pass  to  (l1^  M.)  Europa 
Point,  with  its  great  Lighthouse,  the  much-eroded  S.  extremity  of 
the  peninsula.  The  road  then  turns  to  the  N.,  soon  affording  a  view 
of  the  Spanish  Mediterranean  coast,  to  the  Governor's  Cottage  and 
the  Monkeys'  Cave  hidden  among  the  rocks. 

The  Moorish  Castle,  above  the  artillery  barracks,  begun  by 
Tftrik  in  713  and  completed  in  742,  is  entered  through  the  Civil 
Prison  (verbal  permission  required  by  foreigners).  Access  to  the 
Subterranean  Galleries  of  the  fortress,  lying  below  the  castle  and 
dating  from  1782  (comp.  p.  54),  is  now  limited  to  British  subjects. 

From  the  Market  (p.  54)  we  may  walk  to  the  N.K.  to  the 
Land  Port  (notice  as  to  closing  should  be  observed;  comp.  p.  52), 
and  past  the  Inundation,  a  space  which  may  be  Hooded  for  defensive 

56     Route  6.  RONDA.  From  Gibraltar 

purposes  (made  in  1705),  to  the  North  Front,  which  forms  part 
of  the  low  neck  of  land  below  the  N.  slopes  of  the  rock.  Prom  this 
point  the  Devil's  Tower  Road  leads  to  the  S.E.,  past  the  Cemeteries, 
to  the  Devil's  Toiver  (10  min.  from  the  Land  Port),  probably  an  old 
Genoese  watch-tower.  The  road  then  turns  to  the  S.  to  Catalan 
Bay,  below  the  E.  flank  of  the  rock,  just  allowing  room  for  the 
little  fishing-village  of  Caleta.  The  rocks  contain  several  caves. 

Beyond  the  Neutral  Ground,  550  yds.  in  breadth,  we  come  to  the 
Spanish  town  of  Linea  de  la  Concepcidn  (29,600  inhab.),  IV4  M.  to  the 
N.  of  Gibraltar,  which  owes  its  origin  to  the  old  Spanish  lines  of  defence, 
long  since  demolished.    The  place  is  uninteresting. 

6.  Prom  Gibraltar  to  Seville. 

a.  Via,  Bobadilla  and  Utrera. 

Steamboat  from  Gibraltar  (Commercial  Pier)  to  Algeciras  Puerto  in 
'/2  hr.  (fare  l'/g  or  1  p. ;  passengers  with  through-tickets  have  their  luggage 
conveyed  gratis).  —  Railway  from  Algeciras  Puerto  to  Seville,  214  M.,  in 
IOV2  hrs.  (54  p.  20.  40  p.  20;  24  p.  85  c.) ;  carriages  are  changed  at  Bobadilla, 
La  Roda,  anu  Utrera.  Rail.  Restaurants  at  Ronda,  Bobadilla,  and  Utrera. 
There  are  through-expresses  from  Granada  to  Seville  (thrice  weekly,  in 
73/4  hrs.),  but  they  do  not  correspond  with  the  Algeciras  trains. 

Algeciras  (Hot.  Reina  Cristina,  first-class ;  Hot.  Anglo-Hispano ; 
Hot.  Marina;  Brit,  vice-cons.,  W.  J.  Smith;  pop.  13,300),  a  small 
town  on  the  W.  margin  of  the  bay  of  that  name,  is  a  winter  resort 
of  English  and  American  visitors.  The  famous  Morocco  Conference 
(comp.  p.  96)  of  1906  was  held  in  the  Casa  Consistorial  or  town- 
hall. — Local  steamer  to  Ceuta,  see  p.  102. 

The  train  for  Bobadilla,  soon  after  starting,  crosses  the  rivers 
Palmones  and  Guadarranque.  To  the  right  we  have  a  final  view 
of  the  Bay  of  Algeciras  and  the  African  coast.  Beyond  (83/4  M.) 
San  Roque  we  traverse  extensive  plantations  of  cork-trees  (p.  171). 
26  M.  Jimena;  36  M.  Gaucin,  in  the  Guadiaro  Valley,  the  station 
for  the  little  town  high  up  on  the  hills,  5y2  M.  to  the  E. — We  next 
pass  through  the  romantic  GuoAiaro  Ravine,  and  through  many 
tunnels  under  the  slopes  of  the  Sierra  de  Ronda,  and  skirt  the 
foot  of  the  barren  limestone  slopes  of  the  Sierra  de  Libar. 

6572  M.  Ronda  (2460  ft.;  Rail.  Restaur. ;  Hot.  Reina  Victoria, 
first-class,  pens,  from  17^2  01'  20  p.;  Hot.  Royal,  in  the  new  town, 
English,  pens,  from  12y2  p.,  good;  pop.  19,000),  one  of  the  most 
interesting  towns  in  Spain,  occupying  a  plateau  girdled  by  grand 
mountains.  Prom  the  station  we  follow  the  Carrera  de  Espinel  to  the 
W.  to  the  Calle  de  Castelar,  the  main  street  of  the  new  town,  and 
the  Plaza  de  Toros  (bull-ring).  From  the  railed-in  platforms  of 
the  Paseo  de  la  Merced,  a  park  a  little  to  the  N.W.  of  the  plaza, 
we  enjoy  a  fine  view,  with  the  foaming  Guadalevin,  or  Guadiaro, 
some  660  ft.  below  us.    The  Puente  Nuevo,  crossing  at  the  S.  end 

to  Seville.  BOBADILLA.  «•  Route.     57 

of  the  main  street  (p.  56)  from  the  new  town  to  the  old  town,  affords 
a  splendid  view  of  the  *Ravine  of  the  Guadalevin  (El  Tajo,  'the 
cutting'),  about  330  ft.  deep  and  filled  with  the  spray  of  the  river. 
The  bed  of  the  latter  is  strewn  with  rocks  and  the  abrupt  sides  of 
the  gorge  are  thickly  overgrown  with  cactus. 

The  train  descends  between  olives  and  cork-trees  into  the 
valley  of  the  Guadalete  (p.  59),  and  then  cuts  through  the  last 
N.  spurs  of  the  S.  Andalusiau  Mts. 

110  M.  Bobadilla  (1240  ft.;  Rail.  Restaur.)  is  the  junction 
for  Cordova  (see  R.  9),  Granada  (see  R,  9),  and  Malaga  (R.  11). 

"We  follow  the  Cordova  line  as  far  as  (124^2  M.)  La  Roda 
(comp.  p.  72;  change  can*.),  and  then  turn  to  the  W.  to  (147  M.) 
Osuna  and  (I6672  M.)  Marchena,  junction  of  the  Utrera  and  Cor- 
dova line  (p.  59).  We  next  cross  the  Ghiadaira  (p.  59)  and  pass 
(184  M.)  Empalme  de  Moron.  At  (194  M.)  Utrera  (Rail.  Restaur. ; 
change  carr.)  we  join  the  Cadiz  and  Seville  line  (R.  6b). 

The  train  now  runs  to  the  N.W.,  mostly  through  fertile  land 
(oranges,  pomegranates,  olives),  and  crosses  the  Guadaira. 

214  M.  Seville  (Estaci6n  San  Bernardo  or  de  Cadiz),  see  p.  59 

b.  Via  Tangier  arid  Cadiz. 

Pkom  (Gibraltar)  Algeciras  to  Cadiz.  Steamers  of  the  Vapores 
Correos  de  Africa  (agents  at  Gibraltar  and  Algeciras,  see  p.  53;  at  Tangier, 
p.  98;  at  Cadiz,  p.  58)  from  Algeciras  (steamboats  from  Gibraltar,  see  p.  56) 
every  morning  except  on  Mon.  &  Frid.  (from  Cadiz  daily  except  on  Sun. 
&  Thurs.)  to  (3  hrs.)  Tangier  and  (9  hrs.)  Cadiz  (fares  1st  cl.  30  p.,  2nd  cl. 
23  p.;  to  Tangier  only  15  or  12  p.).  From  Gibraltar  to  Tangier  there  ply 
on  Tues.,  Thurs.,  and  Wed.  the  small  cargo-steamers  of  the  Bland  Line 
(about  2'/4  hrs.;  10  or  5  p.).  Steamers  of  the  Hall  Line  ply  weekly  and 
those  of  the  Royal  Mail  Steam  Packet  and  the  Oldenburg-Portuguese  lines 
mentioned  at  p.  104,  as  well  as  of  the  Navigation  Mixte,  ply  occasionally 
to  Cadiz.  The  voyage  to  Cadiz  via  Tangier  is  picturesque  in  itself,  and 
it  affords  also  a  most  interesting  glimpse  of  Moorish-Mohammedan  life  at 
Tangier.  On  the  other  hand  the  steamboat  communication  is  uncertain 
in  stormy  weather,  and  to  many  travellers  the  voyage,  especially  in  the 
smaller  vessels,  is  very  trying. 

From  Cadiz  to  Seville,  95  M.,  railway  in  'i'U-!>lU  hrs.  (fares  19  p.  80, 
M  p.  50,  8  p.  70  e.).     Railway  Restaurant  at  Utrera  only. 

For  Algeciras  and  the  voyage  through  the  Straits,  see  pp.  5G,  5. 
As  far  as  Tarifa  the  steamers  usually  skirt  the  Andalusian  coast, 
and  then  strike  across  the  straits  to  the  semicircular  Bay  of 
Tangier,  which  is  bounded  on  the  E.  by  Cape  Malabata. 

Tangier,  see  p.  98. 

After  leaving  the  Bay  of  Tangier  we  sight  Cape  Spartel  (p.  102) 
on  the  coast  of  Morocco.  In  clear  weather  we  command  a  beautiful 
retrospect  of  the  mountainous  coast,  as  far  as  the  Sierra  Bullones 
(p.  103).  Opposite,  on  the  Spanish  coast,  where  the  hills  gradually 
recede,  at  the  NVW.  end  of  the  shallow  Bay  of  Barbate,  rises  Cape 

58     Route  6.  CADIZ. 

Trafalgar,  the  Promontorium  Junonis  of  the  Romans  and  Taraf 
al-Ghdr  ('cape  of  caverns')  of  the  Moors.  The  tall  lighthouse  on 
the  cape  is  visible  at  night  from  a  distance  of  22  M.  It  was  here, 
on  21st  Oct.  1805,  that  Nelson  won  the  brilliant  victory  over  the 
combined  French  and  Spanish  fleets  under  Villeneuve  and  Gravina 
that  cost  him  his  life  and  made  Britain  mistress  of  the  seas. 

Farther  along  the  sandy  coast,  are  the  little  town  of  Conil  and 
the  insignificant  Cape  Roche,  beyond  which  we  sight  San  Fer- 
nando (p.  59).  At  length,  rising  out  of  the  blue  sea,  appear  the 
lofty  quays  and  the  white  houses  of  Cadiz,  overtopped  by  the  cathe- 
dral, a  beautiful  sight  in  sunny  weather.  "We  steer  round  Fort 
San  Sebastian,  skirt  the  cliffs  of  Los  Cochinos  and  Las  Puercas, 
and  enter  the  broad  Bay  of  Cadiz. 

Cadiz.  —  Arrival.  Passengers  of  the  Vapores  Correos  de  Africa 
steamers  are  landed  in  tenders  gratis,  but  heavy  luggage  is  taken  ashore 
by  special  boats  according  to  tariff.  The  mandadero,  or  porter,  usually 
gets  '/o-l  p.  for  taking  luggage  to  the  Aduana  (custom-house)  or  to  the 
hotel. -^The  Railway  Station  (Estacidn)  lies  at  the  harbom. 

Hotels  (comp.  p.  51).  Hot.  de  France,  Plaza  de  Loreto,  pens,  from 
12'/2P-;  Sot.  Continental,  Calle  del  Duque  de  Tetuan  23;  Hot.  deCadi::, 
Plaza  de  la  Constitucion,  pens,  from  10  p. 

Cafes.  Cerveceria  Inglesa,  Plaza  de  la  Constitucion,  corner  of  Calle 
del  Duque  de  Tetuan;  Cafe-  Imperial,  Calle  del  Duquc  de  Tetuan  6;  Cer- 
vecerla  Alemana,  Calle  Zorrilla  2. 

Post  Office  (C'orreo),  Calle  del  Sacramento  1.  —  Telegraph  Office, 
Alameda  de  Apodaca  20. 

Bankers.  Ant.  Sicre&  Co.  (Agents  of  Credit  Lyonnais),  Calle  Diego  de 
Cadiz  5;  Amaro  Dnarte&  Co.,  Plaza  de  Mina  18.  — Money  Changers.  Casa 
de  Cambio,  Calle  de  San  Francisco  8  and  16. 

Consuls.  British  Vice-Consul,  jR.  A.  Calvert,  Alameda  20. — U.  S.  Con- 
sular Agent,  J.  Sanderson,  Alameda  12.  —  Lloyd's  Agent,  H.  MacPhersov, 
San  Ginds  6. 

Steamboat  Lines.  Hall  Line,  weekly  from  London  to  Lisbon,  Cadiz, 
Gibraltar,  and  Malaga  (comp.  pp.  1,  89);  the  Compania  Trasatldntica 
(office  in  the  Calle  Isabel  la  Catolica)  has  a  Philippine  Line  (monthly 
from  Liverpool  to  Lisbon,  etc.;  comp.  p.  1),  a  Canary  Line,  and  several 
others;  Vapores  Correos  de  Africa  (agent,  Antonio  Millan),  comp.  p.  57; 
steamers  of  the  Austro  -  American  Line  (office,  Viuda  de  B.  Alcon)  ply 
between  Trieste,  Almeria,  Las  Palmas,  and  Buenos  Ayres;  Navegaci&n 
6  Industria  (Viuda  de  B.  Alcon),  for  the  Canaries. 

Cadiz,  Span.  Cadiz,  the  Gadir  of  the  Phoenicians  and  Gades 
of  the  Romans,  now  a  provincial  capital  of  64,100  inhab.,  and  a 
fortress,  is  most  picturesquely  situated  on  a  low  limestone  rock, 
which  was  once  an  island,  on  the  W.  side  of  the  Bay  of  Cadiz. 

From  the  harbour  or  from  the  railway-station  we  cross  the  Plaza 
Isabel  Segunda  either  to  the  Calle  Alonso  el  Sabio  and  the  Cathe- 
dral (Catedral  Nueva),  or  to  the  Calle  del  Sacramento,  leading  to 
the  Torre  del  Vigia  or  de  Tavira,  102  ft.  high,  which  is  accessible 
only  by  special  permission  of  the  Capitania  del  Puerto  (Calle  de 
Aduana).  The  top  (151  steps;  fee  30-50  c.)  commands  an  excellent 
survey  of  the  town,  surrounded  almost  entirely  by  the  sea,  with  its 
flat-roofed  houses  and  their  wiradores  or  belvederes. 



7.  Rotrte.      59 

ru»a;;:::: A 

ArliUn'ia  "»  c 

Ba„il     ilo    " 

rife       ;         '  r  ■* 

ilm.ii      £  *  I        7 


5      ,,        ,'       ,'      i     S'  ""mtl"  Krffeta  V  4  ■    . 


'  "~f  SliMvadn  -  j,         5  hJSt       P-,|,,;„      ° 


SEVILLE.  7.  Rovte.     59 

The  Calle  Sagasta,  the  second  side-street  off  the  Calle  del  Sacra- 
mento, leads  to  the  right  into  the  Calle  del  Duque  de  Tetuan,  the 
chief  artery  of  traffic,  which  ends  in  the  busy  Plaza  de  la  Constitu- 
ci6n  to  the  N.W.  A  little  to  the  N.E.,  in  the  pretty  Plaza  de  Mina, 
is  the  Academia  de  Bellas  Artes,  the  picture-gallery  of  which  con- 
tains several  admirable  works  by  Murillo,  Zurbaran,  and  other 
masters.    (Adm.  9-3,  in  summer  7-4;  Sun.  and  holidays  10-3.) 

On  the  N.  outskirts  of  the  town  are  the  beautiful  *Gardens  of 
the  Alameda  de  Apodaca  and  the  Parque  Genoves,  with  their  fine 
palms.  On  the  S.  side  of  the  town,  not  far  from  the  W.  end  of 
the  shadelcss  Paseo  del  Sur,  rises  the  former  Capuchin  convent- 
church  of  Santa  Catalina  (ring  on  the  left  in  the  adjacent  court; 
adm.  20  c),  containing  Murillo's  last  work,  the  *Betrothal  of 
St.  Catharine. 

The  Railway  to  Seville  runs  along  the  narrow  neck  of  land 
which  connects  Cadiz  with  the  mainland,  rounds  the  Bay  of  Cadiz, 
passing  between  salt-marshes,  where  salt  is  obtained  by  evapor- 
ation, and  then  strikes  across  the  delta  of  the  Guadalete.  The 
chief  stations  are  the  naval  harbour  of  San  Fernando,  the  sea- 
baths  of  Puerto  Peal,  and  the  Puerto  de  Santa  Maria  ('El  Puerto'). 
Turning  to  the  N.E.,  the  train  now  runs  through  a  hilly  country  to 
(30'/2  M.)  Jerez  (or  Xeres)  de  la  Frontera,  the  third-richest  town 
in  Spain,  with  52,500  inhab.,  far-famed  for  its  'sherry'. 

Our  next  run  is  through  moor,  alternating  with  fertile  tracts, 
to  (75  M.)  Utrera  (p.  57),  junction  for  La  Itoda  (and  Bobadilla, 
K.  6a),  and  also  for  the  direct  line  to  Cordova.  Lastly,  we  cross  the 
Gruadaira  to  (95  M.)  Seville  (Estacion  de  Cadiz,  see  below). 

7.  Seville. 

Railway  Stations.  1.  Estacid>i  Sun  Bernardo  or  de  Cadiz  (PI.  P, 
G,  1;  Rail.  Restaur.),  for  the  line  to  Utrera  (Cadiz,  Granada,  Malaga). — 
2.  Estacion  de  Cordoba  or  de  Madrid  (PI.  D,  5,  6;  Restaur.),  near  the 
Guadalquivir.     Hotel  carriages  and  cabs  at  both.     Tariff,  see  p.  60. 

Hotels  (comp.  p.  51).  *Hot.  de  Madrid  (PI.  a ;  D,  E,  4),  Calle  de  Mendez 
Niiiies  2,  with  dependance  (PI.  b;D,  4),  in  the  Plaza  del  Pacifico,  pens, 
from  121/.,,  (in  spring  15)  p. ;  *Hot.  de  Inglaterra  (PI.  f ;  E,  4),  Plaza  Nu- 
eva  13,  newly  fitted  up,  pens,  from  12'/j  p.;  H6t.  de  Paris  (PI.  c;D,  4), 
Plaza  del  Pacifico,  with  two  dependances  (PI.  d),  similar  charges;  these 
three  claim  to  be  first-class.  —  Hot.  de  Roma  (PI.  e;  D,  4),  Plaza  del  Du- 
que de  la  Victoria  6,  pens,  from  9  p.;  Hot.  de  Oriente  (PI.  i ;  E,  4),  Plaza 
Nueva  8,  pens.  7-10  p. ;  PeksiOn  la  Peninsular  (PI.  g;  E,  4),  Plaza  Nueva 
20;  Cecil  Hotel  (PI.  h;  E,  4),  Calle  de  Mendez  Nunez  18  &  23;  Hot.  de 
1  v  1'aix  (PI.  k;  E,  1),  same  street,  No.  11;  Hot.  Simon  (PI.  n;  D,  4),  Calle 
O'Donneil  25,  pens.  7  p. ;  Hot.  Restaur.  AlhambRa,  Calle  Santa  Maria  do 
Gratia  (PL  D,  4). —  During  Holy  Week  (semana  santa)  and  the  Feria  (p.  60) 
charges  are  doubled  almost  everywhere,  and  rooms  should  be  secured  long 

Caf6s.  Pasaje  de  Oriente  (see  below);  Cerveceria  Tnglesa  (Engl. 
beer)  and  Cafe  de  Paris,  both  in  the  Calle  de  la  Campana;  Perla  Chica, 
near  the  Ayuntamiento  (p.  65).  —  Restaurant.  *Pasaje  de  Oriente,  Callo 
de  las  Sierpea. 

60     Route  7. 


Practical  Notes. 


by  day 

at  night 

by  day 

at  night 

1  p. 

2  n 

2  „ 

3  n 

2  p. 

3  » 

5    „ 

l'/2  P- 
2>/2   „ 

2  „ 

3  „ 

2i/2  p. 
4       „ 

4  „ 

5  „ 

The  Tramways  [Tranvias;  cars  stop  where  required ;  passengers  ring 
to  alight)  all  start  from  the  Plaza  de  la  Constitucion  (PI.  E,  3).  For  a  gene- 
ral view  of  the  city  the  circular  lines  'Constitucion,  Roario,  Macarena'  (red 
cross)  and  'Constituci6n,  Puerta  Real,  Puerta  de  Jerez'  (green  cross)  are 
recommended.  The  'Linea  del  Parque'  runs  to  the  park  on  fine  after- 
noons only. 


One-horse,  per  drive  .  . 

„  per  hour  .  . 

Two-horse,  per  drive  .  . 

„  per  hour  .  . 

The  night  hours  are  from  midnight  to  sunrise.  Small  articles  25  c. ; 
trunk  under  66  lbs.  (30  kilos)  50  c,  heavier  1  p.  —  During  the  Semana 
Santa  and  the  Feria  fares  are  about  double  (but  not  for  baggage),  and 
bargaining  is  advisable.  Driving  on  Holy  Thursday  and  Good  Friday 
is  prohibited. 

Post  &  Telegraph  Office  (Correos  y  TeUgrafos;  PI.  D,  4),  Calle 
de  las  Sierpes.  Poste-restante  hours  are  from  8.15  to  9.45,  from  12.15 
to  2.15,  and  6-7  p.  m. 

Banks.  Credit  Lyonnais,  Calle  de  las  Sierpes  87;  Banco  Hispano- 
Americano,  same  street,  No.  91;  Banco  de  Cartagena,  Calle  Rioja  18. 

Consuls.  British,  A.  L.  Kcyser,  Chicaneros  10  (to  the  E.  of  the  Au- 
diencia,  PI.  E,  3);  vice-consul,  A.  Henderson.  —  United  States,  Ch.  S.  Vi- 
dians, Mercaderes  50  (PI.  E,  3);  vice-consul,  O.  Karminski. — Lloyd's 
Agent,  Jose"  Dunipe,  Marques  de  Santa  Ana  14. 

English  Church,  Plaza  del  Museo  (PI.  D,  5).    Services  in  winter. 

Theatres.  *Teatro  de  San  Fernando  (PI.  D,  E,  4),  Calle  de  Tetuan, 
for  operas  and  ballet;  Tcatro  de  Cervantes  (PI.  C,  4),  Calle  Amor  de  Dios, 
for  short  dramas,  etc.  —  Bull  Ring  (Plaza  de  Toros;  PI.  F,  4,  5).  Famous 
'corridas'  on  Easter  Sunday  and  during  the  Feria. 

Church  Festivals.  Most  curious  among  these  are  the  *Processions 
(pasos)  of  the  brotherhoods  during  Holy  Week,  which  attract  crowds  of 
spectators.  They  are  best  witnessed  from  the  stand  in  front  of  the  town- 
hall  (seat  for  the  4  days  10  p.).  — The  *Feria  (18-20th  April),  a  pic- 
turesque popular  festival,  founded  in  1847,  is  held  in  the  Prado  de  San 
Sebastian  (PI.  G,  1,  2),  where  wealthy  families  have  their  own  tents. 

Sights.  Most  of  the  churches  are  open  in  the  morning  only:  the 
Cathedral  (p.  63)  till  12  and  after  3.30.  In  the  Sacristia  de  los  Calices 
(p.  64)  a  ticket  (permiso)  for  this  sacristia,  for  the  Sacristia  Mayor,  the 
Sala  Capitular,  and  the  closed  chapels  is  obtained  for  2  p..  The  Capilla 
Real  is  open  in  the  forenoon  only  (fee  1/2-i  P-)-  The  services  of  the  im- 
portunate guides  to  the  Cathedral  and  the  Giralda  may  be  dispensed  with. 
During  Holy  Week,  when  the  churches  are  open  all  day,  the  inspection 
of  their  art-treasures  is  scarcely  possible.  Admission  to  collections  in 
private  houses  and  charitable  institutions  is  readily  granted  as  a  rule, 
but  seldom  without  difficulty  on  Sundays  and  holidays  and  during  Holy 
Week.     The  usual  days  and  hours  of  admission  are — 

*  Alcazar  (p.  61),  week-days  11-4;  tickets  (1  p.)  are  issued  at  the  of- 
fice at  the  back  of  the  Patio  de  las  Banderas  (door  No.  11). 

Casa  de  Pilatos  (p.  65),  daily  (50  c,  for  the  poor). 

*Giralda  (p.  62),  daily  (25  c);  no  one  allowed  to  ascend  alone. 

*Hospital  de  la  Caridad  (p.  67),  daily  (fee  V2-IPO;  clear  weather 
indispensable;  afternoon  light  best. 

*M/<seo  Provincial  (p.  66),  daily  10-3  (in  summer  10-4).  On  Sun.  the 
Archaeological  Museum  is  open  till  1  only. 

Two  Days  (when  time  is  limited).  1st.  Forenoon,  Plaza  de  la  Consti- 
tucidn  (p.  65),  Cathedral  (p.  63),  Alcazar  (p.  61);  afternoon,   Calle  de  las 

History.  SEVILLE.  7-  Route.      61 

Sierpes  (p.  65),  Casa  de  Pilatos  (p.  65);  towards  evening,  ascent  of  the 
Giralda  (p.  62).  —  2nd.  Forenoon,  Museum  (p.  66):  afternoon,  Caridad 
(p.  67),  Faseo  de  las  Delicias  (p.  67),  and  Parque  Maria  Luisa  (p.  68). 

Seville,  Span.  Sevilla  (33  ft.),  a  city  of  145,300  inhab.,  the 
capital  of  Andalusia  and  of  the  province  of  Sevilla,  the  seat  of  an 
Archbishop  and  of  a  University,  lies  in  a  broad  plain  on  the  left 
bank  of  the  tawny  Guadalquivir,  opposite  the  suburb  of  Triana. 
At  flood-tide  sea-going  vessels  of  23  ft.  draught  can  ascend  the  river 
to  the  quays  of  Seville,  which,  though  54'/2  M.  from  the  sea,  can 
thus  claim  to  be  a  seaport.  The  harbour  is  annually  entered  by  about 
1000  vessels,  of  ll/4  millions  aggregate  tonnage.  The  city  combines 
the  features  of  a  seaport  with  gay  scenes  of  popular  life  and  a 
wealth  of  treasures  of  art.  The  houses  in  the  narrow  winding 
streets,  the  heritage  of  the  Moorish  period,  often  contain  charming 
inner  courts,  called  patios,  where  the  inhabitants  spend  most  of 
their  time  in  summer.  The  larger  plazas  or  squares  are  mostly 
planted  with  oranges  or  palm-trees. 

Seville,  as  its  ancient  name  Hispalis  indicates,  was  originally  an 
Iberian  settlement.  Ever  since  the  2nd  cent.  B.  C.  its  navigable  river  has 
made  Seville  a  place  of  importance.  In  411  it  became  the  capital  of  the 
Vandals  (p.  322),  and  in  441  the  seat  of  the  Visigoth  kings,  wno  however 
migrated  in  667  to  the  more  central  Toledo.  During  the  Moorish  period 
Seville,  alternately  with  Marakesh,  was  a  favourite  residence  of  the 
Almoravides  and  Almohades  (p.  95);  and  particularly  under  Yusuf  Abu 
Yakub  (1163-84)  and  under  Yakub  ibn  Yusuf  (1184-98),  surnamed  Al- 
Nansiir  ('the  victorious'),  it  wa6  embellished  with  many  sumptuous  build- 
ings, and  for  a  time  it  even  surpassed  Cordova  in  population.  The 
Christian  period  begins  with  Frederick  III.  ('the  saint')  of  Castile,  who 
captured  the  city  in  1248  and  made  it  his  residence.  Among  his  de- 
scendants was  Pedro  I.  (1350-69),  surnamed  'the  Cruel',  of  whom  many 
anecdotes  are  still  current.  Since  the  discovery  of  America  Seville  has 
prospered  greatly  and  vies  with  Cadiz  as  one  of  the  chief  ports  of  Spain. 

At  Seville  were  born  Spain's  two  greatest  painters,  Velazquez  (1599- 
1660;  court-painter  at  Madrid  from  1623  onwards)  and  Murillo  (1617-82). 
Here  too  is  laid  the  scene  of  several  famous  operas:  Mozart's  Don  Juan 
and  Figaro,  Rossini's  Barber  of  Seville,  and  Bizet's  Carmen. 

See  'Seville',  by  W.  M.  QcMichan,  in  the  'Medieval  Towns  Series' 
(London,  1903);  and  'Seville',  by  A.  J.  Calvert  (London,  1907). 

a.  The  Plaza  del  Triunfo  with  the  Alcazar  and  the 

We  begin  our  walk  at  the  Plaza  del  Triunfo  (PI.  F,  3),  which 
is  bounded  by  three  imposing  edifices,  the  Lonja  on  the  W.  side, 
the  Alcazar  on  the  S.,  and  the  Cathedral  on  the  N. 

The  Casa  Lonja  (PI.  F,  3),  the  Exchange,  built  in  the  high- 
Renaissance  style  in  1583-98,  contains  on  the  upper  floor  the 
Archivo  General  de  Indias,  with  the  Spanish  charters  and  deeds 
relating  to  the  discovery  and  government  of  America  and  the  Phil- 
ippines.   Fine  view  from  the  roof,  especially  of  the  Cathedral. 

The  *  Alcazar  (PI.  F,  3;  adm.,  see  p.  60),  originally  a.  castle  of 
the  Almohade  Yusuf  Abu  Yakub  (1181 ;  see  above),  dates  in  its 

62     Route  7.  SEVILLE.  AlcAzar. 

present  form  mainly  from  the  time  of  kings  Pedro  I.  (p.  61)  and 
Henry  II.  (1369-79),  who  caused  the  castle  to  be  restored  by 
Moorish  architects  in  the  Mudejar  style  (p.  51).  Later  alterations 
date  from  the  reigns  of  Charles  V.  (1526),  Philip  II.  (1569),  and 
Philip  IV.  (1624),  while  modern  restorations  (1857-89)  have  ma- 
terially changed  the  character  of  the  interior. 

The  Exterior  with  its  pinnacled  corner-towers,  still  has  the  char- 
acter of  a  mediseval  castle.  From  the  entrauce  in  the  S.E.  angle  of 
the  Plaza  del  Triunfo  we  first  cross  the  large  Patio  de  las  Bauderas,  in 
which  are  the  ticket-office  and  a  vaulted  gateway  ('apeadero').  Thence 
we  may  proceed  straight  to  the  garden  (see  below),  or  to  the  right  to 
the  Patio  de  la  Monteria,  the  inner  court,  planted  with  oranges  and 
palms.  Very  striking  is  the  splendid  *Chikf  Facade  of  the  inner  Alcazar. 
The  beautiful  windows  and  side-entrances  are  framed  with  toothed  arches; 
above  them  runs  a  rich  stalactite  frieze  crowned  with  a  far-projecting 
timber  roof  resting  on  quaint  corbels.  Arabic  inscriptions  in  Cufic  char- 
acters (p.  150)  serve  for  decoration. 

The  Apartments  in  the  interior  are  grouped  round  the  Patio  de  las 
Doncellas  ('court  of  the  maidens'),  erected  in  1369-79,  but  almost  entirely 
rebuilt  under  Charles  V.  and  Philip  II.  The  lower  story  is  preceded  by 
superb  Moorish  arcades  resting  on  coupled  Renaissance  columns.  The 
upper  walls  in  open-work  are  richly  embellished  with  stucco.  The  chief 
rooms  on  the  groundfloor  are,  on  the  S.E.,  the  Sal6n  de  Carlos  Quinto 
with  its  fine  'azulejos'  (or  tiles)  and  timber  ceiling;  on  the  S.W.,  the 
quadrangular  domed  *Salon  de  Embajadores,  also  richly  decorated  with 
azulejos,  and  the  Patio  de  las  MunecaB  (dolls'  court),  modern  in  its  upper 
parts,  so  called  from  the  figures  which  adorn  it. 

From  the  Apeadero  (see  above)  we  may  lastly  visit  the  Garden  of 
the  Alcazar,  with  its  luxuriant  vegetation,  a  pavilion  of  the  time  of 
Charles  V.,  a  grotto,  and  fountains. 

Eeturniug  to  the  Plaza  del  Triunfo,  we  face  the  Cathedral,  with 
the  Capilla  Keal  (p.  64),  projecting  on  the  E.,  and  the  clock-tower 
at  the  N.E.  angle  of  the  church,  the  famous  — 

**Giralda  (PI.  E,  3),  the  conspicuous  landmark  of  the  city! 
It  was  originally  the  minaret  of  the  principal  Moorish  mosque, 
built  in  brick  by  the  architect  Jdbir  for  Yakiib  ibn  Ynsuf  (p.  61) 
in  1184-96.  The  tower  tapers  slightly  towards  the  top  and  is 
remarkable  for  its  harmonious  proportions.  It  is  square  in  form, 
each  side  being  45  ft.  long,  and  its  walls  are  7  ft.  thick.  The 
upper  wall-surfaces  adjoining  the  windows,  at  a  height  of  about 
80  ft.  above  the  ground,  are  diapered  with  a  net-work  of  Ara- 
besque-like sunken  panels,  and  are  further  enlivened  with  niches 
Instead  of  being  crowned  with  a  pinnacled  platform  (see  altar- 
piece,  p.  64),  the  tower  now  has  a  belfry  (1568),  capped  by  a  small 
dome  (305  ft.),  on  which  stands  the  Girardillo,  or  vane,  a  bronze 
female  figure  representing  Faith. 

The  *Ascent  (p.  60)  is  most  enjoyable  towards  evening.  Entrance  by 
the  door  in  the  S.E.  angle.  An  easy  inclined  plane,  in  35  sections,  and 
ending  in  16  steps,  ascends  to  the  first  gallery,  where  the  bells  are  hung, 
and  where  we  enjoy  a  very  extensive  view. 

In  the  Calle  de  Alemanes,  on  the  N.  side  of  the  Cathedral,  is 
the  main'  entrance  to  the  *Patio  de  los  Naranjos  (PI.  F,  3 ; 

Cathedral.  SEVILLE.  7.  Route.     63 

'orange-court'),  once  the  court  of  the  mosque.  The  handsome  eu- 
trancc-gateway,  called  Puerta  del  Perdon,  dates  from  the  Moorish 
period.  The  bronze-mounted  *Doors  and  the  knockers,  in  theMudejar 
style,  and  the  sculptures  (1519)  are  additions  of  the  Christian 
period.  The  old  artesonado  or  coffered  ceiling  was  replaced  in 
1833  by  a  tower. 

In  this  picturesque  court,  where  the  faithful  used  to  perform 
their  ablutions  at  a  fountain  (al-mida)  before  entering  the  sacred 
precincts,  we  stand  opposite  the  Cathedral;  on  the  right  is  the 
Sagrario  (p.  05);  on  the  left  is  the  Biblioteca  Colombina,  or 
cathedral  library,  founded  in  1539  by  Eernando  Colon,  Columbus's 
son,  above  which  towers  the  Giralda. 

From  the  orange-court  the  cathedral  may  be  entered  by  the 
Puerta  de  los  Naranjos  or  (on  the  left)  by  the  Puerta  del  Lagarto. 
It  is  preferable,  however,  to  enter  on  the  "W.  side,  from  the  Calle 
del  Gran  Capitan. 

The  **Cathedral  (PI.  F,  3 ;  adm.,  see  p.  60),  one  of  the  grand- 
est and  most  sumptuous  Gothic  churches  in  the  whole  of  Christen- 
dom, occupies  the  site  of  the  principal  Moorish  mosque,  which 
was  erected  by  Yxisuf  Abu  Yakub  in  1171.  It  was  begun  by  un- 
known architects  in  1402,  and  in  its  chief  parts  was  completed  in 
1500.  The  dome  having  collapsed  in  1511,  it  was  rebuilt  from 
designs  by  Juan  Gil  de  Ontahon  in  1517,  and  having  in  1888 
again  fallen  in  it  was  restored  by  Casanova. 

The  W.  Faqade,  which  was  not  completed  till  1827,  as  well 
as  the  E.  facade,  is  remarkable  for  the  wealth  of  sculpture  on  its 
portals.  On  the  two  lateral  gateways  in  particular,  the  Puerta  del 
Bautismo  (left)  and  the  Puerta  del  Nacimiento  (right),  we  note  tho 
beautiful  terracotta  figures  by  Pedro  Milldn  (about  1500),  of  semi- 
northern  character. 

The  ^'Interior  has  a  nave  with  double  aisles,  two  rows  of  side- 
chapels,  a  transept  which  does  not  project  beyond  the  main  walls, 
a  choir  in  the  centre,  and  a  Capilla  Mayor  containing  the  high- 
altar.  Exclusive  of  the  Capilla  Real,  the  church  is  383  ft.  long  and 
249  It.  in  width.  The  nave  is  53  ft.  wide  and  132  ft.  high,  the 
aisles  are  each  30  ft.  wide  and  85  ft.  in  height.  The  marble  pave- 
ment is  of  the  18th  cent.,  the  fine  stained  glass  of  the  10th-19th 
centuries.  The  screen  (reja)  and  the  Gothic  stalls  (silleria)  of  the 
choir  were  almost  entirely  destroyed  by  the  last  collapse  of  the 
dome.  The  huge  high-altar  (retablo)  in  the  Capilla  Mayor  is  a 
masterpiece  of  Gothic  wood-carving  (1482-1504). 

The  Side  Chapels  and  the  Sacristies  form  a  veritable  museum 
of  sculpture  and  painting,  but  are  very  badly  lighted. 

Adjoining  the  Puerta  Mayor,  the  chief  portal  of  the  W.  facade, 
are  the  Altar  del  Santo  Angel,  with  a  picture  by  Mnrillo  (the 
, Angel  de  la  Guarda'  or  guardian  angel),  and  the  small  Altar  del 

64     Route  7.  SEVILLE.  Cathedral. 

Nacimiento,  contairicg  admirable  pictures  by  Luis  de  Vargas 
(1502-68;  'Adoration  of  the  Child'  and  the  'Four  Evangelists'). 

The  fourth  chapel  in  the  S.  aisle,  the  Capilla  de  Hermenegildo, 
contains  the  fine  Gothic  monument  of  Archbp.  Juan  de  Cervantes 
(d.  1453),  by  Lorenzo  Mercadante  de  Bretana. —  In  the  S.  tran- 
sept rises  the  very  curious  sarcophagus  of  Columbus,  placed  in  the 
cathedral  of  Havana  in  1892  and  brought  to  Spain  in  1899.  To  the 
right  stands  the  Altar  de  la  Gamba,  with  the  famous  painting  by 
Luis  de  Vargas,  the  so-called  Generaci6n,  or  Adoration  of  the 
Immaculate  Conception  by  Adam  and  Eve,  generally  known  as  'La 
Gamba',  from  the  finely  drawn  and  painted  leg  of  Adam. 

Through  the  Capilla  de  los  Dolores  we  pass  into  the  SacristIa 
de  los  Calices,  built  in  the  late-Gothic  style  by  Diego  de  Riano 
(d.  1533)  and  Martin  Gainza  (d.  1566),  where  we  obtain  tickets 
of  admission  to  the  closed  chapels,  etc.  (see  p.  60).  In  front  of 
us  is  a  famous  *Crucifix,  by  Martinez  MontaMs  (d.  1649),  the  most 
typical  of  Andalusian  sculptors;  on  the  left  are  a  SS.  Justa  and 
Rufina,  by  Goya  (1817),  and  St.  Dorothea  by  Murillo.  On  the 
window-wall  is  St.  John  the  Evangelist,  by  Zurbardn. 

Adjacent  to  the  Antesala  is  the  *Sacristia  Mayor,  a  magni- 
ficent room  in  the  plateresque  style,  also  built,  after  1532,  by 
JRiailo  and  Gainza,  containing  the  rich  treasury  of  the  cathedral 
and  three  valuable  pictures,  a  Depcent  from  the  Cross,  by  Pedro 
Campaha  (1548),  and  SS.  Leander  and  Isidore  by  Murillo. 

The  Capilla  del  Mariscal  possesses  an  altar-piece  in  ten  sections, 
the  Presentation  in  the  Temple,  by  Pedro  Campaila. 

The  elliptical  *Sala  Capitular,  begun  by  Riano  and  Gainza 
in  1530  but  not  finished  till  after  1582,  has  a  Doric  entablature 
resting  on  Ionic  mural  columns,  while  the  decoration  is  plateresque 
(Span.  Renaissance).  The  eight  ovals  between  the  windows  and  the 
fine  picture  of  the  Immaculate  Conception  are  by  Murillo. 

On  the  E.  side  of  the  church  we  pass  through  a  high  railing 
(1773)  into  the  Capilla  Real  (adm.,  see  p.  60),  a  Renaissance  edi- 
fice by  Gainza  and  others  (1551-75),  on  the  site  of  the  old  royal 
vaults.  By  the  entrance,  right  and  left,  are  the  tombs  of  Alfonso 
the  Wise  (d.  1284)  and  his  mother  Queen  Beatrice  of  Swabia.  In 
the  apse  is  preserved  the  reliquary  of  St.  Ferdinand  (Ferdinand  III. 
of  Castile;  p.  69),  who,  as  well  as  Pedro  I.,  is  interred  in  the  'Pan- 
te6n'  under  the  chapel. 

In  the  N.  aisle,  beyond  the  Puerta  del  Lagarto  (p.  63)  is  the 
Capilla  de  los  Evangelistas,  whose  altar-piece  is  by  Ferd.  Sturm 
(1559) ;  on  the  predella,  to  the  left,  below,  are  SS.  Justa  and  Rufina 
with  the  Giralda  in  its  original  form  (p.  62).  In  the  Capilla  de 
Santiago  (St.  James)  is  a  *Picture  of  that  saint,  by  Juan  de  las 
Roelas  (1609).    Most  famous  of  all  is  a  **Murillo  in  the  Capilla 

Ai/untamiento.  SEVILLE.  7.  Route.      65 

del  Bautisterio  (forenoon  light  best),  the  Infant  Christ  appearing 
to  St.  Antony  of  Padua  (1656). 

The  Puerta  del  Sagrario,  the  last  door  on  the  N.  side  of  the 
cathedral,  leads  into  the  Sagrario,  built  as  a  parish-church  in  the 
baroque  style  in  1618-62,  with  a  single  vault  75  ft.  high.  The 
altar-piece  on  the  left  is  a  fine  half-figure  of  the  Mater  Dolorosa 
by  Montanes. 

b.  The  Central  and  Eastern  Quarters. 

The  lively  Calle  Genova  or  Canovas  del  Castillo  leads  from  the 
Cathedral  to  the  Plaza  de  la  Constitucion  (PI.  E,  3),  the  focus 
of  the  city  traffic.  On  the  right  is  the  Audiencia,  containing  the 
law-courts;  on  the  left,  between  this  plaza  and  the  large  Plaza 
Nueva  or  de  San  Fernando  (PI.  E,  4),  rises  the  — 

*Casa  del  Ayuntamiento  (PI.  E,  4),  or  town-hall,  a  Re- 
naissance edifice  (1526-64)  designed  by  Diego  de  Riano  (p.  64). 
The  richly  decorated  S.  part  is  one  of  the  most  charming  creations 
of  the  plateresque  style. 

At  the  Audiencia  begins  the  *Calle  de  las  Sierpes  (PI.  E. 
D,  3),  or  'street  of  serpents',  so  named  after  the  sign-boai-d  of  an 
old  inn.  It  contains  the  chief  cafes  and  clubs  and  the  largest  shops, 
and  it  presents  a  very  lively  scene  in  the  evening. 

This  street  forms  the  best  starting-point  for  a  walk  through 
I  lie  E.  quarters  of  the  town.  The  first  lateral  street  on  the  right, 
the  Calle  Sagasta,  leads  to  the  church  of  San  Salvador  (PI.  D, 
K.  3),  which  contains  a  statue  of  Christ  by  Montanes  (2nd  altar 
on  the  right).  From  the  S.E.  angle  of  that  church  the  Cuesta  del 
Rosafio  leads  to  — 

San  Isidoro  (PI.  E,  3),  where  at  the  high-altar  a  celebrated 
masterpiece  by  Roelas,  the  Death  of  St.  Isidore  (El  Transito),  was 
once  closely  studied  by  Murillo. — From  San  Isidoro  the  Calle 
Almiraute  Hoyos  and  Calle  de  Aguilas,  which  contain  several  fine 
patios,  lead  to  the  Plaza  de  Pilatos. 

The  -Casa  de  Pilatos  (PI.  E,  2;  adm.,  see  p.  60),  the  pro- 
perty of  the  Duque  de  Medinaceli,  was  probably  begun  early  in 
the  16th  cent,  by  Christian-Moorish  architects  for  the  Ribera 
family.  As  a  member  of  that  family  had  been  to  Jerusalem,  the 
building  was  popularly  supposed  to  be  a  copy  of  Pilate's  house. 
The  architecture  shows  a  curious  but  harmonious  blend  of  Moorish, 
Gothic,  and  Renaissance  elements. 

The  beautiful  Patio,  with  its  colonnade  and  fountain,  contains  several 
antiques;  in  the  angles  are  two  excellent  replicas  of  a  statue  of  Athena, 
of  the  time  of  Phidias. — Adjoining  the  court,  on  the  right,  is  the  so- 
called  Prictorium  of  Pilate,  and  straight  in  front  are  the  Vestibule,  with  its 
superb  azuiejos,  and  the  Chapel,  with  its  charming  Gothic-Moorish  decor- 
ation.   To  the  left  of  the  vestibule  is  a  room  with  azuiejos  and  a  rich 

Baedekek's  Mediterranean.  5 

66     Route  7.  SEVILLE.  Museo. 

artesonado  ceiling.  —  A  magnificent   staircase,  roofed  by  a  much  admired 
dome,  ascends  to  the  upper  floor,  which  is  not  accessible. 

From  the  Plaza  de  Pilatos  we  follow  the  Calle  de  Caballerizas 
and  Calle  Descalzos  to  the  N.W.  to  the  pretty  Arguelles  (PI. 
J),  2,  3).  Here  rises  San  Pedro,  a  Gothic  church  of  the  14th  cent., 
containing  a  fine  timber  ceiling  and  pictures  by  Pedro  Campafta 
and  Roelas  (sacristan,  Calle  Dona  Maria  Coronel  1). 

Following  the  Calle  de  la  Imagen,  and  crossing  the  Mercado 
(PI.  1),  3),  we  reach  the  Calle  Larafla. 

The  University  (PI.  D,  3)  now  occupies  an  old  Jesuit  convent. 
The  University  Church  (entered  from  the  quadrangle;  fee  1/2-'i.  p.), 
built  in  1565-79  by  Bartolome  Bustamante  (?)  for  the  Jesuits,  in 
the  Renaissance  style,  contains  fine  Renaissance  monuments  and 
several  sculptures  and  paintings  by  Montanes,  Alonso  Cano,  Roelas, 
and  others. 

The  churches  in  the  N.E.  Quarter,  such  as  Omnium  Sanctorum 
(PI.  B,  S),  San  Marcos  (PI.  C,  2),  and  Santa  Marina  (PI.  B,  2)  still  possess 
towers  in  the  Moorish  stylo,  which  were  once  the  minarets  of  uiosques. — 
The  so-called  Cam  del  Duque  de  Alba  (PI.  C,  2),  Calle  de  las  Duenas  5, 
a  palace  built  for  the  Riberas  (p.  65)  in  the  Mudejar  style  after  1483, 
contains  a  court  planted  with  palms  and  a  staircase  richly  adorned  with 
azulejos,  but  the  house  itself  is  not  shown. 

In  the  Calle  de  Santa  Paula,  a  little  to  the  E.  of  San  Marcos,  is  the 
Conveido  de  Santa  Paula  (PL  C,  1,  2),  a  nunnery  founded  in  1476.  The 
forecourt  has  a  superb  Gothic  portal,  with  terracotta  ornamentation  by 
Franc.  Nicoluso  of  Pisa  and  reliefs  of  saints  by  Pedro  Millan  (p.  63}. 
The  rich  mural  azulejos  (16th  cent.)  in  the  church  are  well  worth  seeing. 

In  the  Ronda  de  Capuchinos  (PI.  A,  1,  2)  there  are  considerable  re- 
mains of  the  ancient  Oily  Wall,  with  its  external  towers  and  low  parapet 
('barbacana',  after  Byzantine  models). 

o.  The  Western  and  South-Western  Quarters. 

Starting  from  the  small  Plaza  del  PacIfico  (PI.  D,4),  planted 
with  orange-trees,  we  follow'  the  Calle  de  San  Pablo  to  the  S.W. 
as  far  as  the  church  of  Santa  Magdalena  (PI.  D,  4)  and  then  turn 
to  the  right  into  the  Calle  de  Bailen.  From  this  in  turn  we  again 
diverge  to  the  right  and  follow  the  Calle  de  Miguel  de  Carvajal  to 
the  Plaza  del  Museo  (PI.  D,  5 ;  officially,  Plaza  de  la  Condesa  de 
Casa  Galindo),  in  which  rises  a  Bronze  Statue  of  Murillo. 

The  *Museo  Provincial  (PI.  D,  5;  adm.,  see  p.  60),  oc- 
cupying an  old  monastery  of  Mercenarii  (Convento  de  la  Merced), 
contains  the  small  Museo  Arqueologico  and  the  Museo  de  Pinturas, 
a  famous  picture-gallery.  The  gallery  contains  several  valuable 
sculptures,  but  its  chief  treasure  consists  in  23  Murillos,  mostly 
from  the  old  Capuchin  monastery  (PI.  A,  B,  1),  depicting  the  legend 
of  St.  Francis  of  Assisi  and  the  foundation  of  the  Franciscan  order. 

A  small  court  leads  to  the  N.  Cloisters,  where  the  antiques  (Roman, 
Visigothic,  Moorish),  along  with  some  modern  works,  are  exhibited.  From 
the  nearer  aisle  of  the  cloisters  an  azulejos-portal  leads  straight  into  the  —  la  Caridad.  SEVILLE.  7.  Route.     67 

Great  Hall  of  the  picture-gallery,  once  the  convent-church.  The 
**MuriUo8  are  all  hung  on  the  -walls  of  the  nave.  On  the  S.  wall,  by 
the  entrance,  note  specially  the  Concepci6n,  the  Annunciation,  SS.  Leander 
and  Bonaventura,  and  the  'Virgen  de  la  Servilleta',  said  to  have  been 
painted  on  a  table-napkin.  On  the  N.  wall  we  note  St.  Felix  of  Can- 
talicio  with  the  Infant  Jesus,  the  *Almsgiving  of  St.  Thomas  of  Villanueva, 
the  great  Conception,  the  Adoration  of  the  Shepherds,  and  Christ  on  the 
Cross  embracing  St.  Francis. 

On  the  end-wall  of  the  church  is  the  Martyrdom  of  St.  Andrew  by 
Roelas.  The  transept  and  choir  are  hung  with  numerous  pictures  by 
Zurbaran  (notably  the  Triumph  of  St.  Thomas  Aquinas,  in  the  choir). 
Here,  too,  are  several  *Sculptures :  Pietro  Torrigiani,  Virgin  and  Child, 
with  the  penitent  St.  Jerome  (in  terracotta);  MontaMs,  wooden  figures 
of  the  Virgin  and  Child,  John  the  Baptist,  and  St.  Dominicus. 

A  room  on  the  Upper  Floor  contains  modern  pictures. 

The  Calle  de  los  Reyes  Catolicos,  in  line  with  the  Calle  de  San 
Pablo  (p.  66),  ends  at  the  Fuenle  de  Isabel  Segunda  (PL  F,  6),  the 
chief  bridge  crossing  to  the  suburb  of  Triana. 

A  little  short  of  the  bridge  we  turn  to  the  left  and  follow  the 
Paseo  de  Cristobal  Colon  (PI.  E,  F,  5,  4),  skirting  the  left  bank 
of  the  Guadalquivir  and  the  quays.  On  the  left  lie  the  Bull  Ring 
(PI.  F,  4,  5);  then  the  pretty  Plaza  de  Atarazanas  (PI.  F,  4; 
Arabic  Dar  as-San'a,  'arsenal',  'place  of  work'),  on  the  site  of  the 
old  Moorish  wharf,  where  the  great  Artillery  Arsenal  (Maestranza), 
the  Hospital  de  la  Caridad,  and  the  Custom  House  (Aduana),  are 
now  situated. 

The  Hospital  de  la  Caridad  (PI.  F,  4;  adm.,  see  p.  60), 
erected  for  the  'brotherhood  of  charity'  (Hermandad  de  la  Caridad) 
in  1661-4,  possesses,  in  its  baroque  church,  six  far-famed  **Mu- 
rillos  (1660-74).  Two  of  these  in  particular  are  the  delight  and 
admiration  of  every  beholder:  Moses  striking  the  Rock  (Cuadro  de 
las  Aguas,  or  La  Sed,  'the  thirst')  and  the  Feeding  of  the  Five 
Thousand  (Pan  y  Peces,  'bread  and  fishes').  Besides  these  pictures 
there  are,  on  the  left,  the  Infant  Christ,  the  Annunciation,  and  San 
Juan  de  Dios  carrying  sick  persons  into  the  hospital;  on  the  right, 
the  young  John  the  Baptist.  By  tho  high-choir  are  two  singular  but 
repulsive  pictures  by  Juan  Valdes  Leal  (1630-91),  the  Raising  of 
the  Cross  and  the  Triumph  of  Death. 

Near  the  S.  angle  of  the  Plaza,  close  to  the  river,  rises  the 
Torre  del  Oro  (PI.  G,  4),  once  a  fortified  tower  of  the  Moorish 
Alcazar  (p.  61),  and  ever  since  called  the  'tower  of  gold'  on  ac- 
count of  its  brilliant  azulejos.  The  upper  part  of  the  tower  dates 
from  the  Christian  period  only;  the  window  openings  and  the  bal- 
conies were  constructed  in  1760. 

Near  the  Torre  del  Oro  begin  the  *Public  Gardens  of  Seville, 
which,  particularly  in  spring,  when  roses,  camellias,  and  orange- 
blossom  are  in  their  glory,  afford  a  delightful  promenade.  The 
favourite  part  is  the  Pasco  de  las  Delicias  (PI.  H,  3),  beginning 
at  the  Palacio  de  Santelmo  (PI.  G,  3 ;  now  a  priests'  seminary), 


68     Route  a.  CORDOVA. 

where  the  people  of  fashion  drive  on  fine  afternoons.  On  the  way 
hack  we  may  walk  through  the  Parque.  Maria  Luisa  (PI.  H,  2), 
once  part  of  the  Santelmo  gardens,  and  regain  the  town  by  the 
Calle  San  Fernando,  passing  the  great  Tobacco  Factory  (PI.  G,  3), 
a  huge  baroque  building  of  1757. 

8.  Prom  Seville  to  Cordova. 

8IV2  M.  Railway  (Seville  and  Madrid  Line)  in  23/4-43/4  hrs.  (fares 
16  p.  40,  12  p.  30,  7  p.  40  c.) ;  one  train  de  luxe  daily,  1st  cl.  only,  fare  10 
per  cent  higher.     Trains  start  from  the  Estaei6n  de  Cordoba. 

Seville)  see  p.  59.  We  follow  the  Guadalquivir  upstream,  at 
some  distance  from  its  lofty  reddish  banks,  which  are  visible  at 
times.  Nearing  (1372  M.)  Brenes  we  enjoy  a  last  retrospect  of 
the  cathedral  of  Seville  with  the  Giralda. 

22  M.  Tocina,  the  junction  for  Merida  and  Lisbon.  Beyond 
(25'/2  M-)  Guadajoz  we  cross  to  the  right  bank  of  the  Guadal- 
quivir. 4672  M.  Peiiaflor,  adjoining  rapids  of  the  river  which 
drive  large  mills.  49  M.  Palma  del  Bio,  at  the  confluence  of  the 
Guadalquivir  with  the  Genii  (p.  74).  67 l/2  M.  Almodovar,  with  a 
loftily  situated  Moorish  castle,  now  being  restored. 

8IV2  M.  Cordova.  —  At  the  Station  (Estacion  de  Madrid,  Se- 
villa  y  Malaga;  PI.  B,  C,  l;  Rail.  Restaur.)  are  omnibuses  from  the  chief 

Hotels  (eomp.  p.  51;  charges  should  he  arranged  beforehand).  Hut. 
S/rizo  (PI.  a;  C,  2),  corner  of  Calle  Duque  de  Hornaehuelos  and  the  narrow 
Calle  Diego  Leon,  pens,  from  12V2P->  variously  judged.  —  Less  expensive: 
Hot.  de  Oriente  (PI.  c;  C,  2),  pens.  8-10  p.;  Hot.  de  Espafia  &  Francia 
(PI.  b;  C,  2),  pens.  8  p.;  Hot.  Simon  (PI.  d;  C,  2),  pens.  5-6  p.,  very  fair; 
these  three  are  in  the  Paseo  del  Gran  Capitan;  Cuatro  Naciones,  Calle 
San  Miguel  4. 

Cafes.  Oaf e" -Restaur.  Suizo,  Calle  Anibrosio  de  Morales  (PI.  D,  3) ;  La 
Perla,   Calle   del  Conde   de  Gondomar  No.  1,    Cerveceria  Alemana  No.  8. 

Post  &  Telegraph  Office  (PI.  D,  3),  Plazuela  de  Seneca. 

British  Vice-Consul,  Richard  Eshott  Carr. 

Half-a-Dat,  when  time  presses:  Cathedral  (open  all  day,  except  12-2; 
closes  2  hrs.  before  sunset) ;  visit  to  the  Mihrab,  Renaissance  choir,  Mudejar 
chapel,  etc.,  for  which  a  permiso  (2  p.)  is  obtained  at  the  Olicina  de  la 
Obreria,  adjoining  the  Puerta  del  Pertton ;  then  the  Guadalquivir  Bridge, 
with  the  C'alahorra;  the  Paseo  del  Gran  Capitdn  and  Jardines  de  la 

Cordova,  Span.  Cordoba  (391  ft.),  a  provincial  capital  and  the 
seat  of  a  bishop,  with  60,000  inhab.,  lies  at  the  foot  of  the  Sierra 
de  Cordoba,  a  spur  of  the  Sierra  Morena,  in  a  plain  sloping  gently 
down  to  the  Guadalquivir.  The  town,  whose  ancient  glory  has  long 
departed,  now  contains  little  or  nothing  to  interest  the  expectant 
traveller  except  the  mosque,  now  the  Cathedral,  which  in  spite  of 
many  later  additions  and  disfigurements,  is  still  the  grandest  mon- 
ument in  Spain  of  the  Moorish  period.  Other  memorials  of  this 
Mecca  of  the  Occident,  once  famous  as  a  patroness  of  science  also, 
now  survive  only  in  several  portals  and  inscriptions. 

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BMory.  CORDOVA.  «•  Route.     69 

Corduba,  the  most  iuipoitant  of  the  ancient  Iberian  town8  on  the 
upper  course  of  the  Beetis,  became  a  Roman  colony  in  152  B.C.,  and  was 
noted  for  its  commerce  and  its  wealth.  The  Visigothic  king  Leovigild 
wrested  it  in  571  from  the  Byzantines  and  made  it  an  episcopal  see. 
After  the  decisive  battle  of  711  (p.  51)  Cordova  was  captured  by  tho 
Moors,  aided  by.  the  Jews  who  were  alienated  b_y  the  arrogance  of  the 
Visigoths.  With  the  Moorish  sway  begins  the  world-wide  fame  of  the 
city,  especially  from  the  time  when  the  emir  Abderrahmdn  I.,  of  the 
house  of  the  Omaiyades  (p.  185),  on  his  escape  from  the  massacre  of 
his  family  at  Damascus,  settled  at  Cordova  in  756  and  declared  his  in- 
dependence of  the  Oriental  caliphate.  As  the  capital  of  the  Spanish  or 
western  caliphate,  Cordova  soon  became  the  wealthiest  city  in  Spain,  and 
even  for  a  short  time  the  richest  in  Europe,  notably  under  Abderrahmdn  II. 
(822-52)  and  Abderrahmdn  III.  (912-61),  the  greatest  of  the  Omaiyades, 
and  also  under  the  governor  (liajib)  Al-Monsiir  (d.  1002).  It  even  rivalled 
Bagdad  and  Fez  as  a  brilliant  centre  of  Mohammedan  culture,  to  which 
students  flocked  from  every  part  of  the  Occident.  At  length,  after  the 
Almoravides  and  Almohades  (p.  95),  who  had  been  summoned  to  aid  the 
citizens  against  the  Christians,  had  vainly  attempted  to  arrest  the  decay 
of  the  city,  Cordova  fell,  in  1236,  into  the  hands  of  Ferdinand  III.  of 
Castile,  who  expelled  the  Moorish  inhabitants  and  in  1248  made  Seville 
his  residence.  The  city  afterwards  fell  into  decay  and  poverty,  and  the 
once  highly  extolled  Carnpiiia  became  a  desolate  wilderness. 

See  'Cordova',  by  A.  F.  Calvert  and  W.  M.  Gallichan  (London,  1907). 

From  the  Can-era  rle  la  Estacion,  or  'station  street',  bearing  a 
little  to  the  left,  we  enter  the  Paseo  del  Gh'an  Capitan  (PI.  C,  1,  2), 
the  favourite  promenade  of  the  townsfolk  on  summer  evenings. 

At  the  S.  end  of  the  Paseo,  near  the  church  of  San  Nicolas  de 
In  Villa  (PI.  0,  2),  with  its  octagonal  tower,  once  a  minaret,  we 
take  the  Calle  del  Conde  de  Gondomar  to  the  left,  and  then,  just 
short  of  the  Hotel  Suizo,  follow  the  Calle  de  Jesus  Maria  (PL  C, 
2,  3)  to  the  right.  This  street,  continued  by  the  Calle  de  Angel 
de  Saavedra,  the  Calle  Pedregosa,  and  the  Calle  Cespedes,  leads  to 
the  S.  to  the  cathedral. 

The  '•  ^Cathedral  (PI.  C,  3,  4;  adm.,  see  p.  68),  ouce  the 
Mesjid  al-Jdmia,  or  'chief  mosque'  of  the  city,  one  of  the  greatest 
in  the  world,  and  still  called  La  Mezquita,  is  the  grandest  and 
noblest  creation  of  Moorish  architecture  in  Spain.  The  mosque 
was  founded  by  Abderrahman  I.  in  785,  on  the  site  of  a  Christian 
church,  and  was  intended  to  form  a  great  religious  centre  for  all 
believers  in  Spain,  and  to  induce  the  great  stream  of  western 
pilgrims  to  repair  to  Cordova  instead  of  to  Mecca.  A  model  for 
the  edifice  was  found  in  the  arcaded  courts  and  colonnaded  halls 
of  the  Egyptian  mosques  (such  as  the  Amru  Mosque,  p.  460).  The 
original  edifice  contained  only  ten  rows  of  columns,  which  formed 
eleven  longitudinal  and  twelve  transverse  aisles.  The  central  aisle 
was  a  little  wider  than  the  others  and  ended  in  a  Mihrab,  or  prayer- 
recess,  designed  to  mark  the  direction  of  Mecca  (Kibla).  As  the  build- 
ing soon  proved  inadequate  for  the  population,  which  was  rapidly 
iucreased  by  accessions  from  the  East,  Abderrahman  II.,  in  833-48, 
added  seven  transepts  on  the  S.  side  and  erected  a  new  mihrab. 
A  further  prolongation  by  fourteen  transepts  was  effected  by  Ab 

70     Route  8.  CORDOVA  Cathedral. 

Hakim  II.  (961-76),  after  which  the  magnificent  third  mihrab 
(mihrab  nuevo)  formed  the  termination  of  the  building.  Though 
the  mosque  was  now  considered  the  finest  in  the  Occident,  rivalling 
the  Kairuin  mosque  at  Fez,  it  failed  to  satisfy  the  ambition  of 
Al-Mansur  (p.  69).  As  the  sloping  ground  on  the  S.  side  precluded 
extension  in  that  direction,  this  governor,  in  987-90,  caused  seven 
new  rows  of  columns  to  be  raised  on  the  E.  side,  thus  increasing 
the  number  of  aisles  to  nineteen,  but  destroying  the  symmetrical 
plan  of  the  building,  which  required  the  mihrab,  or  holy  of  holies, 
to  be  in  line  with  the  main  axis  of  the  building. 

After  the  conquest  of  Cordova  by  the  Christians  in  1236  (p.  69) 
the  mosque  was  dedicated  to  the  Virgin  (Virgen  de  la  Asuncion).  The 
Spaniards  at  first  confined  their  operations  to  walling  up  most  of 
the  doors  and  then  fitting  up  side-chapels  along  the  walls.  As  the 
needs  of  the  Christian  ritual,  however,  soon  demanded  the  con- 
struction of  a  choir  (primitivo  coro),  part  of  the  second  mihrab 
and  the  adjoining  aisles  had  in  1260  to  be  demolished.  Still 
greater  damage  was  done  by  the  insertion  of  the  Renaissance  choir 
in  the  centre  of  the  building,  and  of  the  Sala  Capitular,  or  sacristy, 
in  the  middle  of  the  S.  wall. 

The  Ground  Plan  forms  an  immense  rectangle  of  about  575 
by  427  ft.,  of  which  fully  a  third  is  occupied  by  the  court.  Court 
and  church  are  surrounded  by  a  fortress-like  battlemented  wall 
which,  on  three  sides,  rests  on  massive  substructions.  Nothing 
indicates  the  object  of  the  building  except  the  rich  portals,  flanked 
with  niches  and  windows,  and,  on  the  N.  side,  adjoining  the  Calle 
del  Obispo  Herrero,  the  Campanario  or  bell-tower  (305  ft.  high), 
which  was  substituted  for  the  Moorish  minaret  in  1593.  Ascent  of 
the  tower  interesting  (adm.  25  c;  255  steps). 

The  *Puerta  del  Perdon,  the  main  gateway,  restored  in  1377 
on  the  model  of  the  gate  of  that  name  at  Seville  (p.  63),  adjoins 
the  clock-tower  and  leads  into  the  — 

*  Patio  de  los  Naranjos  ('orange-court'),  once  the  court  of  the 
mosque,  where  the  faithful  performed  their  ablutions.  Light  and 
spacious,  yet  well-shaded  by  orange  and  palm-trees,  watered  by 
five  fountains,  and  always  enlivened  with  groups  of  quiet  visitors, 
it  presents  a  typical  scene  of  Oriental  repose.  The  avenues  were 
originally  laid  out  in  line  with  the  colonnades  in  the  interior  of  the 
mosque.  The  old  arcades  of  the  court  (claustro)  are  now  walled 
up  on  the  N.  side.  Of  the  nineteen  gates  on  the  S.  side,  two  only, 
the  Puerta  de  las  Palmas,  the  chief  entrance  to  the  cathedral,  and 
the  small  doorway  of  the  eastmost  colonnade  are  now  open. 

The  *Interior  of  the  Cathedral,  in  spite  of  its  moderate 
height  (37  ft.),  and  in  spite  of  much  disfigurement,  is  singularly 
impressive.  In  the  subdued  light  the  forest  of  columns  seems  end- 
less. They  average  13  ft.  only  in  height,  and  are  of  the  most  diverse 

Cathedral.  CORDOVA.  S.  Route.      71 

materials,  many  of  them  having  been  bronght  from  late-Roman 
buildings  or  from  Christian  churches.  The  capitals  show  a  mar- 
vellous wealth  of  design;  their  bases  are  buried  in  the  pavement, 
the  level  of  which  has  been  raised  by  11-14  inches  in  the  course 
of  centuries.  The  vast  number  of  horseshoe  arches  which  connect 
the  columns,  in  the  direction  of  the  length  of  the  church,  and  tho 
upper  semicircular  arches  resting  on  projecting  pillars  impart 
peculiar  life  to  the  building.  The  painted  timber-ceilings  of  the 
different  roofs  have  been  restored  in  their  original  style.  The 
sumptuous  mosaic  pavement  has  disappeared,  and  so  too  have  the 
countless  chandeliers  and  lamps  which  burned  perpetually  during 
the  Moorish  period. 

The  wealth  of  artistic  decoration  was  lavished  chiefly  on  the 
mihrabs,  the  first  of  which  has  been  entirely  destroyed.  The 
second  and  third  were  each  provided  with  a  vestibule  and  two 
side-rooms,  part  of  which  was  formerly  shut  off  to  form  the 
Caliph's  maksftra  (or  court-platform).  The  vestibule  of  the  *Se- 
cond  Mihrab,  with  its  superb  shell-vaulting,  still  exists. 

The  **Third  Mihrab  is  considered  a  marvel  of  art.  The  front 
is  adorned  with  two  rows  of  columns,  one  above  the  other,  and 
with  double  toothed  arches.  The  vestibule,  now  Capilla  de  San 
Pedro,  and  the  prayer-niche  itself,  a  kind  of  heptagonal  chapel  of 
barely  13  ft.  in  diameter,  exhibit  the  most  elaborate  efforts  of 
early-Moorish  art,  especially  in  the  rich  marble  plinth  and  in  the 
coloured  glass  mosaics  executed  by  Byzantine  artists.  The  toothed 
arches  of  the  windows  and  the  boldly  interlacing  arches  of  the 
superb  dome  point  to  a  later  high  development  of  Moorish  art. 

Of  the  Christian  Additions  to  the  church  one  of  the  most 
noteworthy  is  the  sumptuous  Capilla  Mudejar  de  San  Fernando, 
to  the  left  of  the  second  mihrab,  erected  over  the  old  royal  vault. 
The  *  Renaissance  Choir  (Coro  and  Capilla  Mayor),  designed  by 
Herndn  Ruiz  the  Elder  in  1523,  was  completed,  with  many 
alterations,  in  1627.  Though  only  256  by  79  ft.  in  size,  it  is 
crowded  with  no  less  than  63  columns,  and  it  rises  high  above  the 
roof  of  the  mosque.  It  is  considered  a  masterpiece  of  the  plate- 
resque  style,  but  has  ruined  the  original  symmetry  of  the  mosque. 

The  Alcazar  (Fl.  C,  4;  now  a  prison),  erected  in  1328,  contains 
but  scanty  relics  of  the  ancient  Moorish  castle. 

The  Calle  Torrijos,  on  the  "W.  side  of  the  cathedral,  descends 
to  the  f'vertadel  Pnente,  a  triumphal  arch  of  the  time  of  Philip  II., 
on  the  site  of  the  Moorish  bridge  gateway.  Tho  Moorish  *Bridge 
(PI.  C,  D,  4)  of  sixteen  arches,  resting  on  Roman  foundations,  here 
unites  Cordova  with  the  S.  suburb  of  Campo  de  la  Yerdad. 
Halfway  across  we  have  a  fine  view  of  the  cathedral,  and  of  a  dam, 
up  the  river,  with  Moorish  mills.  The  massive  tete-de-pont,  Cala- 
horra  (Iberian  Calagurris),  also  is  of  Moorish  origin. 

72     Route  9.  LOJA. 

Returning  into  the  town  from  the  bridge,  we  may  next  visit 
the  Puerto, Almodovar  (PI.  B,  3),  a  relic  of  the  Moorish  city-wall, 
and  then  walk  through  the  Jar  dines  de  la  Victoria  to  the  station. 

9.  Prom  Cordova  via  Bobadilla 
to  Granada. 

153  M.  Railway  in  &U-&lt  hrs.  (fares  36  p.  30.  28  p.  20,  19  p.  30  c); 
express  on  Mon.  &  Frid.  only;  change  at  Bobadilla  (Railway  Restaurant). 
Beyond  Bobadilla  views  to  the  right. 

Cordova,  see  p.  68.  —  The  train  crosses  the  Guadalquivir  and 
runs  through  a  dreary  hill-country  (Campina).  Looking  back,  we 
see  Cordova,  the  Sierra  of  Cordova,  and  Almodovar  (p.  68). 

We  cross  the  Guadajoz  several  times.  Beyond  (21  M.)  Ferndn 
Nunez  the  vine  and  olive  culture  begins.  31 M.  Montilla  (1165  ft.), 
once  famed  for  its  Amontillado,  resembling  the  wine  of  Xeres 
(p.  59).  Farther  on,  to  the  left,  we  have  a  view  of  the  distant  Siena 
Nevada  (p.  49). 

47  M.  Puente  Genii  (Rail.  Restaur.).  The  town  lies  2  M.  to  the 
N.W.,  and  is  seen  to  the  right  as  we  cross  a  lofty  bridge  over  the 
Genii  (see  below).  The  train  ascends  to  the  plateau  of  the  Sierra 
de  Yeguas,  in  view,  farther  on,  of  abrupt  Jurassic  mountains. 

62  M.  La  Roda,  junction  for  Utrera.  (Lines  to  Cadiz  and 
Seville,  see  R.  6.) 

Running  to  the  S.W.  the  train  soon  readies  the  watershed 
(1477  ft.)  between  the  Guadalquivir  and  the  Guadalhorce.  Beyond 
(691/2  M.)  Fuente  Piedra  we  observe  on  the  right  the  Laguna 
Salada,  a  salt-lake  resembling  the  shotts  of  N.  Africa  (p.  169). 

77  M.  Bobadilla,  see  p.  57. 

The  Granada  train  diverges  to  the  N.E.  from  the  Malaga  line 
(R.  11),  and  ascends  the  broad  valley  of  the  Guadalhorce.  On  the 
right  soon  appears  the  Sierra  de  Abdalajis. 

87  M.  Antequem  (1346  ft. ;  Fonda  de  la  Castafia  and  others), 
the  Roman  Ant&Qaria,  lies  picturesquely  at  the  N.  base  of  the  hills, 
with  a  ruined  Moorish  castle.  The  Cuevade  Menga,  10  min.  to  the 
E.  of  the  town,  is  one  of  the  largest  dolmens  in  Spain. 

99^2  M.  Archidona;  the  town  lies  on  a  hill,  33/4M.  to  the  S. 
—  "We  next  cross  the  watershed  between  the  Guadalhorce  and  the 
Genii  and  descend  through  several  tunnels.  After  the  third  the 
snow-covered  Sierra  Nevada  suddenly  appears  towards  the  E. 

121  M.  Loja,  the  Ldsha  of  the  Moors,  together  with  Alhama, 
a  little  town  on  the  hill  121/2  M.  to  the  S.E.,  once  'the  keys  of 
Granada',  were  captured  by  the  Catholic  kings  (p.  75)  in  1488. 

The  country  is  now  hilly  and  at  places  sandy;  the  Genii  with 
its  Vega  (p.  73)  remains  on  the  right.    132  M.  Tocdn,  at  the  foot 

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GRANADA.  10.  Route.     73 

of  the  Sierra  de  Prugo.  On  the  left  rises  the  bare  Sierra  de 
Parapanda,  which  the  Datives  of  Granada  regard  as  a  barometer. 
I  ( 1  M.  P'uios  Puente,  at  the  fool  of  the  barren  Sierra  de  Elvira. 

We  next  enter  the  fertile  Vega,  enclosed  by  olive-clad  lulls. 
148  M.  Atarfe,  station  for  Santa  Fe,  3  M.  to  the  S.W.,  on  the  left 
bank  of  the  Genii,  built  in  the  form  of  a  Roman  camp  by  Isabella 
the  Catholic  during  the  siege  of  Granada.  The  capitulation  was 
signed  here  in  1491  (p.  75),  and  so  too,  in  1492,  was  the  contract 
with  Columbus  regarding  his  voyage  of  discovery  (p.  5). 

In  the  foreground  appears  the  lofty  Albaicin  (p.  74);  then, 
overtopped  by  the  Sierra  Nevada,  (153  M.)  Granada  (see  below). 

10.  Granada. 

The  Station  (JSstatidn  de  los  Ferrocarriles  Aiulaluces ;  PI.  B,  6; 
no  buffet)  is  l:,/4  M.  from  the  hotels  in  the  Puerta  Heal  and  nearly 
2  M.  from  those  near  the  Alhambra.  Hotel-omnibus  to  the  former  1,  to 
the  latter  2  p. ;  an  'omnibus  general'  (50  c.  each  pers.  or  each  trunk) 
plies  to  the  Despacho  Central  (p.  51),  opposite  the  Hot.  Victoria. 

Hotels  (comp.  p.  51).  Near  the  Alhambra,  in  the  Alhambra  Park,  a 
beautiful,  but  in  winter  a  cold  situation,  3/4M.  above  the  town  (2-3  min.  from 
the  hill-tramway  station;  see  below):  Hot.  Washington  Irving  (PI.  b  ;  F,  2), 
with  the  dtipendance  Slete  Suelos  (PI.  c;  F,  2),  patronized  by  English 
and  Americans;  Axhambra  Palace  Hotel  (PI.  a;  F,  3),  new,  E.  6-12'/2, 
pens.  20-35  p. ;  *Pens.  Miss  Laird,  Carmen  de  Bella  Vista,  with  garden, 
8l/2-12  p.  per  day ;  Hot.  del  Bosque  de  la  Alhambra,  at  the  N.  base  of  the 
Alhambra  Hill,  below  the  Torre  de  Comares  (PI.  E,  2),  pens.  8-15  p.,  well 
spoken  of.  — In  the  Town  (ca.  l3/4  M.  from  the  Alhambra):  *Hot.  Ala- 
meda (PI.  d;  F,  5),  adjoining  the  shady  Carrera  del  Genii,  with  view  of 
the  Sierra  Nevada,  pens.  8-20  p.;  Hot.  de  Paris  (PI.  0;  E,  4),  Gran  Via 
de  Colon  5,  with  terrace,  restaurant,  etc..  pens.  9-20  p.;  Hot.  Victoria, 
on  the  W.  side  of  the  I'nerta  Real,  with  tine  view,  pens,  from  8  p., 
Spanish,  quite  good;  Hot.  Nuevo  Oriente  (PI.  g;  E,  5),  Plaza  de  Canovas 
del  Castillo  8,  pens.  7  p.,  quite  Spanish,  very  fair;  Fonda  Navio,  Calle 
Martinez  Campos  (PI.  E.  5),  with  a  favourite  restaurant.  —  Drinking-water 
not  good. 

Cafes.  Cafe  Colon.  Calle  do  los  Reves  Catolicos  (PI.  E.  4);  Imperial, 
Carrera  del  Genii  (PI.  F,  5). 

Tramways,  l.  Pluu(  Nueva  (PI.  E,  i)-Coeheras  (red  disc):  through 
the  Calle  de  los  Reyes  Catolicos  (PI.  E.  4,  5)  to  the  Puerta  Real,  the 
University  (PI.  D,  5),  and  the  Rail.  Station  (PL  B,  A,  (5).  — 2.  Plaza  Ntn  va- 
Cerrantes  (vellow):  via  the  Puerta  Real  and  the  Carrera  del  Genii  to  the 
Paseo  de  la*Bomba  (PL  G,  H.  4).  — 3.  Puerta  Real  (PL  E,  5) -Vistillas- Al- 
hambra (green) :  via  the  Plaza  Nueva  to  the  Puerta  de  los  Molinos  (PL  G,  3; 
change),  then  by  the  hill-tramway  (rack-and-pinion)  to  the  Alhambra  Park 
(Cuesta  de  las  Cruces;  PL  F,  2,  3),  in  1/4  br. ;  fare  30  c. 

Cabs  (stationed  in  the  Carrera  del  Genii).  Drive  in  the  town,  with 
one  horse  1,  with  two  horses  2'/-2  P- ;  per  hour  2  or  3  p. — To  the  Alhambra, 
Albaicin  (p.  79).  and  Sacro  Monte  (p.  78)  5  p.  extra  (but  bargain  advisable). 
Carr.  and  pair  may  be  had  also  from  the  Despacho  Central  or  the 
Alhambra  hotels  (3  p.  per  hour). 

Post  &  Telegraph  Office  (Correo;  PL  E,  4),  Calle  de  los  Reyes 
Catolicos.  Post-office  open  10-12  and  after  2;  poste  rcstante  letters  delivered 
1  hr.  after  arrival  of  trains. 

British  Vice-Consul,  Chas.  E.  &'.  D<a-<  nhill. 

74     Route  10.  GEANADA.  Situation. 

Sights.  Alhambra  (p.  79),  daily,  9-12  and  1-6,  adin.  50  c.-l  p.,  on  Sun. 
free;  some  rooms  specially  shown  by  the  custodian.  —  Generalife  (p.  87), 
best  by  morning  light;  tickets  (papeletas)  at  the  Casa  de  los  Tiros  (p.  77), 
on  week-days,  9-11,  free.  —  The  Cathedral  (p.  76),  daily,  closed  between 
11  and  2.30;  the  Capilla  Real  (p.  76),  either  in  the  morning  before  high- 
mass  (in  winter  at  10,  in  summer  at  9),  or  2.30  to  4,  in  summer  3-5  p.  m. 
—  The  smaller  churches  are  usually  open  from  an  early  hour  till  8.30 
or  9  only,  but  are  shown  later  by  the  sacristan  (fee).  —  The  usual  hours 
for  other  sights  are  8-12  and  2-0;  between  12  and  2  a  substantial  fee 
is  exacted. 

Promenades.  In  winter,  Carrera  del  Genii  (p.  77),  3-5;  in  summer, 
Paseo  del  Salon  (p.  77)  and  Paseo  de  la  Bomba,  5-7.  Band  on  Sun.  and 

Guides  at  the  hotels,  needless  except  when  time  presses.  Those 
who  pester  strangers  in  the  streets  and  at  the  entrance  to  the  Alhambra, 
as  well  as  gipsy  beggars,  should  be  disregarded. 

Chief  Attractions  (two  days).  1st.  Forenoon:  the  Cathedral  (p.  76) ; 
Placeta  de  la  Lovja  (p.  77);  Casa  de  los  Tiros  (p.  77);  Carrera  del  Genii; 
*Paseo  del  Salon;  afternoon:  Alameda  del  Darro  (p.  78);  *View  from 
San  Nicolas  (p.  79)  or  from  <S'an  Miguel  el  Alto  (p.  79). — 2nd.  *  Alhambra 
(p.  79)  and  Generalife  (p.  87). 

Gh'andcla  (2195  ft. ;  pop.  69,000),  once  the  capital  of  the  Moorish 
kingdom,  and  now  that  of  the  province  of  Granada,  the  residence 
of  an  archbishop  and  seat  of  a  university,  lies  most  picturesquely  at 
the  foot  of  two  hills  (about  490  ft.  high),  which  gradually  slope  to 
the  E.  up  to  the  Cerro  del  Sol,  and  descend  abruptly  to  the  fertile, 
well-watered  river-plain  of  the  Vega.  The  Albaicin,  the  north- 
most  of  the  two  hills,  the  oldest  quarter  of  Granada,  once  the 
residence  of  the  Moorish  aristocracy,  but  now  inhabited  chiefly  by 
gipsies,  forms  a  town  by  itself.  The  deep  ravine  of  the  Darro, 
which  is  generally  dry  as  its  water  is  much  diverted  for  irrigation 
purposes,  separates  the  Albaicin  from  the  Monte  de  la  Assabica, 
or  Alhambra  Hill  to  the  S.  (comp.  p.  79).  The  Darro,  descending 
from  the  N.E.,  turns  to  the  S.  near  the  Alhambra  Hill  and  falls  into 
the  more  important  Genii. 

The  two  hills  were  once  occupied  by  Iberiau  and  then  by 
Roman  settlements,  the  one  on  the  Albaicin  having  perhaps  already 
borne  the  name  of  Garnata.  Soon  after  711  the  Moors  built  the 
'Old  Castle'  (Al-Kasaba  al-Kadima)  on  the  site  of  Garnata.  After 
the  decline  of  the  caliphate  of  Cordova  (p.  69)  Zcl-wi  ibn  Ziri, 
the  governor  of  Granada,  declared  himself  independent  in  1031, 
and  founded  here  the  dynasty  of  the  Zirites,  which,  however,  was 
overthrown  by  the  Almoravides  (p.  95)  in  1090.  As  the  power  of 
the  Almohades  (p.  95)  declined  the  native  governors  revolted  anew. 
At  length  in  1246  Granada  became  the  seat  of  the  Nasride 
Dynasty,  founded  by  Al-Ahmar  ('Mohammed  I.\),  which,  after 
the  fall  of  Seville,  succeeded,  in  alliance  alternately  with  the  Castil- 
ians  and  the  Merinides  (p.  95),  in  retaining  possession  of  Granada, 
Malaga,  and  Almeria  for  nearly  250  years.  Mohammed  I.  offered 
an  asylum  in  Granada  to  the  Moors  who  were  expelled  from  Cor- 
dova, Valencia,  and  Seville,  and  began  the  building  of  the  'New 

History.  GRANADA.  10.  Route.     75 

Castle'  (Al-Kasaba  al-Jedida)  on  the  hill  of  the  Alhambra.  His 
successors  afterwards  created  the  Alhambra  Palace,  the  most 
sumptuous  of  royal  residences.  Thanks  to  their  fostering  care  for 
agriculture  and  industry,  for  science,  art  and  architecture,  Granada 
attained  such  brilliant  prosperity  as  even  to  eclipse  the  fame  of 
the  old  caliphate  of  Cordova. 

The  downfall  of  the  kingdom  of  Granada  was  at  length  brought 
about  by  party  struggles  between  the  Zegri,  the  Beni  Serrdj  (the 
Abeneerrages  of  legend ;  comp.  p.  84),  and  other  noble  families,  and 
by  quarrels  between  king  Mulei  Abu'l-Hasan  (d.  1485)  and  his  son 
Boabdil:  a  welcome  opportunity  was  thus  afforded  to  Ferdinand  and 
Isabella,  the  so-called  'Catholic  Kings',  of  intervening  and  thus  gain- 
ing their  life-long  object  of  destroying  the  last  Moorish  kingdom 
in  Spain.  After  the  death  of  his  father  Boabdil  remained  inactive 
when  Ferdinand  proceeded  to  besiege  Malaga  (p.  90) ;  he  made  one 
despairing  attempt  at  resistance  when  the  Spaniards  demanded  the 
evacuation  of  Granada,  but  in  1491  had  to  conclude  a  humiliating 
peace.  He  soon  afterwards  crossed  the  Sierra  Nevada  and  retired 
to  Tlemcen  in  N.  Africa  (p.  187),  where  he  ended  his  inglorious 
cateer.  With  the  Spanish  domination  began  the  decay  of  the  city; 
it  was  depopulated  by  the  decrees  of  the  Catholic  Kings,  the  In- 
quisition held  fearful  sway  here,  and  ere  long  Granada  became  a 
'living  ruin'.  Within  the  last  few  years,  however,  the  busy  tourist 
traffic,  the  establishment  of  sugar-factories,  and  the  prosperous 
mining  industry  of  the  Sierra  Nevada  have  somewhat  repaired  the 
fortunes  of  the  city,  and  several  of  the  old  quarters  have  been 
entirely  modernized.  But  its  picturesque  history,  its  memorials 
of  the  most  glorious  period  of  Moorish  culture  and  art,  and  the 
striking  view  of  the  snow-mountains  it  affords  will  ever  render  it 
the  most  fascinating  goal  of  travellers  in  Andalusia. 

See  'Granada:  Memories,  Adventures,  Studies,  and  Impressions',  by 
Leonard  Williams  (London,  1906);  and  'Granada  and  the  Alhambra',  by 
A.  F.  Calvert  (London,  1907). 

a.  The  Lower  Town. 

Leaving  the  railway-station  (PI.  B,  6 ;  tramway  No.  1,  see  p.  73), 
we  follow  the  Calle  Real  de  San  Lazaro  to  the  S.E.  to  the  Paseo  del 
Triii?)  fo  (PI.  C,  4),  so  named  from  the  column  in  honour  of  the  Virgin 
(triunfo).  Here,  by  the  half-ruined  Puerto,  de  Elvira  (PI.  0,  4), 
begin  the  old  Calle  de  Elvira  and  the  new  Gran  Via  de  Col6n  (PI. 
C-E,  4),  both  leading  to  the  chief  artery  of  traffic,  the  narrow  — 

Calle  de  los  Reyes  Cat6licos  (PI.  E,  4,  5),  which  is  built 
above  the  Darro,  and  connects  the  busy  Puerta  Real  (PI.  E,  5),  to  the 
S.W.,  with  the  Plaza  Nueva  (PI.  E,  4;  officially,  Plaza  Rodriguez 
Bolivar),  to  the  N.E.,  at  the  foot  of  the  Alhambra  Hill  (p.  79). 

76      Route  10.  GRANADA.  Cathedral. 

In  the  Galle  de  Lopez  Rubio,  a  side-street,  is  the  so-called  Cava 
del  Carbon,  ouce  a  Moorish  granary,  with  picturesque  horseshoe 
arches  and  stalactite  vaulting.  To  the  S.W.  of  it  is  the  modern 
(own-hall  {Aijtiutamiento). 

The  short  streets  on  the  opposite  side  lead  to  the  Alcaiceria 
(PI.  E,  4,  5),  with  its  numerous  columns,  which  was  burned  down 
in  1843,  once  a  Moorish  market-hall  (Al-Kaisariya),  resembling  the 
Oriental  suks  (p.  335),  and  to  the  modernized  Plaza  de  Bib  arrambla 
(PI.  E,  5),  named  after  a  Moorish  city-gate  which  once  stood  here. 
A  few  paces  from  these  lies  the  Plackta  dk  las  Pasiegas.  Here, 
surrounded  by  buildings  which  mar  its  effect,  rises  the  — 

*Cathedral  (PI.  1),  E,  4,  5),  an  imposing  memorial  of  the  con- 
quest of  Spain,  and  the  finest  Renaissance  church  in  the  kingdom. 
It  was  begun  in  1523  by  Enrique  de  Egas  in  the  Gothic  style, 
continued  in  1525  by  Diego  de  Siloe  (d.  1533)  in  the  plateresque 
style  (p.  51),  and  consecrated,  while  still  unlinished,  in  1561.  The 
X.  tower  only,  which  is  now  187  ft.  high,  has  been  erected;  the  huge 
facade  was  begun  in  1667  by  Alonso  Cano,  who  was  also  the  chief 
author  of  the  sculpture  and  painting  in  the  church;  the  interior 
was  not  completed  till  1703. 

Two  of  the  Side  Portals,  the  Puerta  de  San  Jeroniino,  the  first 
entrance  to  the  N.  in  the  Calle  de  Jimenez  de  Cisneros,  and  the  Puerta 
del  Colegio,  on  the  E.  side  of  the  ambulatory,  are  adorned  with  sculptures 
by  Siloe  and  others.  The  *Puerta  del  Perdon,  the  second  portal  to  the  N., 
also  owes  the  beautiful  ornamentation  of  its  lower  part  to  Siloe. 

The  *Interior  (adm.,  see  p.  74)  has  double  aisles  with  two  rows  of 
chapels,  a  lofty  transept  which  does  not  project  beyond  the  side-walls, 
a  central  choir,  and  a  Capilla  Mayor  with  ambulator)'.  The  vaulting,  100  ft. 
in  height,  is  borne  by  massive  pillars  and  half-columns.  Total  length  380, 
breadth  220  ft.  The  decoration  in  white  and  gold  harmonizes  well  with 
the  fine  marble  pavement  (1775). 

The  *Capilla  Mayor,  148  ft.  long  and  154  ft.  high,  is  crowned  with 
a  dome  resting  on  Corinthian  columns.  On  the  pillars  in  front  of  the 
marble  high-altar  are  kneeling  statues  of  the  'Catholic  Kings',  by  Pedro 
de  Mena  and  Medrano  (1677);  above  them  are  painted  *Busts  of  Adam 
and  Eve,  in  oak,  by  Alonso  Cano,  who  painted  also  the  representation  of 
the  Seven  Joys  of  Mary. 

Side  Chapels.  The  Capilla  de  San  Miguel,  on  the  right,  lavishly 
decorated  in  1807,  contains  a  picture  by  Al.  Cano,  the  Mater  Dolorosa 
(after  Gasp.  Becerra).  —  In  the  Capilla  de  la  Trinidad,  beyond  the  door  of 
the  Sagrario  (p.  77),  is  a  painting  of  the  Trinity  by  Al.  Cano. — The  Altar 
de  Jesus  Nazareno  contains  *Pictures  by  Dom,  Theotocopuli  (St.  Francis) 
and  Ribera;  the  fine  Bearing  of  the  Cross  is  by  Al.  Cano. — By  the  same 
artist  are  also  the  fine  oaken  busts  of  St.  Paul  and  John  the  Baptist  in 
the  Capilla  de  Nuestra  Senora  del  Carmen,  adjoining  the  N.  aisles. 

From  the  first  chapel  in  the  ambulatory,  to  the  right  of  the  Puerta 
del  Colegio,  a  portal  by  Siloe  leads  through  an  ante-room  (antesacristia) 
into  the  Sacristy  (18th  cent.),  containing  a  crucifix  by  Montan<Ss  (p.  6t) 
and  an  Annunciation  and  a  Conception  fa  sculpture)  by  Al.   Cano. 

A  handsome  portal  leads  from  the  right  transept  into  the  late-Gothic 
*Capilla  Real,  the  burial-chapel  of  the  'Catholic  Kings',  where  Charles  V. 
caused  his  parents  Philip  of  Austria  and  Juaua  the  Insane  also  to  be  in- 
terred. The  marble  *Monuments  are  in  the  Italian  early-Renaissance  style  : 
on  the  right  those  of  Ferdinand  and  Isabella,  by  the  Florentine  Domenico 

Sitnto  Domingo.  GRANADA.  to.  Route.      77 

Hi :  on  the  left,  Philip  and  Juana,  by  Bartolomfi  Ordonez.  The  high- 
;iltar,  with  the  kneeling  statuettes  of  the  'Catholic  Kings',  is  by  Phfliji 
Vigarni,  a  Jiurgundian;  the  reliefs  in  wood,  historically  interesting,  re- 
present (left)  the  surrender  of  the  Alhambra  keys  and  (right)  the  com- 
pulsory baptism  of  the  Moors.  Behind  the  reliquary  altars,  which  are 
opened  on  tour  festival-days  only,  are  hung  Madonnas  by  Dierick  Bouts, 
altar-wings  by  Roger  van  der  Weyden,  a  Madonna  and  a  Descent  from 
the  Cross  by  Memling,  and  other  pictures.  Over  an  altar  in  the  right 
aisle  is  a  *Winged  Picture  by  D.  Bouts. 

The  third  great  addition  to  the  cathedral,  the  Sagrario,  erected  as 
a  parish  church  in  1705-59,  occupies  the  site  of  the  ancient  mosque,  with 
its  eleven  aisles,  which  was  used  for  Christian  worship  down  to  1661. 

The  picturesque  Placeta  de  la  Lonja  (PI.  E,  4),  on  the  S.  side 
of  the  cathedral,  affords  a  good  view  of  the  Lonja  (Exchange), 
built  in  1518-22,  which  stands  before  the  Sagrario,  of  the  rich 
architecture  of  the  Capilla  Real,  and  of  the — ■ 

Casa  del  Cabildo  Antigua,  once  the  seat  of  the  Moorish 
university  founded  here  after  the  downfall  of  Cordova  and  Seville, 
afterwards  the  residence  of  the  'Catholic  Kings',  and  now  a  cloth 
magazine.  Its  fantastic  exterior  dates  from  the  18th  cent.;  in  the 
interior  are  two  interesting  rooms  of  the  Moorish  period  (fee  50  c). 

From  the  E.  end  of  the  Calle  de  los  Reyes  Catolicos  (p.  75)  the 
Calle  Castro  y  Serrano  and  Calle  Doctor  Eximio  lead  to  the  right 
to  the  Casa  de  los  Tiros  (PI.  E,  4),  a  building  in  the  Moorish 
castellated  style,  dating  from  the  15th  cent.,  and  now  owned  by 
the  Marquesa  de  Campotejar.  The  court  contains  a  venerable  tree- 
like vine.    Tickets  for  the  Generalife  (comp.  p.  74)  are  issued  here. 

The  Calle  de  Santa  Escolastica  leads  hence  to  the  Plaza  de 
Santo  Domingo  (PI.  F,  4)  and  the  old  monastery  of  Santo  Domingo 
(now  a  military  school),  with  its  pleasing  church  (15-17th  cent.). 
—A  little  to  the  S.W.  is  the  — 

Quarto  Real  de  Santo  Domingo  (PI.  F,  4;  admittance  seldom 
granted),  the  Al-Majarra  of  the  Moors,  now  named  after  a  tower 
of  the  13th  cent.,  a  superb  villa  with  a  Moorish  portal  and  a  hall 
whose  charming  decoration  is  older  than  the  Alhambra.  The 
beautiful  garden  is  said  to  have  been  laid  out  in  Moorish  times. 

We  now  cross  the  Plaza  Bailen  to  the  N.W.  to  the  favourite 
winter  promenade  (p.  74),  the  Carreradel  Genii  (PI.  E-G,  5),  shaded 
with  plane-trees,  which  begins  at  the  Puerta  Real  (p.  75)  and  now 
comprises  the  former  Alameda.  Adjoining  the  Carrera  on  the  left 
is  the  — 

*Paseo  del  Sal6n  (PI.  G,  5,  4),  planted  with  elms  and 
adorned  with  a  bronze  statue  of  Isabella  the  Catholic.  Delightful 
view  to  the  N.E.  of  Monte  Mauror  with  the  Torres  Bermejas  (p.  80) ; 
to  the  S.E.  towers  the  majestic  Sierra  Nevada,  from  whose  rocky 
crest  the  Picacho  de  la  Veleta  (11,148  ft.),  the  grandest  point  of 
view  in  all  Andalusia,  alone  rises  conspicuously. 

78     Route  10.  GRANADA-  Carrera  del  Darro. 

b.  Darro  Valley  and  Albaicfn. 

At  the  mouth  of  the  Darro  Valley  lies  the  Plaza  Nueva  (PI. 
E,  4;  p.  75),  another  focus  of  traffic  (tramways,  see  p.  73).  On  the 
left  is  the  Audiencia,  formerly  the  Chaneilleria,  built  in  1531-87 
for  the  Capitan  General  or  governor.  The  pretty  arcaded  court 
was  probably  designed  by  Diego  de  Siloe  (p.  76). 

A  few  paces  farther  to  the  E.  the  Darro  is  not  covered  in. 
Here,  on  the  right,  on  the  site  of  an  old  mosque,  is  the  church  of 
Santa  Ana  (PI.  E,  3),  a  Renaissance  building,  perhaps  designed 
by  Diego  de  Siloe  in  1541,  with  a  fine  plateresque  portal  and  an 
admirable  timber  ceiling.  The  tower,  built  by  Juan  Castellar  in 
1561-3,  with  its  azulejos  and  jutting  roof  resting  on  corbels, 
resembles  a  minaret. 

Opposite  the  church,  on  the  right  bank  of  the  Darro,  begins 
the  Carrera  del  Darro  (PL  E,  3,  2),  one  of  the  oldest  parts  of 
Granada,  affording  picturesque  views,  notably  of  the  towers  and 
walls  of  the  Alhambra,  which  had  its  oldest  approach  from  this 
quarter.  (Part  of  a  horseshoe  arch  of  the  bridge  is  seen  on  the 
left  bank.)  The  Banuelo,  at  No.  37,  now  occupied  by  poor  families, 
is  a  Moorish  bath,  dating  perhaps  from  the  11th  century. 

On  the  right  side  of  the  street  we  come  to  the  church  of  San 
Pedro  y  San  Pablo  (PL  E,  3,  2),  with  its  fine  timber  ceiling.  On 
the  opposite  bank  of  the  Darro  we  observe  traces  of  the  landslip 
under  the  N.E.  corner  of  the  Alcazaba  (p.  81),  below  which  are 
the  arches  of  an  aqueduct.  To  the  N.  of  the  church  is  the  Casa  de 
Castril,  a  curious  Renaissance  building  with  an  ornate  portal  by 
a  pupil  of  Siloe. 

We  next  reach  the  Alameda  del  Darro  (PL  E,  2),  planted 
with  elms;  above  us,  on  the  right,  is  the  Generalife  (p.  87);  on  the 
left,  Albaicin  (p.  79).  Crossing  the  bridge  to  the  right  we  enter 
the  steep  Cuesta  del  Rey  Chico  (PL  F,  2),  which  leads  through 
the  ravine  mentioned  at  p.  79,  and  past  the  Moorish  towers  of  the 
Alhambra,  to  the  Puerta  de  Hierro  (p.  87),  the  E.  gate  of  the 
Alhambra,  and  to  the  Generalife. 

From  the  Darro  the  Cuesta  del  Chapiz  (PL  E,  D,  2)  ascends 
to  the  N.  to  the  old  suburb  of  Albaida.  The  street  is  named  after 
the  Casa  del  Chapiz,  erected  early  in  the  16th  cent,  in  the  Mudejar 
style  for  two  Morisco  nobles,  with  two  separate  patios.  The  house, 
now  a  bakery,  is  entered  from  No.  14,  at  the  corner  of  the  Camino 
del  Sacro  Monte. 

From  this  point  the  Camino  del  Sacro  Monte  (PL  D,  2,  1) 
ascends  the  cactus-grown  slope.  The  numerous  poor  Cuevas,  or  cave- 
dwellings,  are  chiefly  occupied  by  gipsies  (gitanos).  The  path  ends 
at  the  (25  min.)  Sacro  Monte  (to  the  N.E.  of  PL  D,  E,  1),  a  Bene- 
dictine monastery  of  the  17th  cent.,  now  a  divinity  and  law  school. 

Situation.  ALHAMBIiA.  10.  Route.     79 

The  view  of  the  Alhambra  across  the  Darro  valley,  of  the  town  and 
the  Vega,  is  one  of  the  finest  near  Granada. 

Footpaths  ascend  from  the  Cuesta  del  Chapiz  in  25  min.,  and 
from  the  Sacro  Monte  in  s/4  hr.,  partly  through  deep  gorges,  to  the 
chapel  of  San  Miguel  el  Alto  (PI.  D,  1),  in  the  midst  of  aloes 
and  cacti,  where  we  enjoy  a  grand  *  View  of  the  Alhambra,  the  town, 
the  Vega,  and  the  Sierra  Nevada. 

The  side-streets  of  the  Oarrera  del  Darro  (p.  78)  ascend  to  the  N. 
to  Albaicfn,  a  poor  suburb  (p.  74).  Not  far  from  San  Pedro  y  San 
Pablo  (p.  78)  is  the  small  Gothic  church  of  San  Juan  de  los 
Reyes  (PI.  D,  2),  an  early  16th  cent,  edifice,  whose  tower  was  once 
a  minaret. 

Above  this  church,  and  of  like  date,  is  the  Gothic  church  of 
San  Nicolas  (PI.  D,  2),  also  built  on  Moorish  foundations,  and 
containing  a  line  timber  ceiling.  The  famous  *  View  of  the  Alhambra 
and  the  Sierra  Nevada  is  a  favourite  subject  with  artists.  The 
Puerto  de  los  Estandartes  (PI.  D,  3),  close  by,  is  a  relic  of  the 
Moorish  Castle  Wall,  which  runs  down  hence  to  the  Puerta  Mo- 
ndita  (PI.  C,  3,4).  On  the  N.  side  the  Cuesta  de  la  Alacaba  (PI.  D, 
C,  3,  4)  descends  to  the  Paseo  del  Triunfo  (p.  75). 

On  the  way  back  to  the  Plaza  Nueva  we  pass  the  Franciscan 
nunnery  of  Santa  Isabel  la  Real  (PI.  D,  3),  whose  church  has  a 
tasteful  late-Gothic  portal  by  Enrique  de  Egas. 

c.  The  Alhambra. 

The  Alhambra  occupies  the  plateau,  795  by  195  yds.,  of  the 
Monte  de  la  Assabica  (p.  74),  which  rises  abruptly  from  the  Darro 
on  the  N.  side,  while  on  the  S.  it  is  separated  by  a  gorge,  the  Assa- 
bica of  the  Moors,  from  the  lower  spur  of  the  Monte  Mauror 
(PI.  F,  3;  p.  80).  The  axis  of  this  range  of  hills  is  abruptly 
intersected  by  a  second  gorge,  the  Cuesta  del  Rey  Chico  (p.  78), 
separating  it  on  the  E.  side  from  the  Ccrro  del  Sol  (p.  87),  at  the 
foot  of  which  lies  the  Geueralife  (p.  87).  On  the  narrow  W.  point 
of  the  plateau  stands  the  castle  of  Alcazaba.  Beyond  the  small 
glacis  on  its  E.  side,  and  beyond  the  Plaza  de  los  Aljibes,  rises  the 
Alhambra  itself,  adjoining  which,  on  the  S.E.,  lies  the  Alta  Al- 
hambra, once  quite  a  little  town,  where  the  retinue  and  servants 
of  the  court  resided.  The  whole  of  these  buildings,  enclosed  by  a 
wall  with  numerous  towers,  were  called  by  the  Moors  Medlnat  al- 
Hamrd,  literally  'red  city',  from  the  colour  of  its  stone. 

The  History  of  the  Alhambra  begins  with  Mohammed  I.  (1232-72), 
the  first  Nasride  sovereign.  While  the  Zirites  resided  on  the  Albaicin 
bill  (comp.  p.  74),  Mohammed  chose  the  Alhambra  Hill  as  a  site  for  bis 

80     Route  10.  ALHA  MBRA  History. 

palace.  The  building  was  continued  l>y  his  son  Mohammed  II.  (1272-1302), 
and  the  A lh umbra  mosque  (p.  86)  was  ■erected  l>y  Mohammed  III.  (1302-9). 
Abu'l-  Walid  Ismail  (1309-25)  was  the  first  to  erect  a  small  palace  outside 
of  the  Alcazaba,  but  this,  with  the  exception  of  the  Patio  del  Mexuar 
(p.  85),  was  taken  down  by  Yusuf  I.  (1333-54).  Yusuf  began  the  stately 
Comares  or  myrtle-court  palace,  with  its  throne  and  audience  room;  to 
him  are  ascribed  also  the  Comares  tower  (p.  83),  the  baths  (p.  85),  and  the 
enclosing  wall  of  the  Alhambra  Hill,  with  23  additional  towers.  For  the 
more  sumptuous  part  of  the  pile  Mohammed  V.  (1354-91)  was  chiefly 
responsible.  To  him  was  due  the  completion  of  the  Myrtle  Court,  the  erec- 
tion of  the  Cuarto  de  Machuca,  the  summer  abode  of  part  of  the  family, 
and  of  the  luxurious  lion-court  palace,  the  winter  dwelling  of  the  court 
and  of  the  sovereign's  harem.  The  last  Moorish  king  who  made  additions 
to  the  Alhambra  was  Mohammed  VII.  (1392-1408). 

The  'Catholic  Kings',  as  Ferdinand  and  Isabella  are  styled,  took  a 
great  interest  in  the  Alhambra;  they  restored  the  decorations  of  the  interior 
and  strengthened  the  walls.  Charles  V.  visited  Granada  in  1526,  but  with 
less  satisfactory  results.  Although  an  enthusiastic  admirer  of  Moorish  art, 
he  caused  many  outbuildings  of  the  Alhambra  to  be  removed  to  make 
way  for  his  new  palace  (p.  86).  At  length,  after  1718,  when  Philip  V. 
discontinued  the  payment  of  money  for  the  upkeep  of  the  buildings,  they 
rapidly  fell  into  decay,  and  in  1812  the  French,  on  their  retreat,  Mew  up 
several  of  the  towers.  Since  1830,  however,  the  work  of  restoration, 
though  sometimes  in  doubtful  taste,  has  been  resumed. 

It  is  hardly  necessary  to  remind  our  readers  of  Washington  Irving's 
delightful  'Tales  of  the  Alhambra',  which  were  partly  written  on  the 
spot.  A  series  of  magnificent  views  of  the  Alhambra  is  given  in  the 
monumental  work  of  Jules  Goury  and  Owen  Jones,  published  at  London 
in  1842.  See  also  'The  Alhambra'  by  A.  F.  Calvert  (2nd  ed.,  London,  1907). 

The  Hii.l  Tramway  (rack-and-pinion ;  p.  73)  ascends  from  the 
Puerta  de  los  Molinos  (PI.  G,  3)  on  the  S.  slope  of  Monte  Mauror, 
affording  a  splendid  view  of  Granada,  the  Vega,  and  the  Sierra 
Nevada  on  the  left,  to  the  Cuesta  de  las  Cruces  (p.  81)  in  the  Alham- 
bra Park,  a  few  minutes'  walk  from  the  entrance  of  the  Alhambra. 

The  shortest  Road  to  the  Alhambra  is  the  Calle  de  Gomeres 
(PI.  E,  4,  3),  which  ascends  steeply  from  the  Plaza  Nueva  to  the 
S.E.,  between  the  hills  of  the  Alcazaba  and  the  Torres  Bermejas, 
to  the  Puerta  de  las  Granadas,  the  present  chief  entrance  to  the 
Alhambra  Park. 

The  Puerta  de  las  Granadas  (PI.  1 ;  E,  3),  erected  by  Pedro 
Machuca  (p.  86),  in  the  form  of  a  triumphal  arch,  on  the  site  of 
the  Moorish  Bib  Alaujar,  occupied  the  centre  of  the  wall  connecting 
the  Alcazaba  with  the  Torres  Bermejas,  the  fortifications  on  the  W. 
point  of  the  Monte  Mauror,  which  were  built  at  the  same  period 
as  the  Alcazaba,  but  have  been  frequently  restored. 

The  *Tokres  Bermejas  (PI.  F,  3 ;  'red  towers'),  now  a  military  prison, 
deserve  a  visit,  which  may  be  best  paid  on  the  way  back  from  the  Alhambra 
or  the  Generalife.  The  path  diverges  from  the  Cuesta  de  las  Cruces 
(p.  81)  a  few  paces  to  the  E.  of  the  Puerta  de  las  Granadas.  Adm.  on 
application  at  the  guard-house.  The  extensive  buildings,  with  their  under- 
ground stabling,  the  cistern,  and  the  casemates,  convey  an  excellent  idea 
of  an  ancient  Moorish  fortress.  Stairs,  rather  steep,  ascend  to  the  plat- 
form (azotea)  on  the  chief  tower,  where  we  obtain  a  most  picturesque  view. 

The  *  Alhambra  Park  {Alameda  de  la  Alhambra;  PI.  F,  3, 2), 
a  'sacred  grove'  unique  of  its  kind,  occupies  the  Assabica  Valley 

Alcasaba.  ALHAMBRA.  10.  Route.  81 

(p.  79),  reaching  far  up  its  slopes.  It  was  planted  at  the  end  of  the 
18th  cent,  with  elms  exclusively,  placed  so  close  together  as  to  form 
oue  dense  roof  of  leafage,  the  home  of  countless  nightingales.  In 
March,  when  the  sun  shines  through  the  leafless  branches,  the  soil 
is  temporarily  covered  with  rich  vegetation. 

From  the  Puerta  de  las  Granadas  three  roads  ascend  to  the 
Alhambra.  To  the  right  is  the  Cuesta  de  las  Cruces,  leading  up 
the  S.  side  of  the  park  to  the  hill-tramway  and  the  Alhambra  Hotels 
(p.  73) ;  to  the  left  is  the  rather  fatiguing  Ccesta  Empedeada,  the 
old  route  to  the  castle,  ending  at  the  Puerta  Judiciaria  (see  below) ; 
between  these  is  the  easy  Main  Road,  passing  three  fountains,  and 
also  leading  to  the  hotels,  but  connected  by  side-paths  with  the 
Puerta  Judiciaria.  Carriages  use  this  road  and  pass  through  the 
Puerta  del  Carril  (PL  6;  F,  2). 

The  entrance-tower,  with  the  *Puerta  Judiciaria  (PI.  5 ;  E, 
F,  3),  which,  according  to  the  inscription,  was  erected  in  the  reign 
of  Yftsuf  I.  in  1348,  and  was  called  by  the  Moors  Bibush-Sheria 
('gate  of  justice'),  deserves  special  attention.  Like  many  of  the 
Alhambra  towers,  this  was  really  an  independent  building,  the  road 
between  the  gates  of  which  was  made  tortuous  for  defensive  pur- 
poses. About  halfway  up  is  the  horseshoe-shaped  Outer  Gate,  above 
which  is  seen  a  hand  with  outstretched  fingers,  a  symbol  often  used 
in  the  East  and  in  S.  Europe  to  avert  the  evil  eye.  The  Inner 
Gateway  still  has  its  old  Moorish  doors  studded  with  iron. 

A  narrow  passage  ascends  thence  to  the  House  of  Gomes  Tortosa 
fnii  the  right;  PL  7,  E  3),  the  conservator  of  the  Alhambra.  Into 
the  N.  wing  is  built  the  *Puerta  del  Vino,  probably  once  the 
main  W.  entrance  of  the  Alia  Alhambra  (p.  86).  This  gate  seems 
to  have  been  once  connected  by  a  wall  with  the  Puerta  de  Hierro 
(p.  87),  so  as  to  shut  off  the  Alcazaba,  the  palace,  and  the  mosque 
from  the  Alhambra  suburb. 

At  the  top  of  the  hill  we  enter  the  broad  Plaza  de  los  Aljibes 
(PL  8:  E,  3),  so  named  from  the  cistern  (al-jibb)  filled  with  water 
from  the  Darro.  The  level  of  the  plaza  was  raised  about  16  ft.  when 
Charles  V.  built  his  palace,  and  it  is  now  adorned  with  hedges  of 
myrtle.  On  the  E.  side  rise  the  Moorish  palace  (p.  82)  and  the 
handsome  building  erected  by  the  emperor  (p.  86) ;  on  our  left  is 
the  E.  front  of  the  Alcazaba  with  two  towers,  the  Torre  Quebrada 
and  the  Torre  del  Homenaje,  85  ft.  in  height  (PL  10,  11;  E,  3); 
to  the  N.  we  look  down  into  the  Darro  Valley. 

The  Alcazaba  (PL  E,  3 ;  Arabic  Al-Kasaba,  'the  citadel')  stands 
about  460  ft.  above  the  Plaza  Nueva  (p.  78).  Except  on  the  E.  the 
hill  falls  away  abruptly  on  all  sides,  and  so  suddenly  on  the  N.E., 
in  consequence  of  a  landslip,  that  the  castle-wall  seems  endangered. 
The  only  entrance  to  the  castle  is  now  the  Puerta  de  la  Alcazaba 
(PL  9;  E,  3),  at  the  S.W.  angle  of  the  Plaza  de  los  Aljibes.    The 

Baedeker's  Mediterranean.  6 

82     Route  10.  ALHAMBRA.  Moorish 

interior  of  the  castle  is  now  occupied  by  gardens.  Of  the  original 
building  scarcely  anything  remains  except  the  ruined  enclosing 
wall,  with  its  huge  towers  and  external  terraces  (Adarves).  At 
several  points  the  masonry  resembles  the  concrete  work  of  the 
Romans  (p.  290). 

At  the  W.  extremity  of  the  Alcazaba  stands  the  'watch-tower', 
the  *Torre  de  la  Vela  (PI.  13;  E,  3),  the  Ghafar  of  the  Moors, 
on  which  the  three  'pendones'  of  Ferdinand  and  Isabella  were 
displayed  for  the  first  time  on  2nd  Jan.,  1492. 

The  Vela  Tower  commands  a  very  extensive  *Vraw  (doorkeeper  30  c). 
At  our  feet  lies  the  entire  city;  to  the  left,  beyond  the  Alhambra  Park, 
rise  the  Torres  Bermejas;  to  the  right,  beyond  the  Darro,  is  the  Albai- 
cin ;  in  front  of  us  extends  the  almost  circular  green  Vega,  enclosed  by 
brown  and  sun-scorched  ranges  of  hills;  to  the  S.E.  towers  the  Sierra 
Nevada;  to  the  S.  and  S.W.  rise  the  Sierra  de  Almijara,  Sierra  Tejea, 
and  Sierra  de  Alhama;  to  the  W.  are  Santa  Fe  (p.  73)  and  the  hills  of 
Loja  (p.  72);  then,  to  the  N.W.,  are  the  Sierra  de  Parapanda  (p.  73),  Sierra 
de  Elvira,  and  other  hills.  Lastly,  to  the  E.,  we  see  the  Moorish  Alhambra 
and  the  palace  of  Charles  V.,  the  church  of  Santa  Maria  (p.  86),  the  Ge- 
neralife  (p.  87),  and  the  Silla  del  Moro  (p.  88). 

The  *Jardin  de  los  Adarves  (PI.  15;  E,  3),  the  S.  terrace, 
overgrown  with  venerable  ivy  and  vines,  is  entered  by  a  small  door 
(recognized  by  the  iron  scallop-shells  on  it)  to  the  left  of  the 
Alcazaba  gate.  The  view  is  most  picturesque,  especially  towards 

The  Moorish  **Alhambra  Palace  (adm.,  see  p.  74),  commonly 
known  as  the  Casa  Heal,  adjoins  the  N.E.  angle  of  the  Plaza  de  los 
Aljibes.  Like  other  Moorish  secular  buildings  it  is  externally  in- 
significant, and  it  is  quite  eclipsed  by  the  huge  palace  of  Charles  V. 
(p.  86).  Like  the  ancient  Greek  and  Roman  dwelling-houses  it  is 
entirely  closed  on  the  outside,  while  all  the  rooms  open  on  an 
internal  court  as  a  common  centre.  When  the  house  was  enlarged 
a  new  court  had  to  be  added,  and  so  too  the  kings  of  Granada  built 
palace  after  palace,  each  with  its  own  court  and  separate  entrance. 

On  these  buildings  the  highest  efforts  of  Moorish  art  have  been 
expended.  Their  structural  value  is  small;  the  materials,  chiefly 
wood  and  plaster,  lack  solidity,  being  often  used  for  effect  only; 
while  architectural  rules  are  constantly  violated.  But  the  in- 
genious disposition  of  the  rooms  and  their  sumptuous  ornamentation, 
whose  fairy-like  effect  is  too  often  marred  by  decay  or  by  faulty 
restoration,  are  unrivalled.  The  slender  marble  columns  by  which 
the  light  walls  are  supported  recall  the  tent-poles  of  the  nomads, 
while  the  mural  decoration  with  its  arabesques  and  flourishes 
reminds  one  of  an  Oriental  carpet.  Very  curious  too  is  the  'stal- 
actite' vaulting,  formed  by  minute  and  countless  projections  of 
the  walls,  ranged  one  above  the  other  without  visible  support.  The 
Semitic  abhorrence  of  any  representation  of  living  beings  accounts 

Palace.  ALHAMBRA.  10.  Route.     88 

for  the  absence  of  sculpture,  but  some  food  for  reflection  was  afforded 
by  the  inscriptions  with  which  all  the  wall-spaces  are  framed, 
partly  in  the  venerable  Cutic  characters  (p.  150),  partly  in  Andalu- 
sian  flowing  letters,  extolling  Allah  and  the  reigning  family. 

The  present  low-lying  Entrance  (Entrada  Moderna),  adjacent 
to  the  emperor's  palace,  leads  into  the  — 

*Myrtle  Court  (Patio  de  la  Alberca  or  de  los  Arrayanes), 
which  belongs  to  the  Comares  palace  (p.  80),  and  derives  its  name 
from  the  myrtle-hedges  (mesas  de  arrayanes)  around  its  pond 
(alberca).  The  court  is  121  ft.  long  and  75  ft.  in  breadth.  At 
its  N.E.  end  rises  the  Comares  tower  (see  below);  to  the  S.W.  it  is 
overlooked  by  Charles  V.'s  palace,  which  stands  about  16  ft.  higher. 
At  each  end  of  the  court  is  a  beautiful  arcade,  borne  by  six  slender 
marble  columns  and  paved  with  marble;  that  at  the  S.W.  end,  with 
its  upper  gallery,  open  at  the  top,  deserves  special  admiration. 
At  the  N.E.  end  the  arcades  terminate  in  curious  niches  (Arabic 
ar-hanlya)  with  stalactite  vaulting,  once  coloured  blue. 

The  iirst  door  on  the  N.W.  side  of  the  court  leads  into  the  custodian's 
rooms,  and  the  next  but  one  into  the  Patio  del  Mexuar  (p.  85);  opposite 
the  latter  door,  from  the  S.E.  wall  of  the  court,  stairs  (generally  closed) 
descend  to  the  Baths  (p.  85).  Opposite  the  entrance  of  the  palace  is  a 
door  leading  into  the  Sala  de  los  Mocarabcs  (p.  84)  and  the  Lions'  Court 
(p.  84).  The  stairs  in  the  S.W.  angle  of  the  court  lead  into  the  interior 
of  Charles  V.'s  palace  (p.  86). 

An  ornate  horseshoe  arch  at  the  N.E.  end  of  the  court  gives 
access  to  the  ante-room  of  the  Comares  Tower,  the  Sala  de  la 
Barea,  whose  barrel-vaulting  was  destroyed  by  a  fire  in  1899. 
By  the  entrance  are  two  niches  for  water-vessels.  The  wall  of  the 
tower  is  pierced  with  a  superb  archway,  right  and  left  of  which 
arc  two  other  fine  niches. 

The  ruinous  Torre  de  Comares,  148  ft.  in  height,  built,  it 
is  said,  by  workmen  from  Comares,  and  crowned  with  modern 
pinnacles,  contains  the  — 

**Hall  of  the  Ambassadors  (Sala  de  los  Embajadores), 
a  room  in  two  stories,  36  ft.  square  and  59  ft.  high,  once  the 
royal  reception  room.  The  last  meeting  of  the  Moors  under  Bo- 
abdil,  before  the  capitulation  of  Granada,  was  held  here  in  1491. 
Inscriptions  record  that  Yflsuf  1.  was  the  builder.  The  larch-wood 
dome  of  the  hall  has  been  compared  to  the  facetted  surface  of  a 
cut  diamond.  The  immense  thickness  of  the  walls  is  apparent  from 
the  depth  of  the  window-niches,  each  of  which  affords  a  different 
view.  The  central  windows  (so-called  Ajimez,  Arabic  khamstya) 
are  each  divided  into  two  by  a  slender  column.  This  hall  is  one  of 
the  most  richly  decorated  in  the  Alhambra. 

From  the  first  window-niche  on  the  right  in  the  S.E.  wall  a  passage 
leads  to  the  Peinaaor  de  la  Reina  (p.  86)  and  to  the  lower  floor. 

We  return  to  the  Myrtle  Court  and  (as  indicated  above)  pass 
through  the  Sala  de  los  Mocarabes  into  the  — 


84     Route  10.  ALHAMBRA.  Moorish 

**Court  of  the  Lions  (Patio  de  Los  Leoaes),  which  owes  its 
name  to  the  Fuente  de  los  Leones,  a  famous  fountain  borne  by 
twelve  lions.  The  building  was  begun  by  Mohammed  V.  in  1377.  The 
court,  92  by  52  ft.,  is  bordered  all  round  with  a  colonnade,  from 
which  at  each  end  protrudes  a  superb  domed  pavilion.  The  columns 
are  alternately  single  and  grouped.  The  tasteful  elegance  of  this 
court,  originally  shaded  by  six  orange-trees,  contrasts  strikingly 
with  the  showy  pomp  of  the  Myrtle  Court.  The  fretwork  decoration 
in  stucco  looks  like  carved  ivory.  Besides  the  lion-fountain,  the 
court  contains,  at  the  ends  of  the  arcade,  eight  flat  marble  foun- 
tain-basins.   The  fountains  play  on  a  few  festival-days  only. 

The  Court  of  the  Lions,  whose  upper  floor  contained  the 
women's  apartments,  restored  in  1907,  is  adjoined  by  handsome 
rooms  all  round.  On  the  N.W.  side  is  the  present  ante-room  of 
the  court,  called  the  — 

Sala  de  los  Mocarabes,  72  ft.  long,  but  only  13  ft.  wide. 
The  handsome  barrel-vaulting  in  the  Renaissance  style  was  added 
after  an  explosion  of  gunpowder  in  1614,  but  remains  of  the  old 
dome  and  mural  decoration  have  been  brought  to  light. 

The  *Hall  of  the  Abeneerrages,  to  the  S.W.  of  the  Lions' 
Court,  derives  its  name  from  a  noble  family  (p.  75),  whose  leading 
members,  as  the  story  goes,  were  beheaded  at  the  fountain  in  the 
centre  of  this  hall  on  account  of  an  intrigue  of  Hamet,  their  chief, 
with  king  Boabdil's  wife.  We  note  specially  the  magnificent  door 
of  entrance,  and  the  curious  way  in  which  it  is  fitted  to  the  door- 
posts. The  central  part  of  the  hall  rises  in  three  stories,  upou 
which  open  two  lower  alcoves  with  beautiful  toothed  arches  and 
coffered  ceilings.  Over  the  gallery  of  the  second  story  eight  stal- 
actite pendentives  form  the  transition  to  the  sixteen-sided  third 
story,  whose  windows  diffuse  a  subdued  light.  Lastly,  the  hall  is 
roofed  with  massive  stalactite  vaulting. 

Adjoining  the  Hall  of  the  Ahencerrages,  on  the  left  and  right,  are 
the  Patinillo  and  the  Aljibe  or  cistern. 

The  *Sala  de  la  Justieia  (also  called  Sala  del  Tribunal  or 
de  los  Reyes),  on  the  S.E.  side  of  the  Court  of  the  Lions,  is  a  hall 
in  seven  sections,  with  three  arched  entrances  from  the  court,  each 
divided  by  two  columns.  Between  these  open  sections,  which  are 
roofed  with  lofty  domes  lighted  from  above,  are  two  lower  cham- 
bers. Adjoining  the  ends  and  the  E.  side  are  side-rooms  or  alcoves, 
some  of  them  dark.  The  whole  of  this  hall,  with  its  honeycomb 
vaulting  and  stalactite  arches,  presents  the  appearance  of  some 
fantastic  grotto. 

The  three  larger  side-rooms  have  ceiling-paintings  of  the  early  15th 
century.  The  central  picture,  which  has  given  rise  to  the  different  names 
of  the  hall  ('hall  of  justice',  'hall  of  the  kings',  etc.),  probably  represents 
the  first  ten  kings  of  Granada,  beginning  with  Mohammed  I.,  or,  according 
to  others,  a  meeting  of  council,  or  a  court  of  justice.  The  paintings  in 
the  two  other  alcoves  depict  hunting  and  jousting  scenes. 

Palace.  ALHAMBRA.  10.  Route.     85 

In  the  central  alcove  is  a  Moorish  Trough  (pila)  of  1306,  with  curious 
reliefs  of  lions  devouring  stags,  of  eagles,  etc.  —  The  alabaster  Tombstones 
in  the  alcove  at  the  S.W.  end  of  the  hall  are  from  the  Rauda,  the  dilapi- 
dated royal  vault  of  the  Alhambra. 

Opposite  the  Hall  of  the  Abencerrages  we  ascend  from  the  N.E. 
side  of  the  Court  of  the  Lions  by  a  narrow  passage  (pasadizo)  to 
the  — 

**Sala  de  las  Dos  Hermanas  (Hall  of  the  Two  Sisters), 
which  lies  in  the  same  axis  as  the  Sala  de  los  Ajimeces  and  Mirador 
de  Daraxa,  two  other  rooms  situated  at  a  higher  level.  This  suite 
of  rooms  seems  to  have  formed  the  winter  residence  of  the  ruler's 
harem.  The  chief  of  these,  whose  ornamentation  is  perhaps  the 
most  exquisite  in  the  Alhambra,  has  its  name  from  the  two  marble 
tlabs  in  the  pavement.  In  particular  we  admire  the  beautiful  doors, 
she  mural  decoration  in  stucco,  and  above  all  the  honeycomb)  vault- 
ing, the  largest  of  all  Arab  roofs  of  the  kind. 

In  a  corner  of  the  hall  stands  the  *Alhambra  Vase  ('el  jarro  de  la 
Alhambra'),  4  ft.  5  in.  in  height,  dating  from  1320,  and  adorned  with  enamel, 
figures  of  animals  (gazelles?),  etc. 

We  next  pass  through  the  Sala  de  los  Ajimeces,  with  its  ajimeces 
(p.  83)  and  fine  vaulting  (a  closed  passage  on  the  left  leads  hence 
to  the  Peinador  de  la  Eeiua  and  the  Patio  de  la  Reja,  p.  86),  to 
the  — 

'Mirador  de  Daraxa  ('entrance-room').  This  charming  bay 
has  three  windows,  reaching  nearly  to  the  ground  and  overlook- 
ing the  Patio  de  Daraxa  (p.  86). 

We  may  now  return  through  the  Court  of  the  Lions  to  the  Myrtle 
Court,  and  from  the  N.W.  side  (as  indicated  at  p.  83)  of  the  latter 
descend  through  the  Zagudn  or  forecourt  to  the  Patio  del 
Mexuar,  lying  13  ft.  lower.  This  is  the  oldest  part  of  the  Al- 
hambra. On  the  N.E.  side  of  the  court  is  a  pleasing  Atrium,  with 
columns  and  a  horseshoe  arch  of  1522.  The  adjacent  Cuarto  Do- 
rado also  has  Mudejar  decoration  of  the  time  of  Charles  V. 

The  Mexuar  (Arabic  meshiudr,  council-chamber),  now  the 
Capilla,  was  fitted  up  as  such  in  1537-44,  but  not  used  as  the 
palace  chapel  till  1629.  During  the  Moorish  period  it  perhaps 
served  as  an  audience  chamber  or  law-court,  and  the  gallery  as  a 
meeting-place  for  the  council  of  state. — A  modern  door  leads  into 
the  Mosala,  the  Moorish  chapel  built  by  Mohammed  V.,  which 
belonged  to  the  old  Cuarto  de  Machuca  (p.  80),  now  almost  entirely 
occupied  by  gardens. 

Nearly  opposite  the  Christian  Chapel  in  the  Mexuar  Court  is 
the  underground  Viaduct  leading  to  the  Baths  (right)  and  to  the 
Patio  de  la  Reja. 

The  extensive  subterranean  *Baths  (Banos),  to  the  N.E.  of  the 
Myrtle  Court,  in  the  style  of  those  of  ancient  Rome  (comp.  p.  290), 
date  from  the  time  of  Yusuf  I.    The  first  room,  now  freely  restored, 

86     Route  10.  ALHAMBRA.  Moorish  Palace. 

resembling  an  Apodyterium,  is  the  Sola  de  las  Camas  or  de  los 
Divancs,  with  two  niches  for  couches,  and  is  remarkable  for  its 
graceful  superstructure.  The  gallery  was  destined  for  the  singing 
girls.  The  chief  bath-chamber  (cuartos  y  sudorificos)  corresponds 
to  the  Tepidarium,  and  marble  baths  still  exist.  The  heating 
apparatus  (calorifero)  has  been  destroyed. 

From  the  Sala  de  las  Camas  we  enter  the  *Patio  de  Daraxa 
(p.  85),  planted  with  cypresses,  formerly  the  inner  garden  of  the 
palace,  but  altered  by  Charles  V.  Only  the  upper  basin  of  the 
fountain  is  Moorish.  The  rooms  on  the  upper  floor  (Aposentos  de 
Carlos  Quinto)  contain  the  Alhambra  archives. 

The  small  Patio  de  la  Reja,  with  its  fountain  and  four  cy- 
presses, so  called  from  its  window-gratings,  dates  only  from  1654- 
55.  —  The  stairs  at  the  N.E.  corner  lead  (left)  to  the  Hall  of  the 
Ambassadors  (p.  83),  and  (right)  to  a  new  corridor  which  brings 
us  to  the  — 

*Peinador  de  la  Reina  (the  'Queen's  Dressing-room') ,  on 
the  upper  floor  of  the  Torre  del  Peinador  erected  by  Yusuf  I.  The 
'grotesque'  paintings,  in  the  style  of  the  Vatican  logge,  and  the 
scenes  from  Charles  V.'s  expedition  to  Tunis  (p.  323)  are  by  Jidio 
de  Aquiles  and  Alex.  Mayner. 

The  *Palace  of  Charles  V.  (PI.  17,  E  2;  entrance,  see 
p.  83)  is  a  massive  square  pile  of  207  ft.  each  way  and  57  ft. 
in  height,  with  a  heavy  rustica  groundfioor  and  an  upper  story 
of  the  Ionic  order,  terminating  in  a  Doric  cornice.  The  building 
was  designed  by  Pedro  Machuca  in  the  Italian  high-Renaissance 
style,  in  1526,  and  its  cost  was  defrayed  out  of  the  tribute  paid 
by  the  Moors.  The  only  completed  parts  are  the  facades,  the  superb 
circular  colonnaded  court,  of  the  Doric  order  below  and  the  Ionic 
above,  and  the  main  staircase,  which  was  not  finished  till  1635. 
The  richly  sculptured  W.  and  S.  poiials,  executed  by  many  differ- 
ent masters,  are  specially  attractive. 

Passing  round  the  8.  side  of  the  palace  of  Charles  V.,  we  cross 
the  Plaza  de  los  Alamos  to  the  church  of  Santa  Maria  (PI.  18 ; 
E,  F,  2),  which  stands  on  the  site  of  the  Mezquita  Real  or  Al- 
hambra mosque. 

The  buildings  of  the  Alta  Alhambra  (p.  79)  also  present  several 
features  of  interest.  To  the  N.  (,i  Santa  Maria  we  cross  the  Alanieda, 
pass  (on  the  left)  the  ruins  of  the  Rauda  (p.  85)  and  the  outside  of  the 
Court  of  the  Lions,  and  then  descend  to  the  left  to  the  Torre  de  las  Damas 
(PI.  20;  E,  2),  a  fortified  tower  of  the  time  of  Yusuf  I.,  restored  in  1907-8, 
with  a  sumptuous  interior.  Fine  view  from  the  Mirador  (p.  87).  —  A  few 
paces  to  the  E.  lies  the  Carrnen  de  Arratia,  a  private  house  with  a 
charming  garden  (above  the  gate  is  the  inscription  'Mezquita  arabe  de  la 
Alhambra').  The  house  contains  a  Moorish  Chapel,  also  dating  from  the 
time  of  Yusuf  I.,  with  an  elegant  mihrab  or  prayer-niche. 

Generalife.  GRANADA.  10.  Route.      87 

Farther  on  in  the  same  direction  we  come  to  the  Torre  de  los  Picos 
(PI.  21;  F,  2)  and  cross  a  bastion  (baluartt)  to  the  Puerta  de  Hierro 
(PI.  22;  F,  2),  restored  by  the  'Catholic  kings',  which  forms  the  entrance 
to  the  Alhambra  from  the  Cuesta  del  Rey  Chico  (p.  78). 

On  the  margin  of  the  plateau  above  this  road  are  four  towers,  the 
two  finest  of  which,  time  permitting,  we  may  visit  under  the  guidance 
of  the  custodian,  who  lives  in  the  Torre  de  la  Polvora.  These  are  the 
Torre  de  la  Cautiva  (PI.  23;  F,  2),  the  chief  room  in  which  vies  with 
the  sumptuous  halls  of  the  Alhambra  palace  itself,  and  the  Torre  de  las 
Infantas  (PI.  24;  F,  2),  an  excellent  point  of  view. 

On  the  S.W.  margin  of  the  plateau,  beyond  the  Torre  del  Agua  (PI.  25; 
F,  2),  where  towards  evening  we  have  a  splendid  view  of  the  town,  the 
Vega,  and  the  Sierra  Nevada,  is  a  bastion  above  which  rises  the  Puerta 
de  los  Siete  Siielos  (PI.  26;  F,  2).  By  this  gate  Boabdil,  the  last  of  the 
Moorish  kings  (p.  75),  made  his  final  exit  from  the  Alhambra. 

d.  The  Generalife. 

At  the  foot  of  the  Cerro  del  Sol,  to  the  E.  of  the  Alhambra, 
about  160  ft.  above  the  Alhambra  Hill,  rises  the  *Palaeio  de 
Generalife  (PL  E,  F,  1),  once  the  famous  summer  residence  of 
the  Moorish  kings,  and  now  owned  by  the  Marquesa  de  Campotejar 
(p.  77).  The  name  is  a  corruption  of  the  Arabic  Jennat  al-Arif, 
'garden  of  Aril',  the  original  owner.  According  to  the  inscription 
it  was  redecorated  by  order  of  Abu'l-Walid  Ismail  in  1319,  but  in 
1494  it  was  altered  and  enlarged  by  Queen  Isabella.  The  inter- 
ior is  very  dilapidated;  the  ornamentation,  which  is  about  half-a- 
century  earlier  than  that  of  the  chief  apartments  in  the  Alhambra, 
is  mostly  whitewashed. 

"We  ascend  by  the  Camino  del  Cemeuterio,  a  continuation  of 
the  three  Alhambra  Park  routes  (p.  81),  and  by  the  Cuesta  del 
Rey  Chico  (p.  78),  and  ring  at  the  Outer  Gate  (PL  27,  F  2;  adm., 
see  p.  74;  fee  to  the  porter,  also  to  the  gardener).  A  cypress- 
avenue  leads  thence  to  the  N.  to  the  Entrance  (PL  28;  F,  1). 

The  picturesque  Court  is  still,  as  in  Moorish  times,  planted 
with  myrtle-hedges  and  orange-trees  and  intersected  by  a  water- 
conduit.  The  buildings  on  the  E.  side  date  from  the  16th  cent.; 
along  the  W.  side  runs  a  Colonnade  with  pointed  arches,  the  central 
door  of  which  opens  on  a  Mirador  (Arabic  manzar,  i.e.  belvedere), 
which  is  now  a  chapel.  On  the  N.  side  we  pass  through  a  five- 
arched  Gallery,  and  then  through  a  three-arched  Portal  into  a 
quadrangular  Hall  with  two  alcoves.  Beyond  this  is  a  square  room 
with  a  balcony  commanding  a  splendid  view  of  the  Darro  Valley. 
The  modern  side-rooms  are  uninteresting. 

The  *Park.  to  the  E.  of  the  main  building  and  above  it,  was 
laid  out  in  Moorish  times.  We  first  enter  the  Patio  de  los  Cipreses, 
with  a  gallery  built  in  1584-6,  and  shaded  with  venerable  cypresses. 
A  Moorish  flight  of  steps,  with  grooves  for  water  on  the  balustrades, 
ascends  to  a  Mirador  (PL  29;  F,  1),  where  we  enjoy  a  glorious 
*View  of  Granada,  the  Alhambra,  and  the  valley  of  the  Darro. 

88     Route  ll.  ALORA. 

A  good  survey  of  the  Alhambra  and  of  the  whole  Sierra  Nevada  is 
obtained  from  the  Silla  del  Moro  (PI.  F,  1),  a  spur  of  the  Cerro  del  Sol. 
It  is  reached  in  12  rain,  from  the  Cementerio  road  (p.  87)  by  a  path 
diverging  halfway  between  the  gate  of  the  Generalife'  and  the  cemetery, 
and  then  crossing  a  gorge. 

11.  From  Granada  via  Bobadilla  to 

119'/2M.  Rail wav  in  6-61/*  hrs.  (fares  28  p.  90,  22  p.  66,  15  p.  95  c); 
railway  restaurant  at  Bobadilla  only  (change  carr.);  views  thus  far  on 
the  left,  afterwards  on  the  right. 

From  Granada  to  (76  M.)  Bobadilla,  see  pp.  73,  72.  The  train 
then  continues  to  follow  the  Guadalhorce  Valley. 

At  (S4'/2  M.)  Gobantes  begins  the  *Hoyo  de  Chorro,  a  ravine, 
inaccessible  before  the  railway  was  made,  where  the  Guadalhorce 
forces  its  passage  through  the  limestone  slate  rock  of  the  coast- 
hills.  The  train  is  carried  along  the  left  bank  by  means  of  tunnels 
and  of  high  bridges  crossing  lateral  gorges.  Little,  however,  of 
the  grand  rocky  landscape,  or  of  the  interesting  construction  of  the 
line,  is  seen  from  the  train  on  its  rapid  descent. 

Beyond  (89  M.)  Chorro  are  seen  the  first  oranges,  lemons,  palms, 
and  cypresses.  On  the  short  run  to  Malaga  we  are  carried  with 
more  startling  suddenness  than  anywhere  else  in  Europe  into  the 
midst  of  an  almost  tropical  vegetation,  and  finally  to  the  coast- 
region  of  sugar-cane,  cotton,  and  bananas  (comp.  p.  89). 

96  M.  Alora  (328  ft. ;  pop.  10,300),  the  ancient  Euro,  lies  to  the 
right  at  the  foot  of  the  Sierra  del  Hacho.  The  'huertas',  or  garden- 
like fields,  are  watered  by  numerous  runlets  from  the  Guadalhorce. 
Reyond  the  last  tunnel  the  valley  expands.  lOl1^  M.  Pizarra.  To 
the  S.  rises  the  Sierra  de  Mijas. 

109  M.  Cdrtama.  The  village,  the  Roman  Cartima,  lies  2x/2  M. 
to  the  S.W.,  on  the  right  bank  of  the  Guadalhorce,  which  was  once 
navigable  up  to  this  point.    The  loftily  situated  castle  is  Moorish. 

112^2  M.  Campanulas  lies  on  the  stream  of  that  name,  which 
waters  the  hilly  wine-country  of  Axarquia  to  the  N.,  and  falls  into 
the  Guadalhorce.  The  valley  broadens  down  into  the  plain,  the 
Hoya  de  Mdlaga  (p.  89).  We  now  leave  the  Guadalhorce,  which 
turns  to  the  S.E.;  to  the  S.  we  sight  the  Mediterranean. 

11972  M.  Malaga.  —  Arrival.  At  the  Railway  Station  (Estacion 
del  Ferrocarril;  PI.  A,  5)  we  find  hotel-omnibuses,  cabs  (see  p.  89),  and  an 
'omnibus  general'  (V4  p.),  which  last  goes  to  the  Despacho  Central,  or 
town-office  of  the  railway,  by  the  so-called  Puerta  del  Mar  (Calle  de 
Carvajal;  PI.  C,  4). — Travellers  arriving  by  Steamer  pay  for  landing  '/a  P- 
for  each  person  and  1j2  p.  for  each  trunk;  or  a  bargain  may  be  made  to 
convey  luggage  to  the  custom-house  (Aduana)  and  to  the  hotel  for  1-2  p.  — 
The  coasting  steamers  only  are  berthed  at  the  quay. 

Hotels  (comp.  p.  51).  *Regina  Hotel  (PI.  a;  O,  4),  on  the  N.  side 
of  the  Alameda,  pens.  12-20  p.—  *Hot.  C0U11   (PI.  d;  C,  3),   Plaza  de  la 



//.  Route.     89 

uoa  aimswvifojIo^D 

Malaga  is  much  resorted  to  as  a  winter  residence,  chiefly  by  British 

Characteristics.  MALAGA.  u-  Route.      89 

0onstituci6n;  Hot.  Victoria  (PL  b;  C,  4),  pens.  6-12  p.,  Hot.  Nisa  (PL  c; 
C,  3),  Hot.  Ingle's  (PL  e;  C,  3),  pens.  7  p.,  Hot.  Alhambra  (PL  f ;  C,  3), 
pens,  from  7  fr.,  good,  all  in  the  Calle  del  Marques  de  Larios;  Hacienda 
de  Gird  (Engl,  landlady,  Mrs.  Cooper),  above  La  Caleta,  with  garden, 
pens.  8-15  p. 

Cafes.  Imperial,  Ingles,  and  La  Vinicola,  all  in  the  Calle  del  Marques 
de  Larios. — Beer.  Gambrinus,  same  street;  C'erveceria  de  Munich,  Plaza 
de  la  Constitucion;  Maier,  Pasaje  de  Heredia,  N.  side  of  same  plaza. 

Cabs.  Within  the  town,  and  to  the  E.  to  Hot.  Hernan  Cortes  (p.  92): 
cab  with  two  seats,  per  drive  1,  per  hr.  2  p.,  at  night  2  and  21/2  P- ;  with 
four  seats,  per  drive  H/ai  per  hr.  2V2,  at  night  per  drive  or  hour  3  p.  Bar- 
gain advisable,  also  as  to  luggage.  —  Outside  the  town  according  to  bar- 
gain: to  Palo  (p.  92)  about  5,  to  San  Jose"  and  La  Concepcion  (p.  92) 
8-9  p.  —  On  certain  festivals  fares  are  raised. 

Post  &  Telegraph  Office  (Correos  y  TeMgrafos ;  PI.  D,  3),  Calle 
del  Cister. 

Banks.  Banco  Hi spano- Americano,  Calle  del  Marques  de  Larios;  Hijos 
de  Alvarez  Fonseca,  Calle  Nueva;  Rcin&  Co.,  Alameda  de  Carlos  Haes  4. 

Consuls.  British,  P.  Staniforth  ;  vice-consul,  E.  R.  Thornton.  —  United 
States,  E.  J.  Norton;  vice-consul,  T.  R.  Geary. — Lloyd's  Agent,  Chas. 
Fargiiharson,  Cortina  del  Muelle  69. 

English  Church  in  the  Protestant  Cemetery  (PL  F,  3). 

Steamboat  Lines.  Hall  Line  (agent,  Ign.  Morales  Hurtado,  Alameda 
de  Colon  13),  weekly  to  Cadiz,  Lisbon,  and  London;  Compailia  Tras- 
attdntica  (office,  Viuda  de  Ant.Duarte),  thrice  monthly  to  Cadiz  ;  Transports 
Ma ritimes  (P.  G.  Chaix,  Calle  de  Josefa  de  Ugarte  Barrientos  26),  on  20th 
of  each  month  to  Gibraltar,  Madeira,  etc.  (comp.  also  p.  120  and  R.  3); 
Navigation  Mirte  (P.  G.  Chaix),  from  Tangier  via,  Malaga  and  Melilla 
to  Oran  (and  Marseilles),  see  p.  123;  also  Sloman's  Line  and  others. 

One  Day.  Forenoon:  Alameda,  Park  (p.  90),  Harbour  (p.  90),  Cathe- 
dral (p.  91),  and  view  from  its  tower  or  from  the  Gibralfaro  (p.  92);  after- 
noon :  Protestant  Cemetery,  Caleta,  and  Palo  (p.  92). 

Mdlaga,  the  capital  of  a  province  and  seat  of  a  bishop,  one  of 
the  oldest  and  most  famous  of  Mediterranean  ports,  with  111,900 
inhab.,  lies  picturesquely  on  the  last  spurs  of  a  circus  of  hills,  47  M. 
long,  the  Sierra  Tejea,  S.  de  Alhama,  S.  de  Abdalajis,  and  S.  de 
Mijas,  which  enclose  the  broad  Bahla  de  Mdlaga.  The  inner 
part  of  this  bay  is  bounded  on  the  E.  by  the  Pu»ta  de  los  Cdntales, 
and  on  the  W.  by  the  Torre  de  Pimentel,  near  Torremolinos;  be- 
tween these  rises  the  Gibralfaro,  the  castle-hill  of  Malaga,  abut- 
ting on  the  harbour.  The  coast-line  is  gradually  being  extended 
seawards  by  the  alluvial  deposits  of  the  Guadalmedina  (Arabic 
'town-river'),  whose  bed,  generally  dry  (Rambla),  separates  the  old 
town  from  the  W.  suburbs.  To  the  W.  stretches  the  wonderfully 
fertile  Vega  or  Hoya  de  Mdlaga,  where  even  the  sugar-cane,  cot- 
ton, sweet  potatoes  (Convolvulus  batatas),  and  cherimolias  (Anona 
cherimolia)  are  cultivated.  Most  famous  among  the  products  of  this 
luxuriant  region  are  the  raisins  (pasas)  and  the  wines  of  Malaga, 
which  are  yielded  by  the  Axarquia  (p.  88),  to  the  N.W.,  and  by  the 
Montes  de  Malaga  and  the  hill  of  Colmenar,  to  the  N.E.,  and  which 
are  chiefly  exported  by  British  and  German  firms.  In  the  W.  suburbs 
are  several  sugar,  cotton,  and  iron  factories,  a  rare  phenomenon  in 
Andalusia.  To  the  E.  are  the  villa-suburbs,  the  strangers'  quarter. 
Malaga  is  much  resorted  to  as  a  winter  residence,  chiefly  by  British 

90     Route  11.  MALAGA.  Harbour 

and  Spanish  visitors,  on  account  of  the  mildness  of  its  climate,  the 
mean  temperature  of  the  three  winter  months  being  55°  Fahr. 

The  History  of  Malaga,  the  Malaca  of  antiquity,  begins  with  the 
Phoenicians  (p.  50),  who  gave  the  town  its  name.  Down  to  the  time  of 
Posidouius,  the  contemporary  of  Pompey  and  Cicero,  it  retained  its  Punic 
character  (Strabo  III,  4),  differing  therein  from  the  towns  of  Iberian  or 
of  Greek  origin.  The  Syrian  and  other  Asiatic  merchants  who  settled 
here  formed  distinct  guilds.  Although  the  port  was  of  some  importance  in 
ancient  times,  it  now  contains  no  memorials  of  either  the  Phoenician  (ex- 
cept a  few  coins)  or  of  the  Roman  period.  In  571  Lcovigild,  the  Visigoth 
(p.  69),  wrested  the  town  from  the  Byzantines.  In  711  it  was  captured 
by  the  Moors,  who  regarded  it  as  an  earthly  paradise,  and  whose  Arabic 
writers  vie  with  each  other  in  extolling  it.  After  1246,  along  with  Al- 
meria,  it  became  one  of  the  chief  ports  of  the  kingdom  of  Granada,  but 
its  mediaeval  glory  ended  with  its  conquest  by  Ferdinand  and  Isabella  in 
1487.  For  centuries  Malaga  remained  utterly  insignificant;  but  of  late, 
in  spite  of  the  growing  competition  of  Seville  and  Almeria,  its  trade  has 
improved  considerably. 

From  the  station  we  follow  the  tramway  line  and  cross  the 
Puente  de  Tetudn  (PL  B,  4)  to  the  Paseo  de  la  Alameda  (PL  B, 
C,  4),  a  promenade  !/4  M.  long  and  138  ft.  wide,  planted  with  planes. 
At  its  W.  end  it  is  adorned  with  a  marble  Fountain  executed  in 
Genoa  in  1560,  and  at  the  E.  end  with  a  statue  of  the  Marques  de 
Larios.  Adjoining  this  Paseo  on  the  E.  is  the  Plaza  de  Alfonso 
Suarez  de  Figueroa  (PLC,  4),  with  a  tasteful  fountam,  which  leads 
to  the  new  — 

*Park  (Parque  or  Jardines  de  Enrique  Crooke  Larios;  PL 
C-E,  4,  3),  planted  with  six  rows  of  planes  and  palms  and  with  fine 
flower-beds.  View  of  the  harbour,  part  of  the  cathedral,  the  Alca- 
zaba,  and  the  Gibralfaro.  —  The  Paseo  de  Heredia  (PL  0, 5, 4)  also, 
to  the  W.  of  the  harbour,  is  planted  with  planes  and  palms. 

The  Harbour  (Puerto ;  PL  C,  D,  4, 5)  has  been  much  improved 
since  1881.  The  E.  pier,  with  the  Lighthouse  (Faro;  PI.  D,  5),  was 
already  built  in  1588.  On  the  sand-hills  behind  the  pier  a  poor 
suburb  has  sprung  up,  called  the  Barrio  de  Malagueta  (P1.E,F, 
4,  3).  On  its  N.  side  are  the  Plaza  de  Toros  (Bull  King;  PL  E,3) 
and  the  Hospital  Noble,  erected  for  seamen  by  Dr.  Noble,  an 
English  physician.  —  To  the  Caleta,  see  p.  92. 

The  Mercado  (market-hall;  PL  B,  C,  4),  to  the  N.  of  the  Ala- 
meda, deserves  an  early  morning  visit;  the  fish-stalls  also  are  worth 
seeing.  The  horseshoe  arch  of  the  chief  portal,  with  the  motto  of 
the  Nasride  dynasty  (p.  74),  is  a  relic  of  the  Moorish  wharf,  the 
Atarazana  (Arabic  Dar  as-San'a,  'arsenal'  or  'place  of  work'). 

From  the  Alameda  issues  the  Calle  del  Marques  de  Larios 
(PL  C,  4,  3),  the  chief  business  street  of  Malaga  (many  cafes)  and 
also  a  favourite  resort  of  the  fashionable  and  leisured  classes. 
Another  important  commercial  thoroughfare,  to  the  N.E.  of  the 
Plaza  de  la  Constituci6n,  is  the  Calle  de  Granada  (PL  C,  D,  3), 
officially  called  Calle  de  Salvador  Solier,  from  which  the  Calle 
de  Molina  Larios  leads  to  the  cathedral. 

Cathedral.  MALAGA.  11.  Route.      91 

The  *Cathedral  (PL  C,  D,  3;  open  7-11  and  3  to  4.30,  in 

summer  4  to  5.30),  a  massive  edifice,  marred,  however,  by  the  build- 
ings on  the  E.  side,  occupies  the  site  of  a  Moorish  mosque,  which 
was  converted  in  1487  into  the  Gothic  Church  of  the  Incarnation 
(Encarnacion).  The  present  church,  which  is  built  entirely  of  white 
limestone,  was  probably  planned  by  Diego  de  Siloe  (p.  76)  in  1538. 
The  building  progressed  slowly,  but  in  1554  it  already  showed  the 
arms  of  Philip  II.  of  Spain  and  Queen  Mary  of  England.  In  1680 
it  was  partly  destroyed  by  an  earthquake,  but  in  1719  the  work 
was  resumed  with  greater  energy.  It  has,  however,  never  been 

The  chief  W.  facade,  approached  by  a  fine  flight  of  marble  steps 
and  flanked  with  two  projecting  towers,  rises  opposite  the  Plaza  del 
Obispo  in  two  stories,  articulated  with  Corinthian  columns.  Corre- 
sponding with  the  three  portals  are  the  round-arched  windows  of 
the  second  story.  The  N.  tower,  280  ft.  high,  has  a  third  story 
with  Corinthian  columns,  surmounted  by  an  octagon  with  a  dome 
and  lantern.  The  S.  tower,  like  the  central  part  of  the  fagade, 
shows  only  the  beginnings  of  a  third  story.  The  portals  of  the 
transept  also  are  flanked  with  towers. 

The  Interior,  with  its  nave  and  aisles  and  two  rows  of  chapels, 
measures  377  by  246  ft.  and  is  131  ft.  in  height.  The  transept  and  the 
ambulatory  are  grandly  proportioned.  The  round  arches  of  the  ornate 
vaulting  are  borne  by  two  sets  of  pillars,  one  above  the  other,  the  lower 
being  enriched  with  Corinthian  pilasters. 

In  the  nave  is  the  Choir,  with  its  admirable  stalls  (16-17th  cent.). 
The  carved  *Statues  of  saints  and  other  figures  are  by  Pedro  de  Mena 
(d.  1693). 

In  the  Right  Aisle  is  the  Capilla  del  Rosario  (the  3rd),  which  con- 
tains a  Madonna  of  the  Rosary  with  six  saints,  by  Alonso  Cano.  —  In  the 
1st  chapel  of  the  Ambulatory,  the  Capilla  de  los  Reyes,  are  kneeling 
statues  of  the  'Catholic  kings'  (p.  75)  and  an  image  of  the  Virgin  which 
they  always  carried  with  them  on  their  crusades. 

The  Capilla  Mayor,  designed  by  Al.  Caiio,  is  formed  by  a  semicircle 
of  light  detached  pillars.  The  handsome  altar,  in  the  form  of  a  domed 
temple  with  lour  taqades,  is  modern. 

The  N.  Tower  (entered  from  outside;  over  200  steps;  custodian  30-40  c.) 
commands  a  strikingly  picturesque  *View. 

The  Sagrario,  the  parish  church  to  the  N.W.  of  the  cathedral, 
has  a  rich  Gothic  N.  portal  from  the  older  cathedral. 

The  Calle  de  San  Agustin,  passing  the  Aynntamiento  (P1.D,3), 
leads  back  to  the  Calle  de  Granada  (p.  90).  At  the  N.E.  end  of  the 
latter,  on  the  right,  near  the  Plaza  de  Riego  (P1.D,2,3),  rises  the 
church  of  Santiago  el  Mayor  (PI.  D,  3),  built  on  the  site  of  a  mosque 
in  1490,  with  a  tower  whose  lower  part  is  still  Moorish. 

If  the  traveller  is  undeterred  by  dirty  streets  and  begging  chil- 
dren, he  may  ascend  from  the  Plaza  de  Riego  to  the  S.E.  via  the 
Calle  del  Mundo  Nuevo  to  the  saddle  of  the  Curacha  and  the  Moorish 
castle  of  Alcazaba  (PI.  D,  3  ;  p.  81),  the  scanty  ruins  of  which  are 
chiefly  inhabited  by  gipsies.    This  hill-town,  once  connected  with 

92     Route  11.  MALAGA.  Caleta. 

the  Gibralfaro  by  double  walls,  probably  stands  on  the  site  of  the 
earliest  Phoenician  settlement. 

The  *Gibralfaro  (PI.  E,  2,  3;  558  ft.;  from  jebel,  mountain, 
and  pharos,  lighthouse),  whose  original  fortifications  date  back  to 
the  13th  cent.,  affords  an  extensive  view,  ranging  to  the  S.,  in  very 
clear  weather,  as  far  as  the  Monte  Melila  in  Africa  (p.  124).  The 
ascent  from  the  Coracha  (p.  91)  is  fairly  easy.  Leave  to  see  the 
castle  must  be  obtained  beforehand  from  the  commandant,  at  the 
Gobierno  Militar,  Alameda  de  Colon  2.  The  same  views  may  be 
obtained  by  walking  round  the  old  enclosing  walls,  but  this  is 

At  the  foot  of  the  Gibralfaro  runs  the  Avenida  de  Pries  (P1.F,3), 
leading  to  the  villa-quarter  of  Caleta  (P1.P,G,3),  where  are  sever- 
al pensions  and  many  superb  gardens.  (Electric  tramway  from  the 
Paseo  de  Alameda  to  Palo ;  also  steam-tramway  from  the  harbour 
to  Velez-Malaga.)  Immediately  on  the  left  is  the  pretty  Protestant 
cemetery,  or  Cementerio  Ingles,  founded  in  1830  by  the  British 
consul  W.  Mark  (usually  open).  The  little  English  Church  here  was 
built  in  1891.  At  the  E.  end  of  Caleta,  beyond  the  Hot. -Restaur ant 
Hern&n  Cortes  (PI.  k;  G,  3),  roads  diverge  to  the  left  for  the  Li- 
monar  Valley  (PI.  G,  2,  1),  where  lie  the  residential  suburbs  of  Li- 
monar,  Hiyueral,  and  Miramar. — AVe  may  follow  the  highroad, 
which  affords  charming  views,  but  is  generally  very  dusty,  to  the 
fishing-village  of  Palo,  2  M.  beyond  the  Hot.  Hernan  Cortes. 

A  delightful  excursion  may  be  taken  to  the  beautiful  park  of  the 
Hacienda  de  San  Josi,  2lj2  M.  to  the  N.  of  Malaga,  and  to  the  villa  of 
*La  Concepcion,  a  little  beyond  it.  The  latter  contains  an  elegant 
modern  temple  with  Roman  antiquities.  The  road  (carr.,  see  p.  89)  leads 
from  the  Plaza  de  Capuchinos  up  the  Guadalmedina.  From  the  Cemen- 
terio de  San  Miguel  (comp.  PI.  D,  1 :  tramway)  walkers  may  wander  along 
the  water-conduit,  half-way  up  the  slope  (40  min.),  and  then  descend  the 
avenue  of  plane-trees  to  the  left  to  the  highroad. 


Route  Page 

Geographical  and  Historical  Sketch.  Practical  Hints  93 

12.  Tangier 98 

13.  From  Tangier  to  Tetuan  (Ceuta) 102 

14.  From  Tangier  to  Mogador  by  Sea 104 

Morocco,  a  region  270,000  sq.  M.  in  area,  extends  from  the 
Straits  of  Gibraltar  on  the  N.  to  the  Sahara  on  the  S.,  and  is  bounded 
by  the  Atlantic  Ocean  on  the  W.  and  by  the  French  colony  of  Algiers 
on  the  E.  It  is  called  by  the  Arabs  El-Gharb  or  Maghreb  el-Aksd 
('the  extreme  West-land'),  being  the  westmost  part  of  the  ancient 
Barbary  (Arabic  Jezirat  el-Maghreb,  'island  of  the  West'),  the 
long  coast-land  of  N.  Africa  between  the  Libyan  desert  and  the 
ocean.  The  backbone  of  this  region,  whose  population  is  estimated 
at  from  six  to  eight  millions,  is  formed  by  the  Morocco  Atlas,  the 
highest  mountains  in  N.  Africa,  a  folded  rock-formation,  mostly  of 
early  origin.  The  range  consists  of  three  main  chains:  the  barren 
Great  Atlas,  an  enormous  wall  of  rock  culminating  in  the  Tamyurt 
and  Likumpt  (about  14,800  ft.);  then  the  Lesser  Atlas  to  the  N., 
rising  in  the  territory  of  the  Beni  Wara'fn  tribe  to  over  13,000  ft., 
and  separated  from  the  Great  Atlas  by  the  Wdd  el-Abid  and  the 
Mtdiiya;  and  lastly  the  Anti- Atlas  and  Jebel  Sarro  or  Saghro, 
parallel  with  the  Great  Atlas,  and  about  6500  ft.  in  height.  A  low 
range  of  hills,  called  the  Jebel  Bant,  between  the  Anti-Atlas  and 
the  river  Draa,  forms  the  boundary  between  Morocco  and  the 
Sahara.  On  the  N.W.  side  of  these  mountains,  between  them  and 
the  ocean,  lies  an  extensive  intermediate  tableland  called  the  Tell, 
steppe-like  in  character,  with  a  girdle  of  oases,  whence  protrude 
the  Jebilet,  the  Jebel  el-IIadid,  the  Jebel  Alchdar  or  Lakhdar, 
and  several  smaller  isolated  heights,  which  are  evidently  relics 
of  an  ancient  range  of  mountains.  The  seaboard  itself  consists  of 
the  plain  between  the  rivers  Teiisift  and  Sebu  (rendered  extremely 
fertile  by  its  mantle  of  black  soil,  Tuaress  or  Tirs),  and  of  the 
marshy  fiats  on  the  lower  course  of  the  Sebu  (ancient  Subur),  the 
most  copious  stream  in  Barbary.  These  occupy  a  district  once 
penetrated  by  the  sea,  and  geologically  resembling  the  basin  of 
the  Guadalquivir  (p.  49).  The  entire  Mediterranean  coast,  on  the 
other  hand,  from  the  Straits  of  Gibraltar  to  the  Mulftya  valley 
(p.  124),  is  bordered  by  the  Rif  Mts.  (p.  104),  a  range  culminat- 


ing  in  the  Jebel  Mula'i  Abd  es-Slam  (p.  102;  5742  ft.)  and  the 
Jebel  Tiziren  (ca.  8200  ft.),  these  being  folded  mountains  of  recent 
formation,  clothed  with  extensive  forests  of  Atlas  cedar  (p.  210) 
and  arar  (Callitris  quadrivalvis  L.).  The  Rif  Mts.  and  the  Atlas 
are  sharply  separated  by  a  deep  depression  watered  by  the  Sebu 
and  its  tributary  the  InnaHen  on  the  W.,  and  by  the  Ms-An,  an 
affluent  of  the  Muluya,  on  the  E.,  a  valley  which  once  formed  the 
most  important  route  between  Morocco  and  Algeria.  Both  of  these 
mountain-ranges  are  said  to  contain  great  mineral  wealth  (iron, 
copper,  ziuc,  silver,  gold,  etc.),  but  as  yet  it  has  only  been  tapped 
to  a  small  extent  by  the  natives,  chiefly  in  the  Stis,  the  region 
between  the  Great  and  the  Anti-Atlas,  and  near  Ujda  (p.  197). 

The  Great  and  the  Lesser  Atlas,  whose  chief  peaks  are  covered 
with  perpetual  snow,  afford  also  an  abundant  supply  of  water,  which 
is  utilized  for  irrigation,  though  as  yet  very  inadequately,  by  means 
of  open  cuttings  (sakhid)  or  underground  conduits  (foggdra  or  khat- 
tdra).  The  rainfall  in  Morocco  diminishes  as  we  proceed  southwards 
from  the  Straits  of  Gibraltar;  at  Tangier  it  is  32  in.;  at  Mogador, 
16  in.;  while  in  the  interior  (as  at  Marakesh,  11  in.),  and  partic- 
ularly on  the  S.  margin  of  the  Great  Atlas,  it  becomes  very  in- 
significant. In  the  interior  the  climate  may  be  described  as  con- 
tinental (as  at  Marakesh,  where  the  mean  temperature  of  January 
is  51V20  Fahr.,  and  that  of  July  84»/2°),  while  that  of  the  S.  part  of 
the  ocean  seaboard,  thanks  to  the  prevalent  N.W.  winds  and  the  N. 
to  S.  ocean  currents,  vies  with  that  of  Madeira  in  mildness  and 
equableness.  Thus  at  Rabat  the  mean  of  January  is  55°,  that  of 
August  75°;  at  Mogador  61°  and  72°,  respectively.  The  variations 
are  greater  near  the  Straits  (as  at  Tangier,  50°  and  75°)  and  partic- 
ularly on  the  Rif  seaboard. 

Morocco  is  inhabited  chiefly  by  Berbers,  the  white  Hamitic 
indigenous  race  of  N.  Africa;  of  these  the  Amdziges  live  in  the  N.W., 
the  Berdbs  in  the  Atlas,  and  the  Shilluh  or  Shluh  on  the  ocean 
coast.  Some  of  them  retain  their  ancient  languages  (Tam&zirt,  or 
Shelha,  and  Berbri),  which  are  akin  to  early  Egyptian,  but  many, 
especially  the  dwellers  in  the  low  country,  have  spoken  Arabic 
since  the  middle  ages.  Pure  Arab  Tribes,  mostly  survivors  of  the 
Beni  Hilal  and  Beni  Solei'm  immigrants  (p.  323),  are  chiefly  met 
with  in  the  Sebu  plain  and  in  the  S.W.  steppe-region.  Many  of  the 
dwellers  in  the  towns  are  Moors  (Andalfisi)  of  Spanish  origin,  while 
numerous  Jews  are  settled,  usually  in  a  walled  ghetto  (Mellah), 
under  the  direct  protection  of  the  sultan.  Negroes,  too,  most  of 
whom  were  originally  slaves,  imported  from  the  Sudan  by  way  of 
the  Tafilet,  abound  in  the  southern  districts  of  Morocco.  The  S.W. 
provinces  of  Sfis,  Wad  Draa,  and  Wad  Nan,  which  are  interesting 
on  account  of  their  primaeval  African  flora  (p.  30),  are  mostly  in- 
habited by  the  despised  Harrdtin  (sing.  Hartdnt),  the  hybrid 


offspring  of  negroes  and  Berbers,  or,  according  to  others,  descen- 
dants of  the  indigenous  population  of  N.  Africa. 

Owing  to  the  inaccessibility  of  its  mountains  and  the  natives' 
passionate  love  of  independence,  coupled  with  their  hatred  of  for- 
eigners, Morocco  has  ever  been  one  of  the  least  explored  regions. 
The  settlements  of  the  Phoenicians  and  Carthaginians  were  limited 
to  a  few  places  on  the  coast,  such  as  Rusaddir  (Melilla?)  and 
Ceuta,  and  also,  beyond  the  pillars  of  Hercules  (p.  54),  Tingis  (?), 
Zilis  (Arzila),  Lixus  (p.  105),  and  Sala  (Salee).  The  Romans 
also  seem  to  have  shunned  the  Rif  region,  and  scarcely  ever  to 
have  penetrated  into  the  interior  beyond  Meknes  (Mequinez)  in  the 
Zerhun  Mts.  From  the  time  of  Emp.  Claudius  (42  A.  D.)  Morocco, 
with  Tingis  as  its  capital,  formed  the  Provincia  Mauretania 
Tinyitana  (comp.  p.  124);  and  after  the  reign  of  Diocletian  it  be- 
came part  of  the  Spanish  Provincia  Ulterior.  In  the  early  Christian 
period  also  the  coast  of  Morocco,  whose  inhabitants  had  joined  the 
Donatisls  (p.  172),  shared  the  fortunes  of  Spain,  belonging  success- 
ively to  the  Vandals  (p.  322),  the  Eastern  Romans,  and  (after  620) 
the  Visigoths,  until  in  682  it  fell  into  the  hands  of  the  Arabs  under 
Sidi  Okba  (p.  322),  and  then  after  long  struggles  was  united  with 
the  caliphate  of  Damascus  (p.  485).  Although  the  Berber  tribes  of 
Morocco  were  thenceforth  among  the  most  zealous  champions  of 
Islam,  and  in  711,  at  the  instance  of  Miisa,  the  governor,  had 
undertaken  their  victorious  expedition  against  Spain  under  Tdrik 
(p.  54),  yet  they  afterwards  took  part  in  the  Kharijite  movement 
against  the  Arabs  (comp.  p.  323).  In  788  Idris  I.  (d.  793),  an  Arab 
refugee  and  a  descendant  of  the  Prophet  ('sherif),  founded  the 
oldest  Moroccan  dynasty,  that  of  the  Idrisides,  and  under  Idris  II. 
(793-828)  Fez  became  their  new  capital  in  807  instead  of  Volubilis 
in  the  Zerhun  Mts.  After  the  fall  of  the  Idrisides  the  country  was 
divided  among  Berber  princes,  and  its  independence  was  threat- 
ened by  Omaiyadcs  (p.  69)  and  Fati mites  (p.  323)  alternately.  At 
length  in  1055  it  succumbed  to  the  attacks  of  the  Almoravides 
(Morabitin,  comp.  p.  368),  a  Berber  sect  from  the  W.  Sahara,  who 
under  Abie  Bekr's  lead  converted  the  inhabitants  of  the  interior 
as  far  as  the  Sudan  to  Islam.  Under  YHsuf  ibn  Teshufin  they 
took  possession  of  Agadir  in  1081  (p.  188)  and  of  Ceuta  in  1084, 
and  in  1086  took  the  lead  in  the  struggle  against  the  unbelievers 
in  the  Iberian  peninsula.  Morocco  became  still  more  powerful 
under  the  Almohades,  a  Berber  sect  formed  in  1181  in  the  district 
now  called  Oran  (p.  169),  especially  under  the  gifted  caliph  Abd 
el-Mumen  (1130-63),  who,  after  the  battle  of  Tlemcen  (p.  188), 
extended  his  sway  over  the  Moorish  states  of  Spain,  and  in  1160 
as  far  as  Barca  (p.  414).  After  the  overthrow  of  the  Almohades  in 
1212  there  arose  in  Barbary  the  three  new  kingdoms  of  the 
Meinnides  at  Fez,  the  Abdelwadites  (p.  188)  at  Tlemcen,  and  the 


Haf sides  (p.  323)  in  Tunis,  whose  strength  was  exhausted  by 
sanguinary  internecine  struggles  which  lasted  for  centuries. 

The  attacks  of  the  Portuguese,  who  took  Ceuta  in  1415,  occu- 
pied Arzila  and  Tangier  in  1471,  and  after  1500  even  threatened 
Marakesh  from  their  base  on  the  ocean  seaboard,  coupled  with 
the  advance  of  the  Spaniards,  who  after  the  fall  of  Granada  (p.  75) 
had  conquered  Melilla,  called  forth  the  new  counter-movement  of 
the  Saadites  of  the  Draa.  To  this  new  dynasty,  after  the  conquest 
of  Marakesh  in  1520  and  of  Fez  in  1550,  the  feeble  dynasty  of 
the  Merinides  succumbed  in  1554.  Morocco  was  afterwards  torn 
by  sanguinary  family  feuds,  yet  owing  to  the  destruction  of  the 
Portuguese  army  iu  the  'battle  of  the  three  kings'  at  Alcazar  (Ksar 
el-Kebir),  and  the  influx  of  well-educated  Moors  expelled  from 
Spain,  the  kingdom  was  greatly  strengthened  and  obtained  a  new 
lease  of  life.  It  prospered  once  more,  after  1649,  under  the  sixth 
dynasty,  that  of  the  Filali,  a  family  from  the  Tafilet  (see  below), 
and  notably  under  the  cruel  Muldi  Ismail  (1672-1727),  one  of  the 
most  powerful  princes  of  his  age,  who  even  fought  against  the  Turks 
in  Oran  (comp.  p.  206)  and  led  a  campaign  against  Timbuktu. 

After  the  defeat  of  the  Portuguese  the  pirates  of  Larash  (p.  104) 
and  Salee  (p.  106),  vying  with  the  Rif  pirates  and  the  'Barbaresques' 
(p.  221),  had  seriously  hampered  European  trade  for  two  centuries 
or  more,  but  by  the  occupation  of  Algeria  by  the  French  and  the 
expedition  of  the  Spaniards  against  Tetuan  in  1859-60  the  sea- 
board of  Morocco  was  at  length  opened  up  to  European  influence 
and  to  commercial  enterprise.  In  1906  the  Algeciras  Conference 
<p.  56)  prevented  the  French  from  advancing  towards  Fez  and 
obtaining  a  passage  from  the  Oran  and  Sahara  railway  through 
the  Tafilet  or  Tafilelt,  the  richest  group  of  oases  in  S.  Morocco,  to 
the  ocean  seaboard.  In  1907,  however,  the  unrest  at  Casablanca 
(p.  107),  and  also  on  the  Algerian  frontier,  led  to  the  French  oc- 
cupation of  that  important  seaport  along  with  the  adjacent  Shauya, 
of  Ujda  (p.  197),  and  of  Berguent  and  Bu  Denib  in  S.E.  Morocco. 
After  the  deposition  of  Muldi  Abdul-Aziz  (1894-1907),  who  was 
favourable  to  the  French  influence,  Muldi  Hafid  was  proclaimed 
sultan  in  1908. 

The  Morocco  of  to-day,  whose  institutions,  manners,  and  customs 
are  still  quite  mediaeval,  consists  of  the  so-called  Blad  cl-Malchzen 
('government  land'),  the  dominion  of  the  sultan,  and  the  far  larger 
Blad  es-Siba  ('outer  land'),  occupied  by  independent  tribes.  These 
tribes  recognize  the  sultan,  or  the  grand  sherif  of  Wazzan,  a  de- 
scendant of  the  Idrisides,  as  their  spiritual  chief  only,  but  usually 
deny  the  sultan  a  right  of  way  through  their  territory  between  the 
capital  towns  of  Fez  and  Marakesh. 

The  foreign  trade  of  Morocco  is  confined  to  the  eight  'open' 
ports  of  Tangier,  Larash,  Rabat,  Casablanca,  Mazagan,  Saffl,  Moga- 


dor,  and  Tetuau,  to  the  capitals  of  Fez  and  Marakesh,  and  has 
lately  extended  to  Ujda  and  the  Spanish  Melilla  (p.  124).  In  1909 
its  total  volume  amounted  to  132,612,000  fr.  of  which  were  ascrib- 
ed to  Great  Britain  52,339,000  fr.,  to  France  51,255,000  fr.,  to 
Germany  13,582,000  fr.,  to  Spain  6,456,000  fr.,  and  to  the  United 
States  1,111,000  fr.  From  France  Morocco  imports  sugar,  flour, 
and  silk,  from  England  cotton  goods,  tea,  rice,  and  candles,  from 
Germany  iron  wares,  cloth,  and  sugar,  and  from  Italy  flour  and  wax- 
matches.  The  exports  (to  Marseilles,  Gibraltar,  Spain,  England, 
Hamburg,  etc.,  and  also  to  Algeria  and  America)  consist  of  goats'  aud 
sheep's  hides,  fruit  (almonds,  oranges,  etc.),  eggs,  cattle,  chick-pease, 
wheat,  barley,  and  maize.  The  Morocco-leather  slippers  (belra, 
yellow  for  men  and  red  for  women)  go  to  Egypt,  Algeria,  and  Sene- 
gal. Besides  the  breeding  of  cattle,  that  of  horses  and  mules  also 
is  important.    Sardines  and  other  fish  abound  off  the  ocean  coasts. 

Most  travellers  are  satisfied  with  a  visit  to  Tangier,  an  excursion  to 
Tetmin,  and  the  interesting  coasting  voyage  (hest  in  April-Sept.)  to  Rabat 
or  Mogador.  Europeaus  rarely  travel  in  the  interior,  except  perhaps  in 
Blad  el-Makhzen,  while  in  N.  Morocco  they  should  ayoid  the  rainy  winter 
season.  As  roads,  bridges,  and  inns  are  lacking,  a  costly  equipment  for 
such  expeditions  is  required,  including  tents,  camp-beds,  cooking  utensils, 
provisions,  drinking-water,  candles,  medicines,  insect-powder,  etc.  A  guide 
or  mule-driver,  a  cook,  an  interpreter,  and  a  soldier  as  an  escort  (me- 
khazni)  also  are  usually  engaged.  Lastly  a  mule  (incl.  attendant  aud  fod- 
der, 4-5  pesetas  per  day)  is  preferable  to  a  horse  (5  p.  or  upwards),  being 
more  sure-footed  and  enduring.  Before  starting,  the  traveller  should  apply 
for  information  and  assistance  to  a  consul  or  other  experienced  resident, 
and  obtain  from  them  introductions  to  the  local  authorities  (caid,  pasha, 
or  amel)  or  to  so-called  proteges  (semsar,  mokhillat).  Persons  of  distinc- 
tion have  a  right  to  a  formal  reception  by  the  authorities  and  to  the  m&na 
(free  provisions,  like  the  ancient  'purveyance'),  for  which,  as  also  for 
hospitality,  a  return  is  made  either  in  kind  (as  firearms,  telescopes, 
watches,  trinkets)  or  in  money.  In  the  country  it  is  advisable  to  put  up 
at  the  village  caravanserais  (uzalas),  where  a  night-watchman  is  provided 
(fee)  and  where  offerings  by  the  peasants  (milk,  oranges,  etc. ;  small  fee) 
should  not  be  declined.  At  towns  early  arrival  is  essential,  as  all  the 
gates  are  closed  at  sunset.  As  to  dealings  with  Mohammedans,  comp. 
p.  xxv.  Travellers  are  specially  warned  against  photographing  or  even 
entering  their  mosques,  saints'  tombs,  or  burial-grounds. 

In  the  seaport-towns  Spanish  silver  (p.  52)  and  English  or  French 
gold  are  current,  but  in  the  interior  Spanish  and  Morocco  money  only 
(silver  coins  of  5,  2l/2,  IV4,  iji,  and  '/4  p.).  In  the  interior  letters  of  credit 
addressed  to  Jewish  or  other  firms  are  convenient. 

Books.  R.  L.  Flayfair  and  R.  Brown,  Bibliography  of  Morocco  (Lon- 
don, 1892);  Budgett  Meakin,  The  Moorish  Empire  (London,  1899),  The 
Land  of  the  Moors  (London,  1901),  The  Moors  (London,  1902),  and  Life  in 
Morocco  and  Glimpses  Beyond  (London,  1905);  J.  Thomson,  Travels  in  the 
Atlas  and  Southern  Morocco  (London,  1889);  W.  B.  Harris,  Tafilet  (Loudon, 
1895);  A.  S.  Forrest  and  S.  L.  Bensusan,  Morocco  (London,  1901,  illus.); 

D.  Mackenzie,  The  Khalifate  of  the  West  (London,  1910;  illus.;  10s.  6d.); 

E.  Ashmead-Bartlett,  The  Passing  of  the  Shereefian  Empire  (Edinburgh, 
1910;  illus.;  15s.);  H.  J.  B.  Ward,  Mysterious  Morocco  and  how  to  appre- 
ciate it  (London,  1910;  2 s.  6rf.);  A.  Brives,  Voyages  au  Maroc,  1901-7 
(Algiers,  1909;  illus.)  and  Aperiju  geologique  et  agricole  sur  le  Maroc 
occidental;  C'h.  de  Foucauld,  Reconnaissance  au  Maroc,  1883-4  (Paris,  1888); 
Marq.  de  Segonzac,  Voyages  au  Maroc  (Pirns.  1903;  87  fr.);  Etiff.  Anbin, 

Baewekek's  Mediterranean.  7 

98     Route  is.  TANGIER.  Practical  Notes. 

Le  Maroc   d'Aujourd'hui   (Paris,  1904;  5  fr.;  also  Engl,  trans.,   'Morocco 
of  To-day',  London,  1906);  H.  Lor  in,  L'Afrique  du  Nord  (Paris,  1908). 

The  best  Map  of  Morocco  (1:500,000)   is  that  published  by   the  Ser- 
vice Geographique  de  l'Armde  (Paris;  1  fr.  each  sheet). 

12.  Tangier. 

Arrival.  The  steamers  (see  below)  anchor  in  the  open  roads,  and 
passengers  are  conveyed  to  the  pier  in  small  boats.  The  German  compa- 
nies furnish  landing-tickets  (Is.  for  landing  or  embarking),  otherwise  the 
tariff  is  1  peseta  (from  the  larger  steamers  l'/<  p.)  each  person;  trunk  ^j.2, 
hand-luggage  '/4  p.  When  the  sea  is  rough  a  blue  flag  is  hoisted  on  the 
pier  and  fares  are  doubled;  in  stormy  weather  (yellow  flag)  a  bargain 
must  be  made,  provided  landing  be  at  all  possible.  It  is  advisable  to  stipu- 
late for  the  landing  of  luggage  and  its  transport  to  the  hotel  for  an  in- 
clusive sum  (^/.j-l  p.)  and  to  disregard  the  noisy  importunities  of  the  boat- 
men and  porters.  If  need  be,  the  help  of  the  hotel-agents  may  be  invoked. 
The  traveller  should  be  on  his  guard  against  pilfering  also.  Guides,  who 
represent  themselves  as  agents  for  the  hotels,  also  proffer  their  services, 
even  during  the  crossing  from  Gibraltar,  but  their  attendance  generally 
makes  everything  dearer.  Besides  the  fares  mentioned,  pier-dues  are 
levied  (25  c;  for  each  package  5  c).  —  The  custom-house  examination  at 
the  town-gate  is  lenient.     A  passport  is  unnecessary. 

Hotels.  Hot.  Continental  (PL  a;  D,  1),  in  a  quiet  site,  not  far  from 
the  pier,  with  a  fine  sea-view,  patronized  by  Americans,  pens,  from  10s.; 
*Hot.  Cecil  (PL  b;  E,  4,  5),  on  the  Playa  Grande,  with  a  terrace  and  sea- 
view,  pens.  10-12s. ;  *Hot.  Villa  Valentina  (PL  c;  C,  5),  on  the  Fez  road, 
pens.  8- 10s.,  8  min.  from  the  Outer  Market;  Hot.  Villa  de  France 
(PL  d;  B,  4),  on  a  height  behind  the  Outer  Market,  with  fine  view,  12  min. 
from  the  quay,  an  old-established  French  house,  pens,  from  10s.  —  HdT. 
Bristol  (PL  e;  D,  2),  in  the  Inner  Market  (p.  100),  pens.  8-10s.,  good; 
Hot.  Cavilla,  pens.  8-10  p.,  well  spoken  of,  and  Hot.  Maclean,  pens. 
6-8  p.,  both  in  the  Outer  Market;  HdT.  Oriental  (PL  f ;  D,  2),  pens,  from 
8Vatr.,  near  the  Great  Mosque.  —  Wine  is  usually  an  extra. 

Cafes.  Cafe- Restaurant  Central,  Inner  Market,  dcj.  2>/2>  D.  3p. ;  Lion 
d'  Or  and  Cafidu  Commerce  near  the  French  post-office.  The  Arab  Cafes, 
mostly  conducted  by  the  guides,  are  a  kind  of  Moorish  cafes-chantants  (cup 
of  'Arab  coffee'  in  the  evening  1  p.). 

Post  Offices.  British,  German,  and  Spanish  (PL  3,  1,  2 ;  D,  2),  all 
in  the  Inner  Market;  French  (PL  4;  D,  2,  3),  behind  the  Great  Mosque. 
Postage  on  letters  to  Great  Britain,  France,  Germany,  or  Spain  10  c,  if 
posted  at  the  respective  office,  otherwise  25  c;  post-cards  10  c — British 
Telegraph  (PL  6;  B,  2),  on  the  old  road  from  the  outer  market  to  the 
Marshan  ;  French,  to  Oran,  at  the  French  post-office;  Spanish  (PL  5;  D,  3), 
not  far  from  the  inner  market. 

Steamers.  Royal  Mail  Steam  Packet  Co.  (E.  Chappory),  from  London 
fortnightly  for  Tangier,  Mogador,  the  Canaries,  and  Madeira  (RR.  14,  4, 
3);  Bland  Line  (M.  Pariente),  for  Gibraltar  (R.  6  b),  Tetuan  (R.  13),  and 
Larash  (R.  14);  N.  Paqvet  &  Co.,  for  Marseilles,  and  for  Rabat  and  Moga- 
dor (R.  14);  Trasatldntica  (Ortenbach),  Canary  Line  to  Casablanca,  Maza- 
gan,  etc.  (R.  14);  Vapores  Correos  de  Africa  (Romany  y  Miquel),  for  Ca- 
diz and  Algeciras  (R.  6  b),  Ceuta  (R.  13),  Larash,  Rabat,  etc  (R.  14);  Na- 
vigation Mixte  (C.  Touache;  R.  Buzenet),  for  Melilla,  Malaga,  and  Oran 
(R.  18);  Oldenburg-Portuguese  (Renschliausen  &  Co.),  for  Mogador,  etc. 
(R.  14);  Rotterdam  Lloyd  (Lalaurie  &  de  Testa),  from  Southampton  fort- 
nigntly  for  Lisbon,  Tangier,  Marseilles,  etc.;  Nederland  Royal  Mail,  from 
Southampton  fortnightly  for  Tangier,  Algiers,  etc ;  German  East  African 
Line  (Jahn  &  Toledano),  from  Southampton  every  three  weeks  for  Tangier, 



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Cluiracteristice.  TANGIER.  12.  Route.     99 

Marseilles,  etc.;  also  excursion-steamers  of  the  Peninsular  &  Oriental  Co., 
etc.  (see  p.  2). 

Physicians.  Dr.  Wilson  (English);  Dr.  Herzen,  Casa  Dahl;  Dr 
Steiner,  Hot.  Villa  de  France.  —  Chemists.  British  Pharmacy;  Bouich  & 
Ibbanez;  Bouchard,  Cireze,  both  in  the  main  street. — British  Hospital 
on  the  Marshan  (couip.  Map). 

Banks.  M.  Pariente  (English);  Banque  oVEtat  du  Maroc  (PI.  12; 
D,  2),  Inner  Market;  Comp.  Algerienne,  main  street;  German  Orient 
Bank  (PI.  11;  D,  2),  near  the  Great  Mosque;  John  &  Toledano;  Rensch- 
hausen  &  Co.,  on  the  shore. 

Shops.  For  Oriental  goods  (comp.  p.  331):  Jos.  Saadeh,  opposite  the 
Spanish  church  (p.  100);  Bensaken;  Mimon  Delmar  ('Moorish  Bazaar'). — 
Photographs  sold  by  Ruedi  (a  Swiss);  Cavilla,  next  door  to  the  British 

Newspapers.  El  Moghreb  el-Akhza,  English ;  La  DipecheMarocaine, 
El  Porvenir,  El  Eco  Mauritano,  etc. 

Horses,  mules,  and  donkeys  ('borricos')  at  Benmergui's,  coast-road, 
and  Pedro's,  Outer  Market,  near  the  German  Embassy.  Donkey,  with 
attendant,  per  ride  '/.j-l  p.,  per  day  lVa"2Va  P- i  mule,  '/a  day  2-3,  day 
3-5  p. ;  horse  a  little  mure  (comp.  p.  97). 

Sea  Baths.  Delicias  de  la  Playa  and  Paraiso  de  la  Playa  on  the 
Playa  Grande  (PI.  E,  3,  4),  with  fine  beach,  from  May  to  Oct.;  bath  25, 
with  towels,  etc.  50  c. 

Legations  and  Consulates.  Great  Britain.  Minister,  Bon.  Reg- 
inald Lister  (office,  PI.  A,  B,  4).  Consul-General,  II.  E.  White  (office,  PI. 
D,  2);  vice-consul,  E.  Bristow.  —  United  States.  Minister,  W.  Carpenter 
(office,  PI.  D,  3).  Acting  Consul-General,  O.  E.  Holt.  —  Lloyd's  Agent, 
Eugene  Chappon/,  in  the  main  street. 

English  Church  Service,  in  the  church  in  the  Outer  Market  (PI. 
B,  3),  every  Sun.  (from  Dec.  till  eud  of  April)  at  8  and  11  a.m.,  and  at 
3  p.m. — Spanish  Catholic,  at  the  church  in  the  main  street  (p.  100). 

Races  in  spring  and  summer  on  the  beach.  —  Arabian  '■Fantasias' 
(Laab  el-Barood)  on  horseback  on  the  Mohammedan  festivals,  in  the 
Inner  Market  or  the  Marshan. 

Two  Days  (if  time  be  limited).  1st.  In  the  forenoon,  the  Main  Street 
and  the  Inner  Market  (p.  100),  Outer  Market  (p.  100),  Marshan  (p.  101), 
and  Kasba  (p.  101);  in  the  afternoon,  walk  on  the  beach.  —  2nd.  Excursion 
to  Cape  Spartel  (p.  101). 

Tangier,  Spanish  or  French  Tanyer,  Arabic  Tanja,  capital 
of  the  Moroccan  province  of  El-Fahs  or  Fahass,  the  largest  com- 
mercial town  in  the  whole  country,  and  the  seat  of  legations  from 
the  great  powers,  lies  picturesquely  on  the  hilly  W.  bank  of  a 
shallow  bay  of  the  Atlantic.  Of  the  46,270  inhab.  25,000  are 
Mohammedans,  12,000  Moroccan  Jews,  and  9270  foreigners  (incl. 
7000  Spaniards).  The  rough  and  extremely  dirty  streets  of  the 
old  town,  above  whose  white  sea  of  houses  peeps  here  and  there 
the  minaret  of  a  mosque,  afford  a  genuine  picture  of  Oriental  life. 
Amid  the  noisy  crowds  are  seen  the  most  widely  divergent  types, 
from  the  pale  yellow  Moorish  aristocrat  to  the  dark-brown  Moroc- 
cans of  the  south  and  the  black  negroes  of  the  Sudan.  Their  cos- 
tumes also  are  very  various.  The  Mohammedans  wear  white  or 
coloured  burnous,  brown  jellabas,  yellow  slippers  (p.  97),  and  a 
coloured  turban  or  red  fez  (tarbush).  The  Jews  wear  either  Euro- 
pean garb  or  the  regulation  black  kaftan  and  fez.  Most  of  the 
streets  are  impracticable  for  vehicles.    The  commonest  beast  of 


100     Route  12.  TANGIER.  Outer  Market. 

burden  is  the  donkey;  the  frequent  shout  of  'balek'  (take  care) 
warns  foot-passengers  to  make  room.  The  busiest  places  are  the 
quay,  whence  cattle  from  the  interior  are  shipped  for  Gibraltar 
and  Ceuta,  and  in  the  morning  the  three  markets. 

Although  already  a  Phoenician  settlement,  Tingis  (p.  101)  first  appears 
in  history  in  the  Roman  period,  when  it  vied  with  Oppidum  Novum 
(Ksar  el-Kebir)  and  Volubilis  as  one  of  the  chief  places  in  this  region. 
Augustus  conferred  on  its  inhabitants  the  right  of  citizenship,  and  Claudius 
made  the  town  a  Roman  colony.  It  is  unknown  when  Tangier  was  founded, 
but  in  the  middle  ages  it  fell  behind  the  thriving  seaports  of  Ceuta,  Ksar 
es-Serir  (p.  123),  and  Arzila.  According  to  Moorish  tradition  it  was  founded 
by  Mnlai  Abd  es-Slam  Buarakia,  the  patron  saint  of  the  town.  In  1471 
it  fell  into  the  hands  of  the  Portuguese,  and  it  belonged  to  Spain  from 
1580  to  1640.  In  1662  it  formed  part  of  the  dowry  of  Catharine  of  Bra- 
ganza,  consort  of  prince  Charles  (afterwards  Charles  II.  of  England),  and 
thus  came  into  the  possession  of  the  English.  In  1664,  however,  the 
English  were  signally  defeated  by  the  Moors  on  the  'Jews'  River'  (pp.  101, 
102),  and  in  1684  evacuated  the  town,  after  demolishing  the  fortifications 
and  the  pier.  Since  then  the  town  has  belonged  to  Morocco.  The  present 
fortifications,  constructed  by  English  engineers,  are  mounted  with  anti- 
quated guns,  and  the  town-walls  date  partly  from  the  Portuguese  period. 

From  the  Muelle  Nuevo  (PI.  E,  1 ;  new  pier,  1907 ;  adm.  25  c), 
we  walk  past  the  new  harbour  for  lighters  and  the  granary  (Al- 
macen),  and  then  to  the  S.W.  through  the  harbour-gate  (Bdb 
el-Marsd)  into  the  Main  Street  (PI.  D,  C,  2,  3),  which  ascends 
the  hill-side  in  a  curve  to  the  Outer  Market.  Passing  the  Great 
Mosque  or  Jdma  el-Kehir  (PI.  D,  2),  with  its  pretty  gateway  and 
lofty  minaret  inlaid  with  tiles,  we  reach  the  Inner  Market 
(Sole  ed-Ddyel;  PI.  D,  2;  Arabic  Suk  ed-Dalchl),  the  centre  of 
traffic,  with  the  European  post-offices  (p.  98).  Higher  up,  where 
the  street  takes  the  name  of  Siiaguin,  are  situated  on  the  left  the 
Spanish  Catholic  Church  (Iglesia  Espaiiol;  PI.  C,  3)  and  the  Mo- 
rocco Ministry  of  Foreign  Affairs. 

At  the  end  of  the  street  is  the  uprjer  gate  of  the  inner  town 
(Bdb  ed-Dalchl),  leading  into  Los  Herr adores  (Farriers'  Square ; 
PL  8,  C  3),  to  the  left  of  which,  and  also  connected  with  the  Outer 
Market  by  a  gateway,  lies  the  Meat  and  Vegetable  Market  (Plaza 
de  Abastos;  PI.  C,  3).  From  the  Farriers'  Square  a  second  gate  on 
the  right  leads  to  the  Mercado  (PI.  C,  2,  3),  an  intermediate  market- 
place, with  rows  of  booths  and  a  caravanserai  (Fandak).  Passing 
through  the  N.  gate  (Bab  el-Marshan;  PI.  C,  3)  and  skirting  the 
town-walls  and  the  Christian  Cemetery  (PI.  B,  2),  we  reach,  on  the 
.left,  the  Paseo  de  Cenarro  (PL  B,  A,  2),  the  new  Marshan  road,  and 
(straight  on)  the  Kasba  and  the  old  Marshan  route  (see  p.  101). 

The  Fez  Gate  (Bdb  el-Fahs;  PLC,  3)  leads  into  the  Outer 
Market  (Suk  el-Barra;  PL  B,  C,  3),  which  deserves  a  visit  on 
market-days  (Thursdays  and  particularly  Sundays).  In  this  great 
and  very  uneven  plot  of  ground,  adorned  with  the  shrine  of  Sidi 
Makhfi  (Meyfi),  the  patron-saint  of  the  market,  we  witness  a  strange 
and  indescribable  scene.  Between  the  rows  of  salesmen  and  sales- 

Excursions.  TANGIER.  '2-  Route.     101 

women,  the  latter  veiled  and  clad  in  white,  moves  a  motley  throng 
of  bargaining  and  jostling  customers,  while  smaller  groups  gather 
round  the  jugglers,  story-tellers,  and  snake-charmers  (members  of 
the  sect  of  the  Al'ssaouas;  p.  373). 

On  the  N.  side  of  the  Outer  Market  the  Monte  Road  (Cainiuo 
del  Monte;  PI.  B,  A,  3;  p.  101)  leads  to  the  W.,  past  two  Moham- 
medan Cemeteries  (Cementerio  de  los  Moros;  PI.  B,  A,  2-4)  and 
the  Portuguese  Legation  (PI.  A,  3),  to  the  (y4  hi\)  Villa  Sicsu 
(comp.  Map),  with  its  pretty  garden  (gate-keeper  l/2-l  p.). 

From  the  gate  of  this  villa  a  by-road  ascends  in  a  curve  to 
the  right  to  the  Marshall  (El  Marxan;  341  ft.),  a  plateau  to  the 
X.W.  of  the  town.  At  the  W.  end  of  it,  above  the  Bubana  Valley 
(see  below),  lie  an  estate  of  the  Sherif  of  Wazzdn  (Xerif  de  TJazan) 
and  a  Mohammedan  Cemetery.  Farther  to  the  E.,  beyond  the 
Austrian  legation,  we  come  to  a  number  of  square  Phoenician 
Rock  Tombs,  now  partly  used  as  cisterns,  situated  on  the  steep 
margin  of  the  coast,  which  is  undermined  by  the  sea. 

The  walled  Kasba  (PI.  B,  C,  1),  on  the  E.  slope  of  the  Mar- 
shall, is  the  highest  and  the  most  curious  quarter  of  the  town.  En- 
tering it  by  the  upper  gate  (Bdb  ed-Doidah  or  Bab  el-Marshan; 
Pl.B,  1).  we  first  come  to  the  barracks  and  the  Naham  Battery 
(PI.  B,  1),  where  we  have  a  splendid  view  of  the  Straits  of  Gibraltar. 
Opposite  us  is  the  Ravda,  or  burial-chapel  of  the  patron  saint  of 
the  town  (p.  100).  A  little  below  is  seen  the  Sultan's  Palace  (PI. 
B,  C,  1),  a  good  example  of  late-Moorish  architecture,  with  a  fine 
colonnaded  court,  a  mosque,  and  a  garden.  The  square  at  the  lower 
end  of  the  Kasba  is  bordered  by  the  Tesoro  (PI.  10;  treasury), 
the  Mexuar  (PI.  9 ;  law-courts) ,  at  the  entrance  to  which  the  cadi 
administers  justice  from  8  to  11  in  the  morning,  and  the  State 
Prison  (Carccl;  visitors  admitted),  where  male  prisoners  are  em- 
ployed in  basket-making  and  othrr  work.  Near  this  is  a  smaller 
prison  for  women. 

From  the  Bdb  el-Assa,  the  lower  Kasba  gate  (PI.  C,  1),  a  steep 
foot-path,  which  soon  offers  a  striking  *View  of  the  white  houses 
of  Tangier  and  of  the  beach,  descends  to  the  town. 

Excursions.  We  may  walk  or  ride  to  the  S.E.,  past  the  Sea  Baths 
(p.  99),  along  the  beach,  which  forms  an  excellent  riding-course  at  low 
tide,  to  the  (3/4-l  hr.)  Roman  Bridge  across  the  brook  Galeres  (Wad  el- 
Mogoga),  and  thence  a  little  inland  over  the  sand-hills  (100  ft.)  to  the 
Ruins  of  Tingis  (Arabic  Tavja  el- Bali  a),  where  the  Roman  seaward 
gateway  is  still  well  preserved.  The  road  then  makes  a  long  bend  to 
the  N.  to  the  Torre  Blanqvilla  (213  ft.),  an  old  Moorish  battery  on  Cape 
Malabata  (p.  6),  W/r&lt  hrs.  from  Tangier.  —  Another  pleasant  ride  may 
be  taken  from  the  shore  to  the  S.W.,  inland,  through  orange-groves  to 
(l1/.,  hr.)  the  village  of  Es-Svani,  where  we  strike  the  Fez  Road  (p.  102), 
by  which  we  may  return  to  the  Outer  Market. 

The  *  Excursion  to  Cape  Spartel ,  7'/s  M.  to  the  W.  of  Tangier, 
takes  nearly  a  day  (horses,  etc.,  see  p.  99;  bargain  advisable;  provisions 
should  be  taken).  From  the  Villa  Sicsu  (see  above)  we  descend  the  Monte 
road  to  the  Bubana   Valley,  watered   by  the  little  Wad  el-Ihiid  ('Jews* 

102     Route  12.  CAPE  SPAETEI. 

River'),  s/4  hr.  to  the  W.  of  Tangier.  From  the  bridge  we  may  go  straight 
on,  ana  mount  direct  to  the  top  of  the  Jebel  Kebir  (1070  ft.),  which  is 
overgrown  with  low  underwood ,  or  (more  attractive)  we  may  follow  the 
Monte  road  to  Monte  Washington,  a  colony  of  charming  villas  immed- 
iately overlooking  the  sea,  and  then,  8/4  hr.  farther  on,  rejoin  the  direct 
route.  On  both  routes  we  enjoy  a  splendid  view  of  the  sea  and  the  Spanish 
coast  with  Cape  Trafalgar  (p.  58).  The  main  road  at  length  descends  to 
the  W.  margin  of  Cape  Spartel  (Arabic  Rds  Ishberdil),  the  ancient  Pro- 
montoriiim  Ampelusia,  the  north-westmost  point  of  Africa.  The  light- 
house (312  ft.),  built  and  maintained  by  the  European  great  powers,  at 
present  the  only  one  on  the  coast  of  Morocco  (others  are  projected  at 
Melilla,  Casablanca,  Mazagan,  Saffi,  and  Mogador),  is  visible  at  sea  from 
a  distance  of  about  30  M.  Near  it  are  a  signal-station  and  a  meteorological 
station  belonging  to  the  nautical  observatory  of  Hamburg. 

From  the  cape  we  may  ride  along  the  coast  to  the  (2'/2  M.)  Hercules 
Grotto,  where  excellent  grindstones  and  millstones  have  been  quarried 
from  time  immemorial,  or,  in  returning  to  Tangier,  we  may  diverge  from 
the  Bubana  Valley  to  visit  the  Olive  Groves,  between  the  Jews'  River 
and  the  Fez  road  (see  below). 

13.  From  Tangier  to  Tetuan  (Ceuta). 

The  journey  to  Tetn&n,  about  37  M.,  may  be  performed  (on  horseback 
or  by  mule)  in  one  day,  but  travellers  wishing  to  break  their  journey 
may  spend  a  night  at  a  fondak  (see  below)  where,  considering  the  rough 
accommodation,  it  is  best  to  camp  outside  (tents  and  camping-utensils 
should  be  taken  from  Tangier).  An  escort  is  advisable.  Or  we  may  go 
to  Tetuan  by  a  steamer  of  the  Bland  Line  (usually  on  Sat.  even.,  in  8  hrs. ; 
$  4),  and  return  thence  to  Tangier  or  Gibraltar  by  the  Navigation  Mixte 
(p.  123;  every  second  Tues.;  agent  at  Tetuan,  Salvador  Hassan).  From 
Tangier  to  Ceuta  direct  there  is  a  weekly  steamer  (on  Thurs.)  of  the 
Vapores  C'orreos  de  Africa.  For  the  excursion  to  Ceuta  a  passport  vise" 
by  the  Spanish  consul  at  Tangier  or  Tetuan  is  required.  A  local  boat 
crosses  daily  from  Ceuta  to  Algeciras  (p.  56)  in  2  hrs. 

From  the  Outer  Market  we  follow  the  Fez  road  (PI.  0, 3-5 ;  Camino 
de  Fez)  to  theS.,  passing  at  some  distance  from  the  stone  huts  of  the 
Berber  villages  (Dadr)  in  the  fertile  hill-country  of  the  province 
of  El-Fahs.  Nearing  the  village  of  Ain-Dalia,  we  pass  below  it, 
ride  to  the  S.E.  in  view  of  the  steep  peak  of  Jebel  Zinat,  crowned 
with  the  ruined  house  of  Raisuli,  and  ascend  in  the  fertile  valley 
of  the  Wdd  Marhar  (Tahaddart).  Here,  on  the  right,  beyond 
the  hills  inhabited  by  the  Berber  tribe  of  the  Beni  Msaur,  we  can 
sometimes  descry  in  clear  weather  the  distant  Jebel  Mula/i  Abd 
es-Slam  (5742  ft.),  the  most  sacred  mountain  in  N.  Morocco. 

The  track  then  ascends  through  remains  of  cork-tree  forest  in 
the  beautiful  hill-region  of  the  Wdd  Rds.  At  the  top  of  the  pass 
(1476  ft.),  the  watershed  between  the  Atlantic  and  the  Mediter- 
ranean, stands  the  fondak  of  A'in  el-Jedida,  the  largest  caravan- 
serai in  N.  Morocco  (comp.  above).  The  roof-terrace  commands  a 
fine  view  of  the  hills  around. 

The  track,  which  soon  affords  a  beautiful  *View  of  Tetuan, 
now  descends  the  stony  slope  to  the  E.  into  the  valley  of  the  River 
Martin,  a  stream  rising  on  the  Jebel  MulaY  Abd  es-Slam. 

TETUAN.  *«■  Route.     103 

Tetudn  (197  ft.;  Hot.  Dersa,  pens.  10  p.;  Ilot.  Calpe,  R.  3, 
pens.  10  p.,  plain  but  good;  Hot.  Victoria,  pens.  6-8  p.;  Brit,  vice- 
cons.,  W.S.  Bewicke),  Arabic.  Titawdn,  Berber  Tettawen,  an  inter- 
esting town,  containing  among  its  30,450  inhab.  6000  Jews,  400 
Spaniards,  and  about  500  immigrants  from  Algeria,  lies  7  M.  from 
the  Mediterranean  and  above  the  left  bank  of  the  River  Martin,  not 
far  from  the  ancient  Roman  Thamuda.  The  garden-like  environs 
are  fertile  and  well  watered.  With  its  numerous  minarets,  its 
domed  tombs  of  saints,  its  town-walls  garnished  with  many  towers, 
and  its  loftily  placed  citadel  (Kasba)  overshadowed  on  the  N.  by 
the  red  sandstone  rocks  of  the  Jebel  Dersa,  it  presents  a  most 
charming  picture  of  an  Oriental  town  entirely  free  from  European 
disfigurement.  The  narrow,  winding  streets  recall  the  ancient  part 
of  Cordova,  and  the  colonnaded  courts  of  the  externally  plain 
Moorish  houses  resemble  the  patios  of  Seville  (p.  61).  In  the  more 
regularly  built  Mellah  (Jewish  quarter)  one  is  often  struck  with 
the  beauty  of  the  Jewish  girls  and  the  women's  gold-embroidered 
festive  attire.  Some  parts  of  the  town  still  show  traces  of  the 
Spanish  siege  of  1S59-60,  which  gained  for  the  victorious  Marshal 
O'Donnell  the  title  of  'Duke  of  Tetuan'. 

The  graves  in  the  Jewish  Cemetery  are  sometimes  not  unlike 
the  anthropoid  sarcophagi  of  the  Phoenicians  (comp.  p.  347). 

The  old  Portuguese  Watch  Toioer  at  Kilallin  affords  a  superb 

The  mouth  of  the  River  Martin,  which  is  much  choked  with  sand, 
forms  the  harbour  of  Tetuan,  but  sea-going  vessels  have  to  anchor 
in  the  open  roads.    The  trade  of  the  place  is  unimportant. 

A  coast-road  was  constructed  by  the  Spaniards  during  the  Morocco 
campaign,  connecting  Tetuan  with  Ceuta  (23  M.),  but  'now  only  a  track 
remains.  It  leads  at  first  through  the  coast-plain  at  the  E.  base  of  Jebel 
Dersa  (see  above),  and  then,  beyond  the  Cabo  Negro  or  Cape  Negron 
(886  ft.;  Arabic  Mas  ct-Tarf),  skirts  the  fertile  spurs  of  the  Avjera  Mts. 
Beyond  the  Moroccan  frontier  guard-house,  we  enter  Spanish  territory, 
protected  by  a  chain  of  block-houses,  and  skirt  the  E.  slope  of  the  Jurassic 
Sierra  BMones  or  Apes'  Hill  (2809  ft.;  Arabic  Jebel  Mi'tsa,  i.e.  Hill  of 
Moses),  where  apes  abound.  This  is  the  highest  peak  of  the  Anjera  Mts. 
and  was  famed  in  antiquity  as  one  of  the  pillars  of  Hercules  (p.  54). 

Ceuta  (several  small  Spanish  inns;  no  photographing  allowed),  Arabic 
Sebta,  a  town  of  10,000  inhab.  (of  whom  3000  are  soldiers),  the  only  im- 
portant Spanish  possession  in  Morocco  besides  Melilla  (p.  124),  lies  on  a 
narrow,  flat  tongue  of  land  between  a  spur  of  the  Sierra  Bullones,  crowned 
with  the  white  tomb  of  a  saint,  and  the  strongly  fortified  peninsula  of 
Almiiia,  which  culminates  in  the  Monte  del  Acho  (637  ft.).  Originally 
Phoenician,  it  became  a  Roman  colony,  under  the  name  of  Ad  Septem 
Fratres  (later  Septon  or  Scpita  Emporia),  and  in  the  middle  ages  was  the 
most  important  and  prosperous  seaport  of  N.  Morocco.  In  1169  it  was 
the  seat,  of  a  Genoese  trading  station,  and  in  1115  it  fell  into  the  hands 
of  the  Portuguese,  from  whose  time  date  the  ruins  of  Ceuta  la  Vieja  (old 
Ceuta).  SiDce  1580,  in  spite  of  repeated  attacks  by  the  Moroccans  (1694- 
1720,  1732),  it  has  remained  in  the  uninterrupted  possession  of  Spain, 
and  it  now  presents  a  sadly  decayed  appearance.  The  tunny  and  sardine 
fisheries  here  are  very  thriving. 


14.  Prom  Tangier  to  Mogador  by  Sea. 

411  M.  Steamboats.  1.  Eoyal  Mail  Steam  Packet  Co.  (see  RR.  5, 
4,  3;  often  full  all  the  way  from  London!,  every  other  Friday,  vifl 
Casablanca,  Mazagan,  and  Saffi  to  Mogador  in  5  days  (agents  at  Tangier, 
Eug.  Chappory;  at  Casablanca  and  Saffi,  Murdoch,  Butler,  &Co.;  at  Ma- 
zagan, J.  dc  Maria;  and  at  Mogador,  R.  Yuly  &  Co.).  —  2.  Oldenburg- 
Portuguese  Line  fortnightly  to  Mogador,  calling  at  intermediate  ports 
(agents  at  Tangier  and  Larash,  Renschhausen  &Co.;  at  Rabat,  Weickert 
&  Enke;  at  Casablanca  and  Saffi,  Lamb  Bros.;  at  Mazagan,  Ch.  Balestrino; 
at  Mogador,  Borgeaud,  Reutemann,  &  Co.).  —  3.  JV.  Paquet  &  Co.  (p.  120), 
Monday  evenings  (returning  on  Frid.),  to  Rabat,  intermediate  ports,  and 
Mogador  in  4  days.  —  4.  Vapores  Correos  de  Africa  twice  monthly  to 
Mogador  via  Larash,  Rabat,  Casablanca,  Mazagan,  and  Saffi  in  5>/2  days. 
There  are  also  the'small  cargo-boats  of  the  Genoese  Servizio  Itcdo-Spagnuolo, 
of  Rius  <£■  Torres  of  Barcelona,  and  others.  The  small  boats  of  the  Bland 
Line  ply  between  Tangier  and  Larash  once  or  twice  weekly.  The  Canary 
Line  of  the  Compaflia  Trasatldntica  touches  once  monthly  at  Tangier  (if 
required  also  at  Casablanca  and  Mazagan).- — Landing  and  embarkation  in 
lighters  at  most  of  the  intermediate  ports  is  often  impracticable  for  weeks 
together,  especially  in  winter.  Harbours  are  in  course  of  construction  at 
Larash  and  Casablanca,  and  one  at  Saffi  is  projected.  — Tangier,  Rabat, 
Casablanca,  and  Mogador  have  wireless  telegraph  stations. 

Along  the  Ocean  Seaboard  of  Morocco  (about  835  M.  to 
Cape  Juby)  navigation  is  often  impeded  by  gales,  sandbanks,  and 
fogs.  The  seaports  lie  mostly  at  the  mouths  of  rivers  or  in  small 
and  shallow  open  bays. 

The  Steamers  round  the  sandstone  rocks  of  Cape  S])artel 
(p.  102)  and  steer  to  the  S.W.,  at  some  distance  from  the  land,  above 
which  in  clear  weather  are  seen  the  RifMts.,  with  the  Jebel  Habib 
(2990  ft.)  and  the  Jebel  Mulai  Abd  es-Slam  (p.  102). 

In  the  coast-plain  of  El-Gharbia  we  next  observe,  on  a  terrace 
abraded  by  the  sea,  the  decayed  little  seaport-town  of  Arzila,  the 
Phoenician  Zilis,  Rom.  Culonia  Zllis  Constantia,  with  a  ruinous 
town-wall  of  the  Portuguese  period. 

Beyond  the  Haffet  el-Beida,  a  spur  of  the  hill-region  of  Saliel, 
once  famed  for  its  cork-tree  groves  and  its  fertility,  we  near  the 
broad  mouth  of  the  Lulckus  or  El-Kus,  the  Lix  of  antiquity,  and 
obtain  a  splendid  view  of  the  white  sandstone  walls  and  the  castel- 
lated Kasba  of  Larash. 

Larash,  also  called  Larache  or  Laraiche,  Arabic  El-Ara'ish 
(Hot.  Lukkus,  on  the  river-bank ;  landing  or  embarkation  1  p. ;  Brit, 
vice-cons.,  L.  Fordel.  a  somewhat  dirty  town  of  13,220  inhab.  (incl. 
3000  Jews  and  200  Europeans),  one  of  the  chief  seaports  of  Morocco, 
lies  on  the  left  bank  of  the  Lukkus,  about  100  ft.  above  the  river. 
The  total  exports  and  imports  are  valued  at  18  million  francs.  In 
the  16th  cent,  the  town  was  an  important  Portuguese  centre  of  trade, 
and  in  1580-1689  it  belonged  to  Spain.  It  then  became  a  war- 
harbour  and  the  headquarters  of  the  pirates  of  Morocco,  and  was 
fruitlessly  attacked  by  the  French  in  their  disastrous  expedition 

RABAT.  t*.  Route.     105 

of  1765,  and  by  an  Austrian  squadron  in  1829.  The  former  harbour, 
which  was  rendered  inaccessible  to  vessels  of  larger  draught  by  the 
bar  obstructing  it  and  the  shallowness  of  the  river-mouth,  is  being 
superseded  by  a  new  harbour  now  under  construction.  The  town- 
walls,  the  moats,  the  coast-batteries,  and  the  small  fortifications  on 
the  S.  bank  of  the  river  date  from  the  Spanish  occupation. 

From  the  landing-place  on  the  N.E.  margin  of  the  town  we 
pass  through  the  harbour -gate  into  the  spacious  Inner  Market 
(Suk  ed-Dakhl),  with  the  old  Spanish  Merchants'  Hall  (Fondak 
el-Essbenyoli)  and  arcades  lined  with  shops.  Gateways  lead  thence 
to  the  N.W.  to  the  picturesque  Kasha  (no  admission) ,  and  to  the 
S.E.  to  the  Government  Palace  (Dar  el-Makhzen).  The  Chief 
Mosque  was  once  the  Spanish  cathedral,  and  several  of  the  dwell- 
ing-houses are  still  Spanish  in  character. 

Outside  the  Bab  el-Khemis  lies  the  extensive  Outer  Market 
(Thurs.).  Excellent  oranges  and  other  fruit  are  grown  in  the  beau- 
tiful gardens  around. 

Some  Roman  ruins,  relics  of  the  old  town  of  Lixzts  (p.  95),  now 
overgrown  with  brushwood,  lie  on  the  Jebel  Tshemmish,  a  low  hill  on 
the  right  bank  of  the  Lukkus,  about  l'/2  hr.  from  Larash  (best  reached 
by  boat). 

As  the  Steamer  proceeds  there  appears  on  the  horizon  a  range 
of  sand-hills,  31  M.  long,  which  separates  the  Sebu  bay  from  the 
sea.  This  bay  (p.  93)  is  now  dry  land,  with  the  exception  of  two 
shallow  lakes  (Merja  ez-Zerga  and  Merja  Eds  ed-Dora)  and 
large  tracts  of  swamp.  To  the  E.  rises  the  Jebel  Sarsar  (1805  ft.), 
near  Ksar  el-Kebir.  On  the  left  bank  of  the  Sebu  (ancient  Subur), 
near  the  Mamora  Forest,  the  largest  plantation  of  cork-trees  in 
Morocco,  lies  Mehedia  or  Mchdiya  (pop.  500),  a  thriving  seaport 
during  the  sway  of  the  Almohades,  but  now  fallen  to  utter  decay. 
A  fine  Moorish  town-gate  of  the  12th  cent,  and  many  ruins  of  the 
Portuguese  period  may  be  visited. 

Rabat  (Hot.  Tgnace,  R.  2,  pens.  10  fr.,  Hot.  Alegria,  Spanish, 
both  unpretending;  Brit,  vice-cons.,  A.  H.  Cross;  Engl.  Church  ser- 
vice), or  Rbdt,  situated  in  the  Tell  (p.  93)  on  the  left  bank  of  the 
Bu  Regreg,  138  M.  from  Tangier,  is  one  of  the  sultan's  residences 
and  vies  with  Tctuan  (p.  102)  as  a  most  interesting  coast-town.  Its 
population  together  with  that  of  Salee  (p.  106)  is  47,140  inhab., 
incl.  3000  Jews  and  100  Europeans.  As  it  is  the  'key  of  Morocco', 
where  the  caravan  routes  from  Tangier,  Fez,  and  Casablanca  (Ma- 
rakesh)  converge,  and  is  also  exposed  to  the  attacks  of  the  turbu- 
lent inland  tribes  of  the  Zemm&r  and  Za'ir,  it  has  been  fortified 
with  an  inner  and  two  outer  walls.  A  Fort,  built  in  1888-92,  de- 
fends the  entrance  to  the  harbour,  now  much  choked  with  sand. 
The  difficulty  of  landing  (charge  for  each  passenger  21/2  p.)  has 
caused  the  trade  of  the  place  (imports  and  exports  about  8  million 

106     Route  14.  RABAT.  From  Tangier 

francs)  to  decline  and  to  fall  behind  that  of  Tangier,  Larash,  and 
Mogador.  Several  of  the  industries  have  long  been  famous  (carpet- 
making,  wool-weaving,  woodwork,  saffian  leather,  etc.). 

Founded  in  1197,  opposite  to  Salee  (see  below),  by  the  Almohade 
Yakiib  ibn  Yfisuf  (p.  61),  the  still  prosperous  town  is  noted  for 
its  well-educated  population,  mostly  Moorish,  and  its  genuine 
Moroccan  character.  The  dwelling-houses,  in  the  Andalusian- 
Moorish  style,  vie  in  their  internal  architecture  with  those  of 
Tetuan.  Noteworthy  are  also  the  old  town-gates,  the  portal  of  the 
Kasba,  with  the  barracks  of  the  Udaia,  and  the  decayed  Medersa 
(school  of  the  learned),  with  its  picturesque  colonnaded  *Court. 
At  the  S.E.  angle  of  the  town,  not  far  from  the  harbour-gate  and 
the  Mohammedan  cemetery,  is  the  Mellah  or  Jews'  quarter. 

Outside  the  Bdb  el-Hdd,  on  the  W.  side  of  the  inner  town- 
wall,  is  the  Jewish  burial-ground,  adjoining  the  SUk  el-Hdd,  or 
Sunday  market,  the  most  important  cattle-market  in  the  whole 
country,  supplied  chiefly  by  the  Zemmfir,  Zai'r,  and  Zaian  tribes. 
—  On  the  terrace  of  the  coast,  by  the  W.  outer  wall  (reached  also 
from  the  Bab  el-Alfi  by  the  road  past  the  Christian  cemetery), 
stands  the  handsome,  but  now  disused  sultan's  palace  of  El-Kebibdt. 

Beyond  the  Jews'  quarter,  and  not  far  from  the  *Bab  Shellah 
(1178-84)  with  its  two  octagonal  towers,  we"  see  rising  amidst 
orchards,  above  the  Bu  Ecgreg,  the  conspicuous  *Hassan  Toiver, 
the  great  landmark  of  Rabat.  This  was  once  the  minaret  of  a 
mosque,  erected,  according  to  tradition,  by  Jabir  (p.  62)  for  Ya- 
kfib  ibn  Yfisuf  in  1197,  but  now  entirely  destroyed  saving  a  few 
columns  and  fragments  of  masonry.  The  unfinished  tower,  with 
its  notched  arches  and  ornamentation  in  relief  style,  is  145  ft.  high. 

About  1  M.  to  the  S.  of  the  town,  near  the  outer  walls,  is  the 
Ddr  el-Makhzen,  a  second  palace  of  the  sultan,  with  the  burial- 
mosque  of  Mohammed  XVII.  and  Mulal'  Hassan  (1873-94),  and 
a  beautiful  garden. 

Near  this  is  the  S.E.  outer  gateway.  Among  the  neighbouring 
hills,  beyond  a  small  Mohammedan  burial-ground,  is  a  walled  and 
turreted  square  enclosing  the  ancient  town  of  * Shellah,  the  mould- 
ering ruins  of  which  are  overgrown  with  rank  vegetation;  we  find 
here  an  excellent  well.  In  the  dilapidated  burial-mosque  repose 
the  Almohade  Abfi  Yakfib  (p.  61),  the  Merinide  Ali  V.  (d.  1351), 
and  other  sovereigns.  —  A  little  way  off,  on  the  S.  margin  of  the 
swampy  and  malarious  river-flats,  are  famous  orange-gardens. 

A  ferry  connects  Rabat  with  the  antiquated  town  of  Salee, 
Saleh,  or  Sid,  the  Sola  of  the  Carthaginians  and  Romans,  which, 
down  to  recent  times,  was  like  Larash  one  of  the  most  dreaded 
haunts  of  pirates  ('Salee  rovers')  and  one  of  the  worst  slave-mark- 
ets in  all  Morocco.  The  town  shows  every  sign  of  decay;  but  its 
gates,  especially  the  Bab  el-Ausera  (now  walled  up),  with  its  two 

to  Mogador.  CASABLANCA.  !*■  Route.     107 

towers,  the  ruinous  gate  of  the  cemetery,  and  the  domed  tombs  of 
saints,  all  present  a  most  fascinating  architectural  picture. 

Proceeding  on  her  course  the  Steamer  skirts  a  monotonous, 
treeless  coast,  broken  only  by  the  mouths  of  a  few  small  rivers, 
with  here  and  there  a  poor  village.  One  of  these  villages  is 
Fedalah  (in  the  middle  ages  Afdalah),  once  a  thriving  little 
seaport,  which  was  temporarily  occupied  by  the  Spaniards  in  1773. 
On  a  headland  much  exposed  to  N.  winds,  190  M.  from  Tangier, 
lies  — 

Casablanca.  —  Passengers  are  conveyed  from  the  steamers,  which 
anchor  in  the  open  roads  to  the  N.E.  of  the  town,  to  the  new  quay  hy 
hoat  (2'/»  P-  each  person). 

Hotels.  Hot.  Central,  R.  4-5,  B.  1,  D.  2,  pens.  10-12  fr.,  Hot.  de 
France,  pens.  8-10  fr.,  both  goodj  Hot.  Moderne,  pens.  8-10  fr.;  Hot.  de 
VUnivers;  Hot.  de  V Europe;  Hot.  Continental;  Hot.  de  Ctiba,  outside 
the  town,  Spanish. 

Consuls.  British,  A.  M.  Madden;  vice-consuls,  E.  G.  Lomas, 
K.  H.  Broome.  —  United  States  Consular  Agent,  H.  Toel. 

English  Church.  St.  John  the  Evangelist's,  outside  the  town;  service 
every  Sun.  at  11  a.m. 

Casablanca,  Arabic  Ddr  el-JBeicla  ('the  white  house'),  a  town 
of  31,700  inhab.  (incl.  2500  French  and  as  many  Spaniards),  was 
founded  in  the  16th  cent,  by  the  Portuguese  as  Casa  Branca  on 
the  ruins  of  the  ancient  (Phoenician ?)  town  of  Anfa.  The  place 
appears  in  mediaeval  Venetian  charts  as  Niffe  or  Anafe,  but  it 
was  abandoned  by  the  Moors  in  1468.  The  town  was  destroyed  in 
1755  by  an  earthquake  simultaneous  with  that  of  Lisbon;  it  was 
not  rebuilt  till  the  19th  cent.,  and  is  now  the  most  important  outlet 
in  the  country  for  Moroccan  commodities  (exports  and  imports  in 
1909  ca.  25^2  million  fr.).  To  this  centre  are  brought  cattle  from 
the  neighbouring  provinces,  from  the  remoter  districts  of  Tadla 
(or  Tedla),  and  from  the  steppes  of  the  Central  Atlas,  while  the 
fertile  region  of  Shauya  supplies  it  with  grain  and  wool.  Thanks 
to  the  peace  and  security  which  the  French  troops  of  occupation 
have  restored  trade  has  steadily  increased. 

The  town,  which  is  still  enclosed  by  a  wall  of  defence  built  in 
the  Portuguese  period,  lies  on  a  terrace  of  Devonian  sandstone 
(E.  side)  and  slate  (W-  side),  in  which  the  surf  has  worn  a  small 
shallow  bay.  The  harbour  thus  formed  is  to  be  protected  by  a 
breakwater  (in  course  of  construction)  which  will  make  landing 
and  embarking  in  all  weathers  possible  (comp.  above).  —  From  the 
harbour  we  pass  through  the  "Waterport  Gate  into  the  main  street 
of  the  Medina  or  Mohammedan  business  quarter.  Most  of  the  for- 
eign consulates  and  banks  and  the  international  Anfa  Club  are 
situated  in  this  street.  Just  off  it  are  the  British  Consulate  and 
the  British  Post  Office,  while  higher  up  is  the  new  French  post- 
office.  The  Mcllah,  or  Jewish  quarter,  lies  on  the  S.  side  of  the  town. 

10B     Route  14.  MAZAGAN.  From  Tangier 

Near  the  Bab  es-Sfik,  or  S.E.  gate,  is  the  *  Market  (Suk;  comp. 
p.  335),  and  a  little  beyond  it  are  the  warehouses  of  the  foreign 

In  the  W.  quarter  (Tnaquer),  which  down  to  1907  consisted  chiefly 
of  the  reed-huts  of  the  lower-class  workmen,  similar  to  those  outside  the 
S.W.  gate  (Bab  Marakesh),  modern  stone  dwellings  have  sprung  up  and 
public  grounds  also  have  been  laid  out.  Farther  out  are  the  wooden  bar- 
racks of  the  French  and  Spanish  troops  of  occupation.  On  the  low  hills 
to  the  E.  and  S.E.  are  the  new  French  forts  'Provost'  and  'Ihler'. 

A  considerable  way  beyond  Casablanca  the  Steamer  passes  the 
mouth  of  the  Um  er-Rebia  (see  below),  on  the  left  bank  of  which 
is  Asiinnifir,  and  a  little  farther  on  it  casts  anchor  in  the  open 
roads  of  Mazagan,  far  outside  the  little  harbour,  which  dates  from 
the  Portuguese  period.    (Landing  or  embarkation  3  p.) 

Mazagan  (Hot.  de  l'Univers,  pens.  6-8  fr. ;  Hot.  du  Commerce, 
same  charges;  Brit,  vice-cons.,  T.  G.  Spinney;  pop.  25,500,  incl. 
3000  Jews  and  about  500  Europeans),  formerly  called  El-Brija 
by  the  Moroccans,  now  El- Jedida  ('the  new'),  250  M.  from  Tangier, 
lies  on  a  terrace  on  the  W.  shore  of  a  large  bay  which  is  now  much 
choked  with  sand.  It  was  founded  by  the  Portuguese  in  1506,  held 
by  them  down  to  1769,  and  was  their  last  possession  in  Morocco; 
but  it  long  remained  a  place  of  no  importance.  The  old  town,  square 
in  shape,  protected  from  the  surf  by  a  chain  of  cliffs,  and  altered 
after  1769,  is  still  enclosed  by  its  Portuguese  wall  of  defence, 
which  is  29  ft.  thick  at  places.  Several  houses  bearing  Portuguese 
coats-of-arms  and  the  Palace  of  the  Inquisition  in  the  N.  angle  of 
the  town  recall  the  Christian  domination.  In  recent  times  Mazagan 
has  developed  into  the  chief  seaport  of  Marakesh.  The  great  Thurs- 
day market,  held  on  the  W.  side  of  the  town,  and  the  granaries  on 
the  S.  side  afford  an  idea  of  the  extent  of  its  trade  (imports  and 
exports  being  estimated,  when  crops  are  good,  at  20  million  fr.  per 
annum).  The  climate  is  considered  very  healthy. 

The  alcanna  shrub  (Lawsonia  inermis)  abounds  in  the  environs.  From 
its  leaves  is  prepared  the  brownish-red  henna,  used  for  colouring  the 
finger-nails.  This  ancient  custom  still  prevails  among  both  Mohammedans 
and  Jews  in  N.  Africa. 

Excursions.  The  picturesquely  situated  town  of  Azimirttir,  about 
12'/2  M.  to  the  E.,  lies  on  the  Um  er-Rebia  or  Morbeya,  the  Asama  of 
antiquity,  a  stream  which  separates  the  Shauya  region  from  the  Dukkala 
The  town,  with  its  10,000  inhab.,  incl.  1000  Jews,  contains  the  shrine  ol 
Mulai  bu  Shai'b,  much  visited  by  pilgrims,  and  is  environed  with  beautiful 
gardens  of  pomegranates,  oranges,  and  figs.  On  the  same  river  lie  the 
orange-groves  of  Mhiula.  —  To  the  S.W.  one  may  ride  along  the  coast, 
past  the  Zduya  Mulai  Abdallah  and  the  ruins  of  the  Eoman  town  of  Tit, 
to  Cabo  Blanco  (see  below). 

Leaving  Mazagan  we  pass  the  Cabo  Blanco  (230  ft.;  Arabic 
Jerf  el-Asfdr)  and  then  the  Walediya  Lake,  ca.  40  M.  long. 
Farther  on,  from  the  abrupt  coast  juts  out  Cape  Cantin  (450  ft.; 
Arabic  Rds  el-HUdik),  well  known  to  mariners  as  a  landmark, 
whence  the  coast  runs  S.  to  the  Tensift  (p.  109).  We  call  next  at — 

to  Moaador.  SAFFI.  1 4.  Route.      109 

Saffl  (Hot.  Llamas;  Brit,  vice-cons.,  G.  B.  Hunot;  pop.  19,750, 
incl.  2500  Jews),  called  also  Safi  or  Asfi,  350  M.  from  Tangier.  The 
harbour  is  inadequately  sheltered  from  the  W.  and  S.W.  gales  by  a 
narrow  neck  of  land  and  two  cliffs,  and  its  entrance  is  obstructed 
by  a  sandbank.  (Landing  or  embarkation  1  p.)  Saffi  is  the  capital 
of  the  fertile  region  of  Abda,  noted  for  its  horse-breeding,  and 
girdled  with  black  soil  (comp.  p.  93)  fertile  to  a  breadth  of  37  M. 
at  places.  It  lies  picturesquely  on  a  lofty  chalk  plateau,  in  an 
almost  semicircular  bay,  amidst  woods  and  green  pastures,  but  is 
haunted  by  fever  in  summer.  Prior  to  the  foundation  of  Mazagan 
and  Mogador  it  was  the  chief  port  of  Marakesh,  and  like  Agadir 
(p.  110)  was  one  of  the  most  important  harbours  of  S.  Morocco,  but 
its  trade,  mostly  in  European  hands,  has  now  fallen  off  (total  about 
10  million  francs).  The  chief  industry  of  the  place,  which  has 
given  its  name  to  Saffian  leather,  is  now  the  manufacture  of  pottery. 

Close  to  the  harbour  lies  the  Jeivish  Quarter,  and  behind  it 
is  the  Medina  or  Mohammedan  quarter,  both  squalid.  Adjoining 
the  latter  is  the  Spanish  Catholic  church.  The  picturesque  Citadel 
at  the  E.  end  of  the  old  town  and  the  town-walls  are  of  Portuguese 
origin.    The  Sflk,  or  market,  is  in  the  S.  suburb  of  Rabbtit. 

The  Steamer  next  sights,  near  the  mouth  of  the  Te?isift,  the 
Jcbel  el-Hadid  (2182ft.;  'iron-mountain';  p.  110),  already  famed 
in  Punic  times  for  its  iron-ore,  the  only  considerable  hill  on  the 
coast  between  this  and  Mogador.  The  vessel  rounds  Cape  Hadid, 
the  S.  limit  of  the  fertile  coast-plain,  sighting  in  the  distance  the 
spurs  of  the  Great  Atlas  (p.  93),  and  soon  reaches  (410  M.  from 
Tangier;  landing  or  embarkation  2lj2  p.)  the  seaport  of — 

Mogador  (Hot.  Royal,  English;  Palm  Tree  Hotel,  21/.,  M.  to 
the  S.  of  the  town,  prettily  situated,  good;  Brit,  vice-cons.,  H.  B. 
Johnstone;  U.S.  cons,  agent,  G.  Broome;  Engl.  Church  service), 
called  in  Arabic  Es-Sue'ira  also,  with  24,350  inhab.,  incl.  12,000 
Jews  and  a  good  many  French,  English,  Spanish,  and  other  Euro- 
peans. The  new  town  with  its  straight  lines  of  streets  was  erected 
in  1760-70  under  Sultan  Mula'i  Sidi  Mohammed  on  the  site  of 
Mogator,  which  was  destroyed  in  1755  by  the  same  earthquake  as 
that  of  Lisbon.  In  1844  the  town  was  stormed  by  French  marines. 
Mogador  lies  in  31°  31'  N.  lat.  and  9°  GO'  W.  long.,  on  a  flat  spit 
of  land,  bounded  on  the  W.  by  a  small  lake,  beyond  which  rises 
a  great  range  of  sand-hills,  at  places  427  ft.  high  and  3!/4  M.  in 
breadth.  To  the  S.W.  a  chain  of  cliffs  and  the  rocky  islet  of  Mog- 
ador, the  only  island  on  the  coast  of  Morocco,  form  the  harbour, 
which  is  much  exposed  to  the  sea-winds.  The  N.  entrance  to  the 
harbour,  between  the  town  and  the  island,  is  about  825  yds.  broad 
and  45  ft.  deep;  the  broad  S.  entrance,  opposite  the  mouth  of  the 
Wdd  Kaeb,  is  only  13  ft.  in  depth.    Mogador  serves  as  a  port  for 

HO     Route  14.  MOGADOR. 

the  adjacent  provinces  of  Shi&dma  (or  Shedma),  Haha,  and  Mtuga, 
as  well  as  a  mart  for  goods  from  the  Siis  (see  below).  It  is  the 
stronghold  of  Judaism  in  Morocco,  as  the  Jews  control  the  inland 
trade  with  Marakesh,  and  it  is  only  of  late  that  they  have  had  Eu- 
ropean rivals  in  the  ocean  traffic.  The  total  exports  and  imports 
amount  to  about  17  million  francs. 

We  land  not  far  from  the  Harbour  Battery,  mounted  with  an- 
tiquated guns,  and  proceed  first  to  the  Kasha  quarter,  where  tl  e 
governor's  house,  the  chief  mosque,  a  synagogue,  and  the  Spanish 
church  are  situated.  From  the  Meshwar,  the  principal  square  in 
the  Kasba,  a  broad  street  leads  to  the  Medina,  the  Mohammedan 
quarter,  where  a  number  of  Europeans  and  wealthy  Jews  also 
reside.  Here,  in  the  centre  of  the  town,  is  the  Silk,  famed  for  the 
native  copper  wares,  besides  various  goods  from  Marakesh,  which 
are  sold  there.  Beyond  the  market,  in  the  N.E.  angle  of  the  town, 
is  the  Mellah,  an  extremely  dirty  quarter,  with  narrow  streets, 
inhabited  by  the  poorer  Jews. 

From  the  Bab  Marakesh,  the  S.E.  gate,  we  may  follow  the  conduit, 
at  first  along  the  embankment  between  the  bay  of  the  harbour  and  the 
lake,  and  then  past  the  Kubba  of  Sidi  Mogdul,  the  local  saint,  to  the 
winding  valley  of  the  Wdd  Kseb.  Here  rises  a  ruinous  Palace  of  the 
Sultan,  and  beyond  the  sand-hills  lies  the  sadly  neglected  Sultan's 

The  finest  point  in  the  wooded  inland  region  near  Mogador,  which 
abounds  in  game,  is  the  valley  of  A'in  el-Hajar  ('rock-spring'),  15>/2  M. 
to  the  N.E.  From  the  Bab  Asfi,  the  N.E.  town-gate,  the  route  leads 
past  the  Christian  and  the  large  Jewish  cemeteries,  and  follows  tbe  Saffi 
caravan-track  along  the  coast,  where  at  low  tide  it  is  pleasanter  to  ride 
on  the  beach.  After  about  2  hrs.  we  cross  the  hill  to  the  E.,  where  in 
the  extensive  growth  of  underwood  are  seen  numerous  argan-trees 
(Argania  sideroxylon),  the  kernels  of  whose  fruit  yield  a  table-oil  re- 
sembling that  of  the  olive.  —  From  Ain  el-Hajar  we  may  in  clear  weather 
ascend  the  Jebel  el-Hadid  (p.  109),  which  rises  to  theN.;  on  the  summit 
(2182  ft.)  is  a  chapel  dedicated  to  Sidi  Yalcub,  whence  in  the  far  distance 
we  may  descry  the  Great  Atlas. 

To  the  S.  of  Mogador  lies  the  hilly  region  of  Haha,  skirting  the 
base  of  the  Great  Atlas,  and  rich  in  olives  and  argan-trees,  through  which 
a  rough  caravan-route,  running  inland  from  Cape  Tafetneh  and  passing 
Cape  Gir,  leads  to  Ag&dir  (pop.  2500).  This  was  formerly  the  seaport 
for  the  region  of  Siis  (p.  94),  and  was  even  the  goal  of  caravans  from 
the  Sudan  district,  but  since  the  building  of  Mogador  has  lost  all  European 
trade.  In  the  16th  cent.  Agadir,  under  the  name  of  Santa  Cruz,  was  the 
southmost  possession  of  the  Portuguese  in  Morocco. 


Route  Page 

15.  From  Gibraltar  to  Genoa    ....          ....  Ill 

a.  Through  the  Balearic  Sea  .     .  .     .  .111 

b.  Via  Algiers 117 

16.  From  Gibraltar  to  Naples 118 

17.  From  (Lisbon)  Tangier,  and  from  Gibraltar,  to  Mar- 

seilles    119 

18.  From  Tangier  and  Cartagena  to  Orau 123 

19.  From  Marseilles  to  Orau 126 

20.  From  Marseilles  to  Algiers,  Bougie,  Philippeville, 

and  Bona 126 

21.  From  Marseilles  to  Tunis   ....          ....  128 

22.  From  Algiers  to  Tunis  by  Sea      .     .          ....  130 

23.  From  Marseilles  to  Naples 132 

24.  From  Genoa  to  Naples 134 

25.  From  Genoa  to  Tunis  via  Leghorn  and  Cagliari  .     .  142 

26.  From  Naples  to  Tunis  via  Palermo 146 

27.  From  Naples  to  Syracuse  (Malta,  Tunis,  Tripoli)  via 

Messina  and  Catania 154 

From  Messina  to  Syracuse,  158. 

15.  From  Gibraltar  to  Genoa. 

a.  Through  the  Balearic  Sea. 

1000  M.  Steamboats  (see  'Gibraltar  Chronicle',  and  coinp.  pp.  53,  114). 
White  Star  Line  (from  New  York  or  Boston),  two  or  three  times  monthly; 
North  German  Lloyd  (from  Southampton),  monthly;  Cunard  Live  (from 
New  York),  occasionally;  Lloyd  Sabaudo  (from  S.  America),  monthly. 

On  leaving  Gibraltar  (p.  52)  the  steamer  enters  the  open  Med- 
iterranean and  steers  to  the  E.N.E.,  generally  at  an  accelerated 
speed,  as  far  as  Cape  Palos,  owing  to  the  strong  current  flowing 
in  from  the  Atlantic  (p.  5).  Looking  back,  farther  on,  we  enjoy  in 
clear  weather  a  splendid  *View  of  the  Straits,  and  especially  of  the 
coast  of  Morocco  from  Cape  Spartel  to  the  Punla  de  la  Almina 
(p.  123),  from  which  peep  the  white  houses  of  Ceuta.  The  Rif  Mts. 
(Jebel  Beni  Hassan,  p.  123)  also  remain  visible  for  a  time. 

The  Spanish  coast  with  the  Sierra  Bermeja,  the  Sierra  de 
Mijas,  and  thePunta de  Calaburras  (lighthouse)  gradually  recedes 

Basdekxb's  Mediterranean.  8 

112     Route  16.  BALEARIC  ISLANDS.         From  Gibraltar 

Far  away  to  the  left  is  the  bay  of  Mdlaga.  Off  Cape  Sacratif, 
with  its  lighthouse,  we  obtain  a  grand  *Vie\v  of  the  Sierra  Nevada 
(p.  49),  in  front  of  which  rise  the  almost  entirely  barren  Sierra 
de  Almijara,  Sierra  Contraviesa,  and  Sierra  de  Gddor.  Near  the 
Punta  del  Sabinal  (lighthouse)  opens  the  broad  semicircular  bay 
of  Almeria;  in  the  foreground  rise  the  bare  hills  of  Cabo  de  Gata 
(1683  ft. ;  lighthouse),  with  the  Puerto  Genovis  beyond. 

Steering  now  to  the  N.E.,  we  pass  the  Punta  de  Loma  Pelada, 
backed  by  the  Frailes  ('monks'),  two  huge  pyramids  of  rock;  then 
the  Mesa  de  Rolddn,  the  bay  of  Cartagena  (p.  125),  the  Cabo 
Tiiloso,  Cape  Palos,  and  the  island  of  Hormiga  Grande,  all  with 
lighthouses.  Nearing  the  Balearic  Islands,  we  may  descry  to  the 
left,  in  very  clear  weather,  the  coast-plain  of  Murcia  and  even  the 
distant  hills  of  Alicante,  as  far  as  Cabo  de  la  Nao  and  Mongd.  The 
vessel  now  steers  round  the  Balearic  Islands  (see  Baedeker's  Spain 
and  Portugal),  on  the  S.E.  side  if  storms  in  the  Gulf  of  Lions  are 
expected,  but  usually  through  the  bay  of  Valencia  and  the  Balearic 
Sea.  In  this  case  we  pass  close  to  the  island  of  Iviza,  which  is 
flanked  on  the  S.W.  (in  front  of  the  Atalayasa  ;  1559  ft.)  by  the 
bold  rocky  islet  of  Vedrd,  and  on  the  W.  by  the  Bleda  Islets  and 
Conejera  (with  a  lighthouse).  On  the  N.E.  point  of  Iviza  is  the 
lighthouse  of  Punta  Grosa.  In  the  foreground,  farther  on,  appear 
the  bold  limestone  slopes  of  the  island  of  Dragonera,  with  a  light- 
house (1191  ft.)  visible  for  40  It.  round.  Beyond  it  is  Mallorca, 
or  Majorca,  the  largest  of  the  Balearic  Islands,  whose  barren 
mountains,  culminating  in  the  Puig  Mayor  (4741  ft.)  in  the  centre, 
are  visible  to  their  full  extent  beyond  the  little  port  of  S oiler. 

From  Cape  Formentor  (lighthouse),  at  the  N.E.  point  of  Ma- 
jorca, the  steamer  proceeds  due  N.E.  to  the  He  du  Levant  or  du 
Titan  (lighthouse,  visible  for  nearly  40  M.  round),  the  eastmost  of 
the  Pes  d'Hyeres  (p.  133),  which  flank  the  coast  of  Provence.  The 
island  of  Porquerolles  also,  the  westmost  of  the  group,  is  visible. 
In  favourable  weather  the  *Voyage  through  the  Ligurian  Sea  affords 
delightful  views.  The  steamers  vary  their  course,  but  usually  steer 
towards  Cape  Ferratnear  Villefranche,  past  Cape  Camarat  (light- 
house), the  beautiful  double  bay  of  Cannes  (with  the  Res  de  Lerins 
opposite  to  it),  and  the  Cap  d'Antibes.  On  a  clear  day  Nice  is  vis- 
ible in  the  distance.  We  then  skirt  the  Riviera  di  Ponente  (p.  118), 
passing  Ventimiglia,  Oneglia,  and  Albenga,  backed  by  the  Maritime 
and  the  Ligurian  Alps,  snow-clad  in  winter  and  spring.  On  the 
picturesque  coast  between  Nice  andBordigherathe  scenery  changes 
rapidly.  After  the  little  bay  of  Villefranche  (Villafranca),  with 
Cape  Ferrat  (lighthouse),  come  Beaulieu,  the  grey  rock  village  of 
Eze,  close  under  the  Grande-Corniche,  and  .La  Turbie,  overtopped  by 
the  forts  behind.  "We  next  sight  the  rock  of  Monaco,  with  its  cathe- 
dral and  huge  marine  museum,  while  among  the  houses  of  the  little 





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to  Genoa.  GENOA.  16.  Route.      H3 

principality  may  be  seen  the  less  conspicuous  casino  of  Monte  Carlo. 
Beyond  the  olive-clad  Cape  Martin  appears  the  bay  of  Mentone, 
with  its  superb  circus  of  mountains,  then  Cape  Mortola,  the  Italian 
frontier-town  of  Ventimiglia,  and,  beyond  the  ravine  of  the  Roja, 
the  little  town  of  Bordighera,  with  its  cape  and  its  dense  olive  and 
palm  groves.  Next  come  Ospcdaletti,  overlooked  by  the  loftily- 
situated  little  town  of  Coldirodi,  and  San  JRemo,  on  a  broad  bay 
bounded  by  Capo  Nero  and  Capo  Verde.  The  coast  is  now  less 
attractive  till  we  are  off  Porto  Maurizio,  a  provincial  capital 
picturesquely  situated  on  a  headland,  and  approach  Oneglia. 

Near  Cape  Berta  we  gradually  leave  the  coast,  pass  Cape  Mele, 
with  its  lighthouse  (742  ft.)  and  Marconi  station  for  wireless  tele- 
graphy, and  steer  across  the  *Gidf  of  Genoa.  On  the  left  lie  Lai- 
gueglia,  Alassio,  and,  beyond  the  fissured  island  of  Gallinaria, 
the  little  town  of  Albenga.  Next,  on  a  semicircular  coast-plain, 
lie  the  villages  of  Loano  and  Finale  Marina,  and  a  little  beyond 
them  rises  the  Capo  di  Noli.  Beyond  Cape  Vado  we  overlook 
the  bay  of  the  industrial  seaport  of  Savona,  as  far  as  the  headland 
of  Portofino  (p.  134).  In  the  background  rise  the  Apennines  and 
the  Apuan  Alps  (p.  134),  snow-capped  in  winter. 

Steering  through  the  Avamparto  and  the  Porto  Nuovo,  we 
obtain  a  superb  *View  of  Genoa,  rising  in  a  semicircle  on  the 

Genoa.  —  Arrival,  bx  Sea.  The  passenger-steamers  land  at  the 
P&nte  Federico  Giiglielmo  (PI.  A,  B,  3 ;  with  custom-house,  post,  telegraph, 
and  railway  offices)  in  the  Porto  or  inner  harbour.  Failing  room  at  that 
pier,  they  anchor  near  it  (landing  by  boat,  with  luggage,  1  fr. ;  embarka- 
tion 30,  at  night  50  c),  or  they  are  berthed  at  the  Ponte  Andrea  Doria 
(PI.  A,  3).  —  At  the  custom-house  examination  the  facchino  of  the  dogana 
expects  20-30  c. 

Railway  Stations.  1.  Stazione  Piazza  Principe  (PI.  B,  2 ;  Rail. 
Kestaur.,  dcj.  2-3,  D.  3-4  fr.),  in  the  Piazza  Acquaverde,  the  chief  station  for 
all  trains,  where  cabs  (p.  114)  and  omnibuses  are  in  waiting. — 2.  Stazione 
di  Briffnole  or  Orientate  (PI.  H,  I,  6),  the  E.  station,  Piazza  Giuseppe 
Verdi,  a  subsidiary  station  for  Pisa,  Florence,  Rome,  etc.  —  Railway-tickets 
may  be  obtained  also  of  the  Fratelli  Gondrand,  Via  Venti  Settembre  35, 
and  of  Thos.  Cook  &  Son  (p.  114). 

Hotels  (mostly  in  noisy  situations  and  variously  judged).  ♦Grand- 
Hot.  Miramare  (PI.  mi;  A,  2),  Via  Pagano  Doria,  above  the  principal 
station,  with  terrace,  R.  from  6,  D.  6,  omn.  2  f r. ;  Bertolini's  Bristol 
Hot.  (PI.  p;  F,  6),  Via  Venti  Settembre  35,  R.  from  7,  D.  7,  omn.  !»/■  f r. ; 
Gr.-H6t.  de  Genes  (PI.  f ;  E,  5),  R.  from  5,  D.  6-7,  omn.  1  fr. ;  Eden- 
Palace  (PI.  b ;  G,  5),  Via  Serra  6-8,  R.  from  6,  D.  5-7  fr. ;  Gr.-H6t.  Sxvous 
(PI.  sj  C,  2),  above  Piazza  Acquaverde,  R.  from  4,  D.  5-6,  omn.  '/a  f r. ; 
Gr.-H6t.  Isotta  (PI.  a ;  F,  5),  Via  Roma  5-7,  R.  from  5,  D.  6,  omn.  l'/o  fr. 
—  Hot.  de  la  Ville  (PI.  d;  D,  4),  Via  Carlo  Alberto,  R.  from  4,  D.  5, 
omn.  1  fr. ;  Britannia  (PI.  v;  0,  2),  R.  from  3  f r. ;  Modern  Hot.  (PI.  v; 
F,  6),  R.  from  4,  D.  5,  oniu.  1  f r. ;  Continental  (PI.  1;  E,  4),  R.  4-10, 
D.  5,  omn.  l-l'/4  fr.  —  Less  pretending:  H6t.  de  France  (PI.  g;  D,  5), 
R.  3-4,  D.  4,  omn.  1  fr. ;  Hot.  Smith  (PI.  e,  D  5;  Engl,  landlord),  R.  from 
21/s,  D.  4,  omn.  1  fr.,  good;  Central  (PI.  c;  F,  5),  R.  2-4>/2  fr. ;  Royal 
Aqulla  (PI.  k;  C,  2),  near  the  principal  station,  R.  3-5,  D.  5,  omn.  '/«  fr., 


114     Route  1 6.  GENOA.  Practical  Notet. 

good  for  passing  tourists;  Imperial  (PL  im;  F,  6),  R.  from  3>/2  fr. ;  Regina 
(PL  q;  F,  6).  — Hdtels  Qarnis.  Splendidb  (PL  x;  F,  6),  Bavabia  (PL  z; 
F,  5),  Excelsior  (PL  w;  E,  5),  R.  in  all  these  from  3  or  4  f r. 

Caf6s.  Roma,  Via  Roma  15;  Milano,  Galleria  Mazzini;  both  are  also 
restaurants.  —  Restaurants  (Italian  cookery).  Trattoria  del  Teatro  Carlo 
Felice  (PL  E,  F,  5),  goodj  Cairo,  Via  Venti  Settembre  36;  Ristorante 
delta  Posta,  Galleria  Mazzini,  moderate,  often  crowded.  —  Beer.  Giardino 
d  Italia  and  Peyer,  both  in  Piazza  Corvetto  (PL  F,  G,  5) ;  Gambrinns,  Via 
San  Sebastiano  (PL  F,  5). 

Cabs.  One-horse,  per  drive  (to  the  E.  as  far  as  the  Bisagno,  to  the 
"\V.  to  the  lighthouse)  1,  at  night  Vl2ir.;  per  hr.  2  or  2ll2fr.;  each  addit. 
1I2  hr.  1  or  ll/4  f r. ;  to  Nervi  or  Pegli  5,  there  and  back,  with  l/2  hr.  stay, 
7'/2  fr.  —  With  two  horses,  J/2  fr.  extra  in  each  ease.  —  Night  is  from  9  (in 
winter  from  7)  till  sunrise.  —  Small  packages  inside  cab  are  free;  each 
trunk  20  c.  —  Motor  Cabs  (taximeter)  per  drive  of  1200  met.  (z/3  M.) 
1  fr.  20  c,  each  addit.  800  met.  20  c. ;  at  night  (10  or  8  to  dawn)  one-fourth 
extra.    Trunk  25  c. 

Tramways  (6  or  7  a.m.  till  midnight).  The  chief  lines  are:  1.  Piazza 
Principe  (PL  B,  2),  Piazza  Acquaverde  (PL  B,  C,  2),  Piazza  Zecoa  (PL  D, 
E,  3;  funicular  to  Castellaccio),  Piazza  Corvetto  (PL  F,  G,  5),  and  Piazza 
Deferrari  (PL  E,  6;  10  c).  —  2.  Piazza  Principe,  Piazza  Acquaverde,  Via  di 
Circonvallazione  a  Monte  (station  for  Castellaccio  at  San  Nicol6,  PL  E,  1), 
Piazza  Manin  (PL  I,  4),  Piazza  Corvetto,  and  Piazza  Deferrari  (25  c). — 
3.  Piazza  Caricamento  (PL  D,  5),  Piazza  Principe,  Via  Milano  (PL  A,  2), 
Lighthouse  (p.  117),  San  Pier  d'Arena,  Sestri  Ponente,  and  Pegli  (p.  117; 
55  c.).  —  4.  Piazza  Raibetta  (PL  D,  5),  Via  di  Circonvallazione  a  Mare 
(p.  116),  and  Stazione  Orientate  (PL  H,  I,  G;  10  c). — 5.  Piazza  Deferrari, 
Piazza  Manin,  Via  Montaldo  (PL  I,  1),  and  Campo  Santo  (p.  117;  15  c). — 
6.  Piazza  Deferrari,  Via  Venti  Settembre,  Ponte  Pila  (PL  H,  1, 7),  and  Nervi 
(p.  117  ;  every  1/i  hr.,  in  50  min.,  45  c.) ;  branch  to  the  Lido  d'Albaro  (p.  117), 

Post  Office  (PL  F,  5),  Galleria  Mazzini  (new  building  In  the  Piazza 
Deferrari,  PL  E  6;  see  p.  116),  open  8  a.m.  to  9  p.m.— Telegraph  Office 
(PL  E,  6),  Palazzo  Ducale,  Piazza  Deferrari. 

Steamers.  Canard  Line  (C.  Figoli,  Piazza  San  Marcellino  6),  from  New 
York,  Gibraltar,  and  Genoa  to  Trieste;  White  Star  Line  (Piazza  Annunziata 
18),  to  Naples,  Gibraltar,  and  New  York  or  Boston;  Nederland  Royal  Mail 
(AgenziaOlandese,  Piazza  Deferrari),  from  Southampton  to  Genoa,  Port  Said, 
ana  Batavia;  North  German  Lloyd  (Leupold  Bros.,  Via  Garibaldi  5),  for 
Algiers  and  Gibraltar,  for  Naples  and  Port  Said,  for  Marseilles  and  Bar- 
celona, for  Naples,  Catania,  the  Piraeus,  Smyrna,  Constantinople,  etc; 
Hamburg- American  Line  (Piazza  Annunziata  18),  to  Naples  and  New  York, 
also  excursion-boats;  Societa  Nazionale  (Via  Balbi  40),  for  Naples  and 
New  York  (comp.  R.  24);  also  circular  tours  to  Cagliari,  Tunis,  Tripoli, 
Malta,  Syracuse,  Messina,  Naples,  and  back  to  Genoa  (RR.  25, 64,  27,  24) ;  also 
to  Palermo,  Trapani,  and  Syracuse;  to  Palermo,  Messina,  the  Pirseus,  Con- 
stantinople (Odessa  and  Batum);  to  Smyrna  and  Constantinople  (RR.  27. 
80);  to  Leghorn,  Naples,  Messina,  and  Alexandria  (R.  67);  to  Naples  ana 
Port  Said  (R.  67);  La  Veloce  (Via  Garibaldi  2),  to  Naples  and  Teneriffe 
(for  Brazil),  and  via,  Marseilles  and  Barcelona  to  Tenentfe  (Colon) ;  Italia 
(Via  Venti  Settembre  34)  to  Teneriffe  and  Buenos  Ayres;  Lloyd  italiano 
(Palazzo  Doria,  Via  Andrea  Doria),  for  Naples  and  New  York  (R.  24); 
Lloyd  Sabaudo  (Piazza  San  Siro),  for  Naples.  Palermo,  and  New  York 
(RR.  24,  26),  and  for  Tarragona,  Gibraltar,  ana  Buenos  Ayres;  CompaMa 
Trasatldntica  (Giovanelli,  Via  Balbi,  Salita  Santa  Brigida  2),  for  Barce- 
lona, Lisbon,  and  Liverpool,  for  Port  Said  and  Manila,  and  for  Barcelona, 
Malaga,  Teneritfe,  and  Buenos  Ayres. 

Bankers.  Kirby  &  Le  Mesurier,  Via  Carlo  Felice  7;  Thos.  Cook  <fe 
Son,  Piazza  dolla  Meridiana,  cor.  of  Via  Cairoli  (PL  E,  4);  Credito  Ita- 
liano, Via  San  Luca  4;  Banca  Commercials  Italiana,  Piazza  Banchi  11 
(PL  D,  5).  —  Monet  Changers  abound  near  the  Borsa. — Bookselleb. 
A.  Donath,  Via  Luccoli  33. 

Via  Balbi.  GENOA.  15.  Route.      H5 

Consuls.  British  Consul-General,  William  Keene,  Via  Assarotti  31 1 
vico-cousul ,  A.  Turton.  —  U.  S.  Consul-General,  J.A.Smith,  Via  Venti 
Settembre  42;  vice-consul,  J.  W.  Dtje. 

Churches.  English  (Church  of  the  Holy  Ghost),  Via  Gofto  (PI.  G  4; 
services  at  8.  15  and  11  a.  in.,  occasionally  also  at  4  p.  m.);  Presbyterian, 
Via  Pcschiera  4  (service  at  11  a.  m.). 

Sights.  Museo  Chiossone  (p.  116),  daily  except  Mon.,  10-3,  adm. 
lfr.;  Palazzo  Bianco  (p.  116),  daily,  Oct.-March  11-4,  April-Sept.  10-4, 
Sun.  and  Thurs.  >/.i  fr.,  other  days  1/2  fr«i  f''ee  on  iast  Sun.  of  each  month; 
Palazzo  Durazzo-Pallavicini  (see  below),  daily  11-4,  fee  1/2-l  fr. ;  Palazzo 
Rosso  (p.  116),  free  daily,  11-4,  except  on  Tues.,  Sun.,  and  holidays. 

Genoa,  Ital.  Genava,  French  Genes,  a  city  of  156,000  inhab., 
was  a  republic  and  a  great  naval  power  in  the  middle  ages,  rival- 
ling Venice,  but  declined  after  the  16th  cent.;  in  1797  it  became 
the  capital  of  Napoleon's  'Ligurian  Republic',  and  since  1815  has 
belonged  to  the  kingdom  of  Sardinia  which  is  now  merged  in  that 
of  Italy.  Next  to  Marseilles  it  is  the  greatest  of  Mediterranean  sea- 
ports. The  exports  and  imports  in  1908  amounted  to  6.4  million 
tons,  and  the  tonnage  of  shipping  to  14.4  millions. 

From  the  pier,  either  the  Ponte  Federico  Guglielmo  or  the 
Ponte  Andrea  Doria  (p.  113),  we  cross  the  harbour-rails  to  the 
Palazzo  Doria  (PL  A,  B,  2),  once  presented  by  the  republic  to 
Andrea  Doria  (1468-1560),  the  famous  admiral  of  Charles  V., 
and  enter  the  Piazza  del  Principe  (PI.  B,  2;  tramway,  see  p.  114), 
with  its  handsome  bronze  monument  to  the  Marchese  Deferrari, 
Duke  of  Galliera  (d.  1876),  to  whose  generosity  Genoa  is  partly 
indebted  for  its  new  quays  (1877-95). 

The  Via  Andrea  Doria  leads  hence  to  the  E.  to  the  Piazza 
Acquaverde  (PI.  B,  C,  2),  the  square  in  front  of  the  Railway 
Station,  where,  amid  palms,  rises  a  monument  to  Columbus,  who 
was  probably  born  at  Geuoa  in  1451  (d.  at  Valladolid  in  1506). 

To  the  S.E.  from  this  piazza  runs  a  narrow  line  of  streets,  the 
chief  artery  of  traffic,  adorned  with  superb  late-Renaissance  edifices, 
built  chiefly  by  Galeazzo  Alessi  (1512-72),  named  Via  Balbi,  Via 
Cairoli,  and  Via  Garibaldi,  and  ending  at  the  Piazza  Fontane  Ma- 
rose.  Several  of  the  palaces  are  well  worth  seeing,  especially  for 
the  sake  of  their  grand  staircases. 

No.  10,  on  the  right  side  of  the  Via  Balbi,  is  the  Palazzo  Reale 
(PI.  C,  3),  built  after  1650  for  the  Durazzo  family,  and  purchased 
in  1817  for  the  royal  house  of  Sardinia.  No.  5,  on  the  left,  is  the 
Palazzo  dell'Universita  (PI.  D,  2,  3),  begun  by  Bart.  Bianco 
in  1623  as  a  Jesuit  school.  The  *Court  and  the  staircases  are  con- 
sidered the  finest  in  Genoa. 

Farther  on,  to  the  right,  No.  4  is  the  Palazzo  Balbi  Send- 
rega;  No.  1,  on  the  left,  is  the  Palazzo  Durazzo-Pallavicini  (PI. 
D,  3),  both  by  Bart.  Bianco.  The  picture-gallery  in  the  latter  (adm., 
see  above)  contains  portraits  by  Rubens  and  Van  Dyck,  painted 
during  their  visits  to  Genoa. 

116     Route  16.  GKNOA.  V™  Garibaldi. 

We  cross  the  Piazza  dell'Annunziata  (PI.  D,  3)  with  the  hand- 
some baroque  church  of  that  name  on  the  left,  and  the  small  Piazza 
della  Zecca  (PI.  D,  E, 3 ;  funicular  to  Castellaccio,  p.  117),  and  then 
follow  the  Via  Cair61i  (PI.  D,  E,  4)  to  the  — 

*Via  Garibaldi  (PL  E,  4),  which  is  flanked  with  numerous  pal- 
aces. No.  13,  on  the  left,  is  the  Palazzo  Bianco;  No.  18,  on  the 
right,  the  Palazzo  Rosso;  both  once  belonged  to  the  Brignole- 
Sale  family,  but  were  bequeathed  to  the  city  by  the  March esa 
Brignole-Sale  (d.  1889),  widow  of  the  Duca  di  Galliera  (p.  115), 
and  converted  into  the  two  galleries  named  Brignole-Sale  (adm., 
see  p.  115).  Most  of  the  other  palaces  were  designed  by  Gal.  Alessi. 

From  the  Piazza  Fontane  Marose  (PI.  F,  4,  5)  the  short  Via  Carlo 
Felice  leads  to  the  S.W.  to  the  Piazza  Deferrari  (PI.  E,  5,  6),  the 
centre  of  the  city  and  focus  of  most  of  the  tramway-lines  (p.  114). 
The  Accademia  di  Belle  Arti  (PI.  E,  F,  6),  on  the  E.  side  of  the 
Piazza,  contains  the  valuable  Museo  Chiossone  (adm.,  see  p.  115), 
a  collection  of  Japanese  and  Chinese  works  of  art. 

The  busy  Via  Roma  (PI.  F,  5)  leads  to  the  N.E.  from  the  Piazza 
Deferrari,  past  (right)  the  Galleria  Maszini,  to  the  Piazza  Corvetto 
(PL  F,  Or,  5),  adjoining  which,  on  the  left,  on  an  old  bastion  is  the  Villetta 
Dinegro  (PI.  F,  4;  242  ft.;  fine  views),  a  beautiful  public  park. 

From  the  S.E.  side  of  the  Piazza  Deferrari,  where  the  new  buildings 
of  the  Exchange  (Borsa)  and  the  Post  Office  are  in  progress  (PI.  E,  F,  6), 
runs  the  broad  new  Via  Venti  Settembre  (PI.  F-H,  6,  7),  the  favourite 
promenade  of  the  citizens,  leading  to  the  Bisagno  Valley  and  the  Stasione 
Orientate  (p.  113).  Immediately  before  we  reach  the  street-viaduct  we 
may  turn  to  the  right,  cross  the  Piazza  Ponticello  (PI.  F,  6,  7),  and  ascend 
the  Via  Fieschi  to  *Santa  Maria  di  Carignano  (PI.  E,  8;  172  ft.),  built 
by  Gal.  Alessi.  The  gallery  of  the  dome  (249  steps;  sacristan  25  c.)  is  a 
splendid  point  of  view.  The  Via  Nino  Bixio  and  Via  Corsica  (PI.  E,  F,  8,  9) 
lead  thence  to  the  — 

*Via  di  Circonvallazione  a  Mare,  skirting  the  coast  on  the  site 
of  the  old  town-ramparts,  named  Via  Odone  and  Corso  Aurelio  Saffi  (PI. 
E-H,  9,  10;  tramway  No.  4,  see  p.  114). 

From  the  S.W.  angle  of  the  Piazza  Deferrari  the  short  Via  Sellai 
leads  to  the  Piazza  Umberto  Primo  (PI.  E,  6).-  On  its  N.  side  rises 
the  old  Palazzo  Ducale,  or  palace  of  the  doges  (telegraph-office), 
approached  by  a  handsome  flight  of  steps.  On  the  S.E.  side  is  the 
ornate  Jesuit  church  of  Sant'Ambrogio,  containing  a  Presentation 
in  the  Temple  and  the  Miracles  of  St.  Ignatius  by  Rubens. 

From  the  Piazza  Umberto  Primo  the  busy  Via  San  Lorenzo  leads 
to  the  N.W. ,  past  the  Cathedral  (PL  E,  5,  6;  San  Lorenzo), 
dating  from  the  12-17th  cent,  (in  the  left  aisle  the  fine  early- 
Renaissance  chapel  of  San  Giovanni  Battista),  back  to  the  — 

Harbour.  Following  the  tramway  to  the  right  to  the  Piazza 
Raibetta,  we  observe  on  the  left,  between  that  piazza  and  the  Piazza 
Caricamento,  the  Gothic  Palazzo  di  San  Giorgio,  once  the  seat  of 
the  great  merchants'  bank  of  that  name.  Beyond  the  Piazza  Carica- 

Campo  Santo.  GENOA.  IB.  Route.     117 

mento  the  noisy  Via  Carlo  Alberto  (PI.  D,  C,  4-2)  leads  to  the  N. 
past  the  Darsena,  once  the  naval  harbour,  to  the  Piazza  Principe 
and  to  the  piers,  affording  a  glimpse  at  the  harbour  traffic. 

From  the  Piazza  della  Zecca  (p.  116)  a  Funicular  Tramway 
(50  c.)  ascends  every  10  min.  to  San  Nicold  (PL  E,  1;  change 
cars)  and  *Castellaccio,  loftily  situated.  At  the  terminus  (about 
1025  ft.;  Ristorante  Beregardo,  dcj.  2'/2j  D.  4fr.,  commended) 
there  is  a  splendid  view  of  the  Bisagno  Valley  with  the  Campo 
Santo  (see  below).  About  1/2  M.  to  the  N.W.  rises  the  old  fort  of 
Castellaccio  (1254  ft.),  which  commands  an  admirable  survey  of 
Genoa  and  the  coast  from  Savona  (p.  113)  to  the  headland  of  Por- 
tofino  (p.  134). 

On  the  rocky  Capo  del  Faro,  between  Genoa  and  San  Pier 
d'Arena,  rises  the  Lanterna,  a  great  Lighthouse,  230  ft.  high, 
from  the  foot  of  which  we  obtain  another  extensive  *View.  Tram- 
way as  far  as  the  tunnel  (No.  3;  p.  114). 

From  the  Piazza  Deferrari  a  tramway  (No.  5)  leads  by  the  Piazza 
Manin  (PI.  I,  4)  to  the  N.E.  to  the  Campo  Santo  or  Cimitero  di 
Staglieno,  which  rises  above  the  Val  Bisagno  on  the  N.  bank. — 
We  may  take  the  tramway  or  a  motor-omnibus  also  to  the  Lido 
d' 'Alburn,  a  popular  resort  and  sea-bathing  place  below  the  road 
to  Sturla  and  Nervi. 

Favourite  excursions  from  Genoa  are  (tramways  tuts.  6  and  3)  to 
Nervi,  7»/a  M.  to  the  E.,  on  the  Pisa  line,  and  to  Pegli,  6'/4  M.  to  the  W., 
on  the  Ventimiglia  line.  Nervi  has  a  beautiful  marine  parade,  and  at 
Pegli  is  the  Villa  PaUavidni.  (The  entrance  of  the  villa  is  immediately 
to  the  left  of  the  exit  from  the  rail,  station;  adm.  on  week-days  except 
Frid.  and  festivals,  10-3;  on  Sun.  and  holidays  9-2;  fee  1  fr.)  —  A  superb 
view  is  obtained  from  the  Portofino-Kulm  (1477  ft.;  Hot. -Restaur.,  dej. 
5,  D.  7  fr.),  on  the  Monte  di  Portofino  (p.  134).  Motor-omn.  direct  from 
Genoa,  Piazza  Deferrari;  also  4  times  daily  from  Recco  station,  13  M.  to 
the  E.,  on  the  Pisa  line. 

See  also  Baedeker's  Northern  Italy. 

b.  Via  Algiers. 

1086  M.  North  German  Lloyd  on  alternate  Saturdays,  in  3  days  (to 
Algiers  in  25  lirs.,  fare  60  or  44  marks;  thence  to  Genoa  33  hrs.,  fare  77  or 
55  marks).  The  Hamburg-American  and  the  Austrian  Lloyd  steamers  some- 
times ply  between  Gibraltar  and  Algiers.  The  Navigation  Mixte  usually 
sends  steamers  from  Gibraltar  to  Oran  (hence  to  Algiers  by  railway). 
Steamers  of  the  German  Levant  Line  and  others  also  are  available  as 
far  as  Algiers.  —  Agents  at  Gibraltar,  see  p.  53;  at  Algiers,  p.  219;  at 
Genoa,  p.  114.    See  also  'Gibraltar  Chronicle'. 

The  vessel  steers  to  the  E.  from  Gibraltar,  between  the  Spanish 
coast,  which  remains  in  sight  as  far  as  the  Cabo  de  Gala  (comp. 
R.  15a),  and  the  flat  volcanic  island  of  Albordn  (48  ft.),  the  ancient 
Drinaupa,  now  belonging  to  Spain.  The  distant  Sierra  Nevada 
(p.  49)  peeps  here  and  there  above  the  horizon. 

118     Route /e.  BAY  OF  NAPLES. 

Off  Cape  Ivi  (lighthouse),  beyond  the  mouth  of  the  Chdlif 
(p.  208),  we  sight  the  Tell  Atlas  (p.  169)  on  the  Algerian  coast. 
We  then  pass  the  very  prominent  Cape  Tenhs  (p.  209)  and,  beyond 
Cherchell  (p.  244),  the  massive  Jebel  Chenoua  (p.  242),  near  which 
we  survey  the  beautiful  Bay  of  Castiglione  (p.  237),  backed  by  the 
hills  of  Sahel  and  extending  to  Mont  Bouzariah  (p.  235). 

By  Has  Acrata  (p.  237)  we  n.ear  the  coast,  pass  the  lighthouse 
on  the  low  Cape  Caxine  (p.  237)  and  the  picturesque  cliffs  of  Pointe 
Pescade  (p.  237),  then  St.  Eugene  (p.  236)  and  the  church  of  Notre- 
Damed'Afrique  (p.  236),  and  enter  the  harbour  of  Algiers  (p.  217). 

Leaving  Algiers  for  Genoa  the  vessel  steers  to  the  N.N.E.,  afford- 
ing a  fine  parting  view  of  the  Bay  of  Algiers  and  the  coast  as  far 
as  Cape  Bengut  (p.  127).  Corsica  (p.  143)  is  visible  in  clear  wea- 
ther only.  We  near  the  Riviera  di  Ponente  off  Porto  Maurizio 
(p.  113)  and  soon  enter  the  harbour  of  Genoa  (comp.  p.  113). 

16.  From  Gibraltar  to  Naples. 

1118  M.  Cunard  Line  (from  New  York)  and  White  Star  (from  New 
York  or  Boston),  each  two  or  three  times  a  month,  in  8  days  (fare  bl. 
10s.);  Orient  Royal  (from  London),  fortnightly;  North  German  Lloyd  (from 
New  York  or  Southampton),  three  or  four  times  a  month  (120  or  88  marks); 
Hamburg-American  Line  (from  New  York),  once  or  twice  a  month. 

For  Gibraltar,  and  the  first  part  of  the  voyage,  comp.  p.  52 
and  R.  15a.    Astern  appears  the  majestic  Sierra  Nevada  (p.  49). 

Steering  to  the  E.N.E.,  we  sometimes  see  the  Algerian  coast  to 
the  S.,  from  Cape  Tenes  (p.  209)  to  the  Bay  of  Algiers  (p.  221) 
and  the  hills  of  Great  Kabylia  (p.  252). 

After  many  hours'  steaming  we  next  sight  the  uninhabited  rocky 
islet  of  II  Toro,  off  the  S.W.  coast  of  Sardinia,  and  the  Golfo  di 
Palmas  (p.  129),  between  the  island  of  San  Antioco  and  the  bold 
Cape  Teulada,  the  ancient  Chersonesus  Promontorium,  the  south- 
most  point  of  Sardinia.  We  pass  the  Isola  Rossa  Bay  at  some 
distance ;  then  Cape  Spartivento  (lighthouse),  at  the  S.  end  of  the 
broad  Bay  of  Cagliari  (p.  144),  which  is  only  distinguishable  in 
clear  weather,  and  the  granitic  Isola  dei  Cavoli  (lighthouse),  ly- 
ing off  Cape  Carbonara  (p.  144).  The  Sardinian  coast  now  rapid- 
ly disappears. 

The  steamer  at  length  nears  the  Bocca  Grande,  15  M.  in  width, 
the  chief  entrance  to  the  *Ba.y  of  Naples  (p.  135),  between  the 
islands  of  Ischia  (left)  and  Capri  (right),  with  Vesuvius  in  the  dis- 
tance. The  S.W.  point  of  Ischia  is  the  picturesque  Punta  Impera- 
tore  (lighthouse).  We  steer  past  the  S.  side  of  the  island,  about  3  M. 
from  the  Punta  Sant' Angela  and  the  Punta  San  Pancrazio,  then 
past  the  island  of  Procida  and  the  hill  of  Posilipo,  into  the  har- 
bour of  Naples  (p.  135). 

From  Naples  to  Genoa,  see  It.  24. 






17.  Prom  (Lisbon)  Tangier,  and  from 
Gibraltar,  to  Marseilles. 

From  Lisbon  to  Tangier  and  (1150  M.)  Marseilles  (Naples,  and  Port 
Suid)  there  are  regular  steamboat  services  (from  Tangier  or  Gibraltar  to 
Marseilles  in  3  days)  by  the  German  East  African  Line  (E.  circular  tour), 
once  in  three  weeks,  and  the  Rotterdam  Lloyd,  fortnightly.  —  From  Gi- 
braltar to  Marseilles  there  are  the  Peninsular  &  Oriental,  the  Orient 
Royal,  and  other  lines.  —  Steamboat-agents  at  Lisbon,  Tangier,  Gibraltar, 
and  Marseilles,  see  pp.  8,  98,  53,  120. 

From  Lisbon  to  the  Straits  of  Gibraltar,  comp.  p.  5 ;  Tangier, 
p.  98;  Gibraltar,  p.  52. 

The  steamer  skirts  the  Spanish  coast  from  Gibraltar  to  Iviza 
(p.  112).  The  direct  route  to  Marseilles  is  through  the  Balearic 
Sea  (p.  112)  and  the  Gulf  of  Lions,  where  storms  often  prevail; 
but  when  the  mistral,  or  N.  wind,  blows  a  more  westerly  course 
is  chosen,  past  the  volcanic  Columbretes  islets  (lighthouse)  and 
aloug  the  coast  of  Catalonia. 

At  length,  to  the  S.E.  of  the  Rhone  Delta,  aud  flanked  with  bare 
limestone  hills,  we  sight  the  Bay  of  Marseilles,  bounded  by  thr 
Cap  Couronne,  on  the  left,  and  the  Cap  Croisette,  on  the  right. 
We  pass  the  island  of  Planier  (lighthouse)  and  the  islands  of  Ra- 
tonneau,  Pomegue,  and  //,  and  obtain  a  fine  view  of  the  church  of 
Notre  Dame  dela  Garde  (p.  122)  overlooking  the  city.  The  vessels 
usually  steer  through  the  Avant-Port  Nord  and  the  large  new  Bas- 
sin National  iuto  the  Bassin  de  la  Gave  Maritime. 

Marseilles.  —  Arrival  bt  Sea.  The  North  German  Lloyd  and  Ger- 
man East  African  steamers  anchor  in  the  Bassin  du  Lazaret  (PI.  B,  1). 
Those  of  the  Gencrale  Transatlantique  Co.  and  Messageries  Maritimes 
start  from  the  Bassin  de  la  Joliette  (PI.  B,  2,  3).  Most  of  the  great  British 
lines  (P.  &  0.,  Orient  Roval,  Bibby,  British  India,  etc.)  have  their  own 
berths,  as  to  which  careful  inquiry  should  be  made.  Note  that  most  of" 
these  are  a  long  way  from  the  principalr  ailway-station  (l-l'/a  M.) 

Railway  Stations.  The  Gare  St.  Charles  (PI.  F,  2),  the  main  station, 
is  the  only  one  for  through-passenger  traffic.  See  the  French  Indicateur 
as  to  trains,  several  of  which  run  in  winter  only;  others  correspond  with 
the  P.  &  0.  and  other  steamers  for  Egypt,  India,  Australia,  etc. 

Hotels  (mostly  in  noisy  situations).  *Reoina  (PI.  f ;  D,  3),  Place 
Sadi-Carnot;  *Louvre  &  de  la  Paix  (PI.  a;  E,  4),  *Noailles  &  Metro- 
pole  (PI.  c;  E,  4),  and  Grand  (PI.  b;  F,  4),  all  in  the  Rue  Noailles;  Bristol 
(PI.  w;E,  4),  Rue  Cannebiere,  new.  These  five  are  of  the  first  class  (R. 
from  4  or  5,  B.  l'/2,  dej.  4-4'/»,  D.  5-6  fr.).  — Petit-Lodvre  (PI.  d;  E,  4), 
Rue  Cannebiere  16;  Geneve  (PI.  m;D,  4),  Rue  dea  Templiers  3,  R.  from 
S'/g,  B.  1  '/a >  J^j-  3,  D.  4  fr.,  well  spoken  of;  Castille  &  Luxembourg 
(PI.  e;  E.5),  Rue  St.  Ferreol,  R.  from  3,  B.  l'/4,  de\j.  3,  D.  4  f r. ;  Des  Pho- 
ceens  (PI.  i;  E,  4),  Rue  Thubaneau  4,  R.  from  3,  B.  1,  dej.  3,  D.  4  fr., 
good ;  Continental  (PI.  j  ;  L\  4),  Rue  Beauvau  6,  R.  from  2'/2 ,  B.  1,  de\).  3, 
D.  8'/2  fr.  —  Near  the  Railway  Station:  Terminus  Hotel  (PI.  g;  F,  2),  R. 
5-10  fr. ;  *Russie  &  Angleterre,  Boul.  d'Athenes  31  (PI.  E,  3),  R.  from  4, 
B.  l'/o  dej.  3,  D.  4  fr.;  Bordeaux  &  Orient  (PI.  k;  E,  3),  same  boulevard, 
No.  11,  R.  from  3,  B.  l'/2,  dej.  3,  D.  3'/*  fr.—  Hotels  G-arnis  (R.  3-4,  B. 
l-l'/a  fr.):  Gr.  Nouvel  H6tel  (PI.  u;  F,  4),  Boul.  du  Musee  10,  good;  Mo- 
dern Hotel  (PI.  s;  D,  4),  Rue  Cannebiere  50;  Riche  et  du  Vingtiemk 
Sieclb  (PI.  v;  E,  4),  same  street,  No.  1. 

120     Route  17.  MARSEILLES.  Practical  Notes. 

Restaurants.  *La  Reserve,  Palace  Hotel,  Chemin  de  la  Corniche, 
of  the  first  class. — *Isnard,  H6t.  des  Phoceens  (p.  119);  de  Provence,  Cours 
BelsuDce  12,  good. —  Cafes,  best  in  Rue  Canneoiere  and  Rue  Noailles. — 
Brasserie  de  V  Univers,  at  the  Hotel  Bristol  (p.  119) ;  Strasbourg,  Place 
de  la  Bourse  11. 

Cabs  (voitures  de  place,  same  fares  by  day  or  night).  In  the  inner 
city,  to  the  Traverse  de  la  Joliette  (PI.  B,  2)  in  the  N.,  and  to  Boul.  de  la 
Corderie  and  Boul.  Notre  Dame  in  the  S.W. :  one-horse  carriage  (2  seats) 
per  drive,  IV21  Per  hour-  2'/2  fr. ;  two-horse  carr.  (4  seats)  2  or  3  fr. ;  trunk 
25  c.  per  drive,  50  c.  per  hour.  —  As  overcharges  are  frequent,  the  tariff 
should  be  asked  for.  —  Motor  Cabs  (taximeters  for  3  pers.),  1  fr.  for 
the  first  800  metres  (ca.  V2  M.),   20  c.  each  addit.  400  m.;  3  fr.  per  hour. 

Tramways  (in  the  town,  10  c. ;  no  transfer  tickets).  Among  the  chief 
are:  from  Place  de  la  Joliette  (PI.  C,  2)  to  Boul.  Vauban  (PI.  D,  7;  Notre 
Dame  de  la  Garde,  p.  122);  from  Quai  de  la  Joliette  to  the  Zoological 
Garden  (PI.  H,  2;  Palais  de  Longchamp,  p.  122);  from  Zoological  Garden 
to  Boul.  Notre  Dame  (PI.  D,  6,  7;  lift  to  Notre  Dame  de  la  Garde)  and  Boul. 
Vauban  (PI.  D,  7) ;  from  the  Cours  St.  Louis  (PI.  E,  4)  via  the  Prado  (p.  122), 
the  Corniche  (p.  122),  and  Endoume,  back  to  the  Cours  St.  Louis  (15  c). 

Transporter  Bridge  (Pont  Transbordevr ;  PI.  B,  4,  5;  p.  121), 
between  Quai  de  la  Tourette  and  Boul.  du  Pharo,  in  2  min.  (5  c). 

Steamboat  Lines.  Peninsular  &  Oriental  (Estrine  &  Co.,  Rue  Col- 
bert 18),  from  London  to  Gibraltar,  Marseilles,  and  Port  Said  (RR.  1,  17,  67); 
Orient  Royal  (Worms  &  Co.,  Rue  Grignan  28),  from  London  to  Gibraltar, 
Marseilles,  Naples,  and  Port  Said  (RR.  1,  17,  23,  67);  North  German  Lloyd 
(W.  Carr,  Rue  Beauvau  16),  to  Goletta  (Tunis)  and  Alexandria,  to  Naples 
and  Alexandria,  also  to  Genoa,  Naples,  Catania,  the  Piraeus,  Constantinople, 
etc.  (RR.  22,  23,  24,  67,  77,  80);  German  East  African  (W.  Carr),  from 
Southampton  to  Lisbon,  Tangier,  Marseilles,  Naples,  and  Port  Said  (RR. 
1,  23,  67);  Bibby  (Watson  &  Parker,  Rue  Beauvau  8),  from  Liverpool  to 
Marseilles,  Port  Said,  etc.  (R.  67);  British  India  (G  Budd,  Rue  Beauvau 
8),  from  Port  Said  to  Genoa,  Marseilles,  and  London ;  Rotterdam  Lloyd 
(Ruys  &  Co.,  Rue  de  la  Republique  29),  to  Port  Said  (R.  67);  Messageries 
Maritimes  (Place  Sadi-Carnot  3),  to  Naples,  Piraeus,  Constantinople,  and 
Beirut  (RR.  77,  75),  also  to  Constantinople,  Odessa,  and  Batum  (RR.  83,  85), 
also  to  Alexandria,  Port  Said,  and  Beirut  (RR.  67,  72);  Generate  Trans- 
atlantique  (Rue  Noailles  15),  to  Oran  and  Cartagena  (RR.  19,  18),  also  to 
Algiers,  Bougie,  Philippeville,  and  Bona  (R.  20),  also  to  Tunis  and  Malta 
(R.  21,  63),  and  to  Sfax  and  Susa  (RR.  21,  64);  Transports  Maritimes  (Rue 
de  la  Republique  70),  to  Gibraltar  and  Madeira  (R.  3),  to  Oran  (R.  19),  to 
Algiers,  Philippeville,  and  Bona  (R.  20),  and  to  Tunis  (Susa;  RR.  22,  64); 
Navigation  Mixte  {Touache  Co.,  Rue  Cannebiere  54),  to  Oran  (R.  19),  to 
Tangier  via  Oran  (RR.  19, 18),  to  Algiers  and  Philippeville  (R.  20),  to  Tunis, 
Sfax,  and  Tripoli  (RR.  21,  64),  and  to  Palermo  (RR.  21,  26);  Chargeurs 
Reunis  (Worms  &  Co.,  see  above),  from  Dunkirk  to  Marseilles,  Genoa,  and 
Naples  (for  E.  Indies,  S.  America,  etc.);  Fraissinet  &  Co.  (Place  de  la 
Bourse  6),  to  Ajaccio  and  Bastia  (and  Leghorn);  N.  Paquet  &  Co.  (Place 
Sadi-Carnot  4),  to  Oran  (if  required),  Tangier,  and  the  Moroccan  ocean- 
coast  (R.  14) ;  Compania  Mallorquina,  to  Palma  (Majorca). 

Post  &  Telegraph  Office.  Hotel  des  Postes  (PI.  D,  3),  Rue  Colbert; 
branches  at  the  railway-station  (p.  119),   at  the  Bourse  (PI.  D,  E,  4),  etc. 

Tourist  Agents.  Thos.  Cook  &  Son,  Rue  Noailles  11  bis;  Lubin, 
Rue  des  Feuillants  14.  — Banks.  Banque  de  France  (PI.  E,  6),  Place  Es- 
trangin-Pastre;  Credit  Lyonnais,  Rue  St.  Ferreol  25  (PI.  E,  4,  5). 

Consuls.  British  Consul-General,  M.  C.  Gurney,  Rue  des  Princes  8; 
vice-consuls,  T.  Broadwood,  F.  J.  Handing.  —  U.  S.  Consul-General,  A. 
Gaulin,  Cours  Pierre-Puget  10;  vice-consul,  P.  H.  Cram. 

English  Church,  Rue  de  Bellois  4;  services  at  10.30  and  3.30. 

Marseilles,  Fr.  Marseille,  the  second-largest  city  in  France, 
with  517,500  inhab.,  the  Massalia  of  the  Greeks  and  Massilia 

Harbour.  MARSEILLES.  17.  Route.      121 

of  the  Romans,  was  founded  by  Greeks  from  Phoc&a  (p.  530)  in 
Asia  Minor  about  600  B.C.,  and  soon  became  one  of  the  greatest 
seaports  on  the  Mediterranean.  During  the  Roman  period  it  vied 
with  Athens  as  a  seat  of  Greek  culture;  in  the  middle  ages  it 
belonged  to  the  kingdom  of  Arelate,  and  later  to  the  county  of 
Provence,  and  in  1481  it  was  at  length  annexed  to  France.  Being 
situated  at  the  mouth  of  the  great  and  time-hunoured  route  through 
the  Rhone  Valley  to  N.W.  Europe,  it  is  the  most  important  of 
French  and  of  all  Mediterranean  seaports.  The  total  exports  and 
imports  are  estimated  at  2926  million  francs,  and  nearly  17  million 
tons  of  shipping  enter  and  clear  annually.  The  city  is  now  almost 
entirely  modern  and  destitute  of  historical  memorials. 

From  the  Bassin  du  Lazaret  (PI.  B,  1)  and  Bassin  de  la  Jo- 
liette  (PI.  B,  2,  3),  the  southmost  of  the  docks  constructed  since 
1850  to  the  N.W.  of  the  old  town,  we  follow  the  Quai  de  la  Joliette 
to  the  — 

-Cathedral  (PI.  B,C,3;  Ste.  Marie  Majeure  or  La  Major), 
situated  on  a  terrace.  This  is  one  of  the  largest  and  finest  churches 
of  the  19th  cent.;  it  was  built  by  Vaudoyer,  in  a  mixed  Byzantfne 
and  Romanesque  style,  in  1852-93.  Adjacent  is  the  Old  Cathedral 
of  St.  Lazare,  which  is  shown  by  the  sacristan  of  the  new  church. 

From  the  Place  de  la  Major  the  Esplanade  de  la  Tourctte  leads 
to  the  S.  to  the  *Vieux  Port  (PI.  C,  D,  4,  5),  the  Lakydon  of  the 
Phocteans,  a  deeply  indented  creek,  where  smaller  craft  only  are  now 
berthed.  The  entrance  to  it  is  guarded  by  the  old  forts  of  Grasse- 
Tilly  and  Entrecasteaux.  Just  inside  the  entrance  the  harbour  is 
crossed  by  the  Pont  Transbordeur  or  Transporter  Bridge  (p.  120) ; 
for  the  sake  of  the  view  we  may  ascend  either  to  the  trolley-way 
(buffet-restaurant)  or  to  the  top  of  the  N.  tower  (steps  up  and  down 
50  c;  lift  up  60,  up  and  down  75  c). 

On  the  N.  side  of  the  Quai  du  Port  (PI.  C,  D,  4),  the  scene  of 
motley  popular  traffic  (pickpockets  not  uncommon),  lies  the  Old 
Town,  with  its  narrow  and  dirty  streets,  inhabited  by  the  lower 
classes,  including  numerous  Italians  of  whom  the  city  contains 
about  100,000.  This  quay  leads  past  the  Hotel  de  Ville  (PI.  C,4), 
an  interesting  building  of  the  17th  cent.,  to  the  E.  end  of  the  Vieux 
Port,  where  begins  the  — 

*Rue  Cannemkke  (Pl.D,  E,  4),  which  for  ages  has  been  the 
chief  boast  of  the  city.  Here,  on  the  left,  is  the  Bourse  (PI.  E,  4), 
erected  by  Coste  in  1852-60. 

This  street,  prolonged  by  the  Rue  Noailles,  the  Allies  de 
Meilhan,  etc.,  intersects  the  city  from  S.W.  to  N.E.,  and  at  the 
Cours  St.  Louis  (PI.  E,  4),  the  chief  centre  of  traffic,  it  is  crossed 
by  a  straight  line  of  streets  running  from  N.W.  to  S.E.,  the  Cours 
Belsunce,  Rue  de  Rome,  and  Promenade  du  Prado,  to  the  Rond 
Point  (p.  122),  being  in  all  nearly  3  M.  long. 

122     Route  17.  MARSEILLES.       Chemin  de  la  Corniche, 

The  Rue  Noailles  (PI.  E,  4),  from  the  end  of  which  the  Boulevard 
Dugommier  ascends  to  the  railway-station,  and  the  pretty  Allees 
de  Meilhan  (PI.  F,  4)  lead  to  the  modern-Gothic  church  of  St. 
Vincent  de  Paul  (PI.  F,  3),  with  its  two  towers  commanding  a 
great  part  of  the  city. 

A  little  to  the  left  is  the  Cours  du  Chapitre,  leading  into  the 
Boulevard  Longchamp  (PI.  G,  H,  3,  2),  a  street  ascending  steeply 
to  the  *Palais  de  Longchamp  (PI.  H,  2).  This  imposing 
Renaissance  edifice  was  designed  by  Espirandieu,  the  architect 
(1862-9).  The  Ionic  colonnade,  with  a  lofty  triumphal  arch  in  the 
centre,  where  a  picturesque  cascade  has  been  introduced,  is  flanked 
with  two  wings,  the  right  containing  the  Natural  History  Museum, 
and  the  left  the  Museum  of  Fine  Art  (adm.  daily  except  Mon. 
and  Frid.,  8-12  and  2-5  or  in  winter  9-12  and  2-4;  closed  20th- 
31st  Jan.  and  20th-31st  July). 

The  groundfloor  contains  sculptures.  In  the  centre  is  the  principal 
hall.  The  room  on  the  left  contains  works  by  the  Marseillais  master 
Pierre  Pu get  (1622-94);  in  that  on  the  right  is  a  model  of  the  Monument 
to  the  Dead  in  Pere  Lachaise  at  Paris,  by  Bartholome".  The  staircase  is 
adorned  with  a  wall-painting  by  Pi/vis  de  Chavannes  (1869). 

On  the  first  floor  is  the  picture-gallery.  Among  the  older  pictures 
in  the  central  room  are:  361.  Nattier,  Duchesse  de  Chateauroux;  788. 
Pietro  Perugino,  Holy  Family;  914.  Rubens,  Boar-hunt  (about  1615).  In 
the  modem  department,  in  the  room  on  the  left:  430.  J.  Fr.  Millet, 
Mother  and  child  (1860). 

The  main  streets  of  the  S.  quarter  of  the  town  are  the  Rue  de 
Rome,  which  begins  at  the  Cours  St.  Louis  (p.  121),  and  a  little  to 
the  W.  of  it  the  handsome  Cours  Pierre-Puget  (PI.  E,  D,  5,  6), 
ending  in  the  Promenade  of  that  name. 

A  little  to  the  S.,  on  a  bold  rock  of  white  limestone,  is  enthron- 
ed the  church  of  *Notre  Dame  de  la  Garde  (PI.  D,  7;  532  ft.),  a 
great  landmark  for  mariners,  where  we  obtain  the  finest  view  of 
the  city  and  its  environs.  Lift  (Ascenseur;  PI.  D,  7)  from  the  Rue 
Cherchell  (up  60,  down  30,  return  80  c. ;  on  Sun.  and  before  9 
a.  m.,  40,  20,  or  50  c). 

On  a  fine  day  the  traveller  will  be  repaid  by  a  visit  to  the 
*Cheinin  de  la  Corniche  (comp.  PI.  A,  6;  tramway,  p.  120). 
From  Notre  Dame  de  la  Garde  it  may  be  reached  direct  in  about 
40  min.  by  the  Chemin  du  Roncas-Blanc.  This  road,  partly  hewn 
in  the  rock,  and  shadeless,  affords  fine  views.  It  ends,  near  the 
Chdteau  Borely,  which  stands  in  a  park  and  now  contains  the 
Musee  d'Archeologie,  at  the  — 

Promenade  du  Pkado,  a  favourite  resort  of  the  Marseillais, 
planted  with  plane-trees.  A  gay  throng  may  be  seen  here  on  Sun- 
day afternoons  and  every  fine  evening.  "We  may  return  thence  to 
the  town  by  the  Rond  Point  du  Prado. 

See  also  Baedeker's  Southern  France. 

Prom  Marseilles  to  Naples,  see  E.  23. 


18.  From  Tangier  and  Cartagena  to  Oran. 

From  Tangier  to  Oran  (301  M.).  Mail  steamers  of  the  Navigation 
Mirte,  every  Wed.  afternoon,  in  52Va  hrs.  (fares,  without  food,  80  and 
60  fr.),  via  Melilla  and  Nemours  (returning  via  Beni-Saf,  Nemours,  Melilla, 
and  Tetuan);  also  cargo-steamers  via  Malaga,  Melilla,  and  Nemours,  in 
8-4  days,  leaving  Tangier  every  second  Tuesday  (Malaga  Wed.).  Also 
steamers  of  the  Hungarian  Adria  (fare,  without  food,  30  fr.).  Agents 
at  Tangier,  see  p.  98;  at  Malaga,  p.  89;  at  Oran,  p.  176. 

From  Cartagena  to  Oran  (132  M.).  Comp.  Ginirale  Transattantique 
every  Tuos.  in  9  hrs.  (fares,  without  food,  50  and  35  f r. ;  pier-dues  at 
Cartagena  3  or  2  f r. ;  agent  J.  M.  Pelegrin,  Plaza  de  la  Aduana  1;  at 
Oran,  p.  176).  This  is  the  shortest  sea-route  to  Algiers  and  is  recommended 
to  those  who  are  bad  sailors.     Passport  necessary. 

Steering  from  Tangier  (p.  98)  to  the  E.N.E.  through  the  Straits 
of  Gibraltar,  the  vessel  passes  Cape  Malabata  (p.  57),  Cape 
Alboasa,  and  the  fine  shore  of  the  Cala  Grande,  to  which  the  Bio 
de  las  Ostras  descends  from  the  Sierra  San  Slmonlto,  a  branch 
of  the  Anjera  Mts.  (p.  103).  In  the  little  bay  on  the  E.  side  of 
the  Punta  Alcazar,  scarcely  visible  from  the  sea,  lie  the  ruins  of 
Ksar  es-Serlr,  a  small  seaport  founded  by  Yakub  ibn  Yftsuf  (p.  61), 
which  prospered  in  the  later  middle  ages,  and  belonged  to  the 
Portuguese  from  1448  to  1540. 

Off  Cape  Ciris  (p.  5)  the  steamer  nears  the  abrupt  slopes  of 
the  Sierra  Bullones  (p.  103)  and  then  passes  the  Isla  del  Peregil 
(243  ft.),  which  is  overgrown  with  underwood  and  contains  a  large, 
grotto  (Grotta  de  las  Palumas,  visited  from  Ceuta).  Beyond 
Cape  Leona  and  the  Bay  of  Benzus  the  region  of  Ceuta  (p.  103) 
is  reached.  Fine  view  of  the  bay  of  Algeciras  (p.  56)  and  the  rock 
of  Gibraltar  to  the  N. 

After  passing  the  bay  of  Ceuta  and  the  N.  and  E.  headlands  of 
the  peninsula  of  Almina  (p.  103),  the  Punta  Santa  Catalina 
(p.  5)  and  the  Punta  de  la  Almina  (lighthouse),  we  obtain  an 
admirable  view  of  the  Moroccan  coast,  extending  from  the  Sierra 
Bullones  (p.  103)  to  the  finely  shaped  Jebel  Beni  Hassan.  In 
the  centre,  between  Cabo  Negro  (p.  103)  and  Cabo  Mazari,  is 
the  deep  depression  of  the  plain  of  Tetudn  (p.  102),  where  the 
steamers  of  the  Navigation  Mixte  call  on  their  voyage  to  Tangier 

The  vessel  now  steers  to  the  E.S.E.  towards  Cape  Tres  Forcas, 
quite  apart  from  thePif  Coast,  a  hill-region  inhabited  by  the  Budfa 
(sing.  Rip)  and  still  forming  part  of  the  Blad  es-Siba  (p.  96).  It 
lies  between  the  Wad  Warlnga,  the  river  bounding  the  province 
of  Tetuan,  and  Cape  Tres  Forcas.  In  the  bay  of  Alhucemas  rise 
the  rocky  islets  of  Penon  de  Velez  de  la  Gomera  and  Islas  de 
Alhucema,  with  two  Spanish  'presidios'.  The  Betoya,  the  stretch 
of  coast  with  its  numerous  creeks  between  Cape  Quilates,  on  the 
E.  side  of  the  Alhucemas  Bay,  and  Cape  Tres  Forcas,  was  for  cent- 
uries the  favourite  haunt  of  the  Rif  pirates  (p.  96). 

124     Route  18.  MELILLA.  From  Tangier 

Beyond  the  wedge-like  Cape  Tres  Foveas,  the  ancient  Sesti- 
aria  Promontorium  (Arabic  Rds  Wark),  jutting  out  121/2  M.  sea- 
ward, we  sight  the  long  coast-line  of  the  Bay  of  MelMa,  into 
which  the  steamers  from  Malaga,  passing  some  20  M.  to  the  W. 
of  the  island  of  Albor&n  (p.  117),  steer  direct. 

Melilla  (Hot.  de  Asia,  Fonda  la  Africana,  both  at  the  harbour 
and  plain),  or  Melila,  a  town  of  9000  inhab.,  the  only  Mediterranean 
port  on  the  Morocco  coast  besides  Ceuta  and  Tetuan  lies  most  pic- 
turesquely on  the  spurs  of  Monte  Melila  or  Caramu  (3235  ft.),  a 
little  to  the  N.  of  the  marshy,  fever-stricken  mouth  of  the  Rio  del 
Oro.  Its  site  is  probably  that  of  the  ancient  JRusaddir  (p.  95), 
where  ended  the  great  Roman  military  road,  about  1430  M.  long, 
which  connected  Carthage  with  Mauretania.  Melilla  is  the  oldest 
Spanish  possession  in  Morocco,  having  been  captured  in  1496.  In 
1774  it  was  unsuccessfully  besieged  by  a  Moroccan  army,  and  in 
1893  it  resisted  an  attack  by  the  Berbers  of  the  Bif.  Being  a  free 
port,  it  carries  on  a  brisk  trade  with  the  coast-towns  of  the  Algerian 
province  of  Oran,  and  many  Moroccans  from  the  interior  embark 
here  on  their  way  to  the  harvesting  in  Algeria.  The  larger  steam- 
ers anchor  in  the  roads,  which  are  tolerably  sheltered  from  the 
W.  winds  only  (landing  or  embarkation  50  c).  New  harbour-works, 
however,  are  now  under  construction.  The  drinking-water  of  Me- 
lilla is  not  good. 

Melilla  consists  of  the  small  and  tidy  new  town  which  has  been 
built  near  the  harbour  since  1893  and  contains  a  covered  market, 
the  shops  of  the  Spanish-Jewish  and  Moorish  tradesmen,  and  the 
promenade,  and  of  the  remarkably  clean  old  town,  enclosed  by  lofty 
walls,  and  occupying  the  nearly  square  plateau  of  a  rocky  headland. 
From  projecting  parts  of  the  town-wall  a  fine  view  is  obtained  of  the 
Fort  Rosario,  which  is  separated  from  the  old  town  by  the  small 
Galdpago  Bay,  and  of  the  broad  bay  extending  to  the  Chafarinas 
Islands  (see  below) ;  in  the  background,  beyond  the  Mar  Chica  or 
Lago  de  Puerto  Nuevo  (Arabic  Sebkha  Bu-Erg),  a  shallow  lake 
13  M.  long,  appears  the  lofty  chain  of  Jebel  Kebdana  with  the 
Monte  de  Tessan  (3275  ft.). 

Continuing  our  Voyage,  we  pass  the  Chafarinas  Islands 
(French  Res  Zafarines),  occupied  by  the  Spanish  since  1848, 
which  lie  off  the  Cabo  del  Agua  and  form  the  only  safe  harbour 
on  this  coast  as  far  as  Oran.  On  the  Isla  Isabel  Segunda,  the 
central  island,  rises  a  lighthouse  visible  at  a  distance  of  20  M. 

We  pass  the  mouth  of  the  Muluya  (p.  93),  the  ancient  Ma- 
lucha  (or  Muluchath) ,  which  separated  the  provinces  of  Mauretania 
Tingitana  and  Mauretania  Csesariensis  (p.  244),  and  was  in  the 
middle  ages  the  boundary  between  the  kingdoms  of  Fez  and 
Tlemcen   (p.  188).    Beyond  it,  rising  above  the  thickly  peopled 

to  Oran.  CARTAGENA.  /*•  Rwte.     125 

coast-plain  of  Tazagraret,  rises  the  chain  of  Jebel  Beni  Snassen 
(p.  197),  which  belongs  geologically  to  the  Algerian  Tell  Atlas 
(p.  169).  The  political  frontier  between  Morocco  and  Algeria  is 
formed  by  the  brook  Oncd  Kiss  or  Adjerond  (comp.  p.  169),  near 
which,  on  the  little  Bale  d'Adjeroud,  and  notf  ar  from  Cape 
Milonia,  lies  the  French  seaport  of  Port-Say  or  Adjeroitd. 

In  calm  weather  the  steamers  call  at  the  bay  of  Nemours 
(p.  198),  enclosed  by  the  spurs  of  the  Traras  Mts.  (p.  198;  landing 
or  embarkation  1  fr.).  They  then  pass  Cape  Torsa  and  Cape  Xoe, 
where  the  plateau  of  Mont  Tadjeva  (2592  ft.)  is  sighted,  and  steer 
to  the  N.E.  towards  Cape  Figalo,  at  some  distance  from  the  little 
port  of  Hom'in  (here  the  iron-ore  of  Rhar  el-Maden  is  exported), 
the  lighthouse  on  the  island  of  Rachgoun  (opposite  the  mouth  of  the 
Tafna,  p.  185) ,  and  the  port  of  Beni-Saf  (p.  185).  To  the  N.E., 
beyond  Cape  Figalo,  appear  the  Isles  Habibas  (lighthouse),  sur- 
rounded by  reefs,  and  then,  beyond  Cape  Lindless,  the  uninhabited 
little  He  Plane. 

Beyond  Cape  Falcon  (lighthouse;  p.  184)  we  survey  the  broad 
Ghdf  of  Oran  (p.  126),  as  far  as  the  Pointe  de  V Aiguille.  Immed- 
iately to  the  right,  in  the  fertile  Plaine  des  Andalouses,  lies  the 
village  of  A'in  et-Turk  (p.  184);  then,  beyond  the  spurs  of  the 
Jebd  Stanton,  the  harbour  of  Mers  el-Ke'bir  (p.  183),  with  a  fort 
and  lighthouse.    Entrance  to  the  harbour  of  Oran,  comp.  p.  175. 

Cartagena  (Hot.  de  Francia  y  de  Paris,  Calle  de  Osuna  and 
Plaza  de  la  Aduana;  Hot.  Ramos,  Plaza  de  Prefumo  8;  Brit,  vice- 
cons.  J.  C.  Gray;  U.  S.  cons,  agent,  A.  J.  Marks;  pop.  41,300), 
founded  by  Hasdrubal  in  221  B.C.,  the  best  natural  harbour  on  the 
Spanish  Mediterranean  coast,  is  now  the  chief  harbour  of  the  Spanish 
navy.  (It  is  reached  by  express  from  Madrid  in  14  hrs.;  sleeping- 
car  on  Mon.,  Wed.,  and  Frid.,  21  p.  25  c.  extra.)  The  railway-station 
lies  to  the  N.E.  of  the  town,  not  far  from  Muelle  de  Alfonso  Duode- 
cimo, the  quay,  where  the  steamers  are  berthed.  A  charming  view 
of  the  town  and  the  bay  is  obtained  from  the  Castillo  de  la  Con- 
ception (230  ft.),  a  ruined  castle  on  a  hill. 

The  entrance  to  the  inner  harbour,  which  is  closed  by  the 
Dique  de  la  Curra  (lighthouse),  is  guarded  by  two  forts  situated 
on  bold  volcanic  rocks,  the  Castillo  de  las  Galeras  (656  ft.)  on  the 
W.,  and  the  Castillo  de  San  Jididn  on  the  E.  (919  ft.).  The  outer 
bay  is  protected  on  the  S.E.  by  the  little  island  of  Escombrera, 
the  ancient  Scombraria. 

The  Oran  steamboats,  soon  after  leaving  Cartagena,  steer  due 
S.,  affording  a  retrospect  of  the  lighthouses  of  Cabo  Tiftoso  to  the 
W.  and  Cape  Palos  (p.  112)  to  the  E.,  and  they  usually  enter  the 
Gulf  of  Oran  (p.  126)  before  dawn. 


19.  From  Marseilles  to  Oran. 

615  M.  Steamboat  Lines  (agents  at  Marseilles,  see  p.  120;  at  Oran, 
p.  176).  Comp.  Ginirale  Transatlantique,  rapide  on  Thurs.  and  Sat.  aft. 
(in  reverse  direction  Tues.  and  Thurs.),  in  41  hrs.,  fare  81  or  59  fr. ; 
Transports  Maritimes,  Tues.  (returning  Sat.),  in  38  hrs.,  75  or  55  fr. ; 
cargo-boat  Frid.  (returning  Tues.),  in  46  hrs.,  60  or  40  fr. ;  Navigation 
Mixte  (Tot/ache  Co.),  Wed.  (returning  Sat.),  in  54  hrs.,  60  or  40  fr. 

Travellers  in  S.  France  may  take  a  steamer  of  the  Navigation  Mixte 
from  Cette  (a  seaport  90  M.  to  the  W.  of  Marseilles)  to  Porte  Vendres  and 
Oran  (Thurs.  night),  in  45  hrs.,  fare  90  or  65  fr. 

Marseilles  and  its  harbour,  see  p.  119. 

Steering  out  into  the  Ghtlf  of  Lions  and  the  Balearic  Sea, 
the  steamers  at  first  either  follow  the  same  course  as  those  to 
Gibraltar  (K.  17),  or  a  more  easterly  course,  past  Majorca  and 
Dragonera  (p.  112),  towards  the  rock-bound  strait  between  Iviza 
(p.  112)  and  the  flat  island  of  Formentera,  the  southmost  of  the 
Balearic  group.  In  passing  we  obtain  a  fine  view  of  the  town  of 
Iviza,  with  its  old  castle  and  loftily  situated  cathedral  (see  Bae- 
deker's Spain  und  Portugal). 

Nearing  the  Algerian  coast,  we  first  sight  the  range  of  hills 
culminating  in  Jebel  Orouze  (p.  199),  which  separates  the  bays  of 
Arzew  (p.  199)  and  Oran.  Entering  the  outer  *Gv,lf  of  Oran,  we 
survey  its  full  extent  from  the  Pointe  de  V Aiguille  to  Cape  Carbon 
(p.  264).  On  the  left,  rises  the  curiously  shaped  Jebel  Kahar  or 
Montagne  des  Lions  (p.  184).  In  the  foreground,  in  the  inner  bay 
bounded  by  Pointe  Canastel  and  the  headland  of  Mers  el-Kebir 
(p.  183),  lies  the  town  of  Oran,  with  the  old  fort  of  Santa  Cruz 
rising  high  above  it  (p.  175). 

20.  From  Marseilles  to  Algiers,  Bougie, 
Philippeville,  and  Bona. 

Steamers  (agents  at  Marseilles,  see  p.  120;  at  Algiers,  p.  219;  at 
Bougie,  p.  262;  at  Philippeville,  p.  304;  at  Bona,  p.  309).  1.  Comp. 
GinArale  Transatlantique  from  Marseilles  to  Algiers  (463  M.),  rapide 
mail-steamers  on  Sun.,  Tues.,  Wed.,  and  Frid.  at  noon  (returning  Sun., 
Tues.,  Thurs.,  Frid.  at  noon),  in  261/2hrs.;  from  Marseilles  to  Bougie 
(455  M.),  Tues.  noon  (returning  Sat.  evening),  in  37'/2  hrs.;  from  Marseilles 
to  Philippeville  (455  M.),  Sat.  noon  (returning  Frid.  noon),  in  30  hrs.;  from 
Marseilles  to  Bona  (462  M.),  Tues.  aft.  (returning  Tues.  night),  in  31  hrs.; 
fares  by  the  mail-steamers  to  Algiers  96  or  69  fr. ;  for  the  other  three 
routes  81  or  59  fr.  —  2.  Transports  Maritimes,  from  Marseilles  to  Algiers 
(and  back),  Wed.  and  Sat.  aft.,  in  35  hrs.,  fare  70  or  45  fr. ;  to  Philippe- 
ville (Bougie),  Sat.  aft.  (returning  Wed.  noon)  in  36  hrs.,  fare  60  or  40  fr. ; 
to  Bona,  Mon.  (returning  Thurs.)  aft.,  in  37  hrs.,  fare  60  or  40  fr.  — 3.  Navi- 
gation Mixte  (Touache  Co.),  from  Marseilles  to  Algiers,  rapide  on  Thurs. 
noon  (returning  Sat.  noon),  in  32  hrs.,  fare  75  or  50  fr.;  direct  cargo-boat 
on  Mon.  aft.  (returning  Frid.  noon),  in  36  hrs.,  fare  60  or  40 fr.;  to  Philippe- 
villo  (Bona),  mail-steamer  on  Thurs.  noon  (returning  Mon.  noon),  in  33  hrs., 
fare  75  or  50  fr. 

BAY  OP  ALGIERS.  so.  Rovte.     127 

Cheap  steamers  to  Algiers  are  the  cargo-boats  of  Cdillol  &  Duvillard 
(50  or  30  fr.)  and  of  Prosper  Durand  (40  or  25  fr.). 

Less  frequented  routes  are  those  of  the  Navigation  Mixte  from  Cette 
(00  M.  to  the  W.  of  Marseilles)  to  Port  Vendres  and  Algiers  (Sat.  night ; 
42hrs.;  90  or  65  fr.);  the  Spanish  Compaflia  MaUorquina  (p.  120)  from 
Marseilles  and  Barcelona  to  Palma  and  Algiers  (twice  monthly;  passport 
necessary) ;  and  the  Comp.  Generate  Transatlantique  (cargo-boats),  be- 
tween Ajaccio  and  Bona  (Thurs.  evening;  in  30-38  hrs. ;  60  or  50  fr.). 

Marseilles,  see  p.  119. 

The  Algieks  steamer  usually  passes  close  to  the  E.  side  of  the 
island  of  Minorca,  the  eastmost  of  the  Balearic  group,  where,  in 
daylight,  the  deeply  indented  natural  harbour  of  Mahon,  the  chief 
town,  specially  attracts  attention.  When  the  sea  is  rough  the 
course  is  sometimes  more  westerly,  past  Cape  Minorca  (light- 
house), the  W.  extremity  of  the  island,  while  inland  on  the  flat 
coast  lies  the  town  of  Ciudadela;  the  vessel  then  passes  at  some 
distance  from  the  Cabo  de  Per  a  (lighthouse),  and  from  the  hilly 
S.E.  coast  of  Majorca,  which  is  famed  for  its  stalactite  caverns 
(see  Baedeker's  Spain  and  Portugal). 

At  length,  in  clear  weather,  we  obtain  a  glorious  *View  of  the 
Algerian  coast,  from  the  hills  of  CapeBengut  (lighthouse)  to  the  E., 
and  the  Jurjura  Chain  and  the  Tell  Atlas  to  the  S.E.,  both  snow- 
clad  in  winter,  to  the  wooded  hill-country  of  Sahel,  culminating  in 
Mont  Bouzareah,  and  Cape  Caxine  (lighthouse)  to  the  W.  We 
now  enter  the  fine  *Bay  of  Algiers  (p.  221),  bounded  by  Cape 
Matifou  (lighthouse)  on  the  N.E.  and  the  cliffs  of  the  Pointe  Pes- 
cade  on  the  N.W.,  and  survey  its  whole  expanse.  To  the  left,  in  the 
Mitidja  Plain,  between  Cape  Matifou  and  the  sand-hills  at  the 
mouth  of  the  Harrach,  lies  Fort-de-V  Eau,  a  sea-bathing  place; 
beyond  the  Harrach,  on  the  hill,  stands  the  church  of  Kouba; 
farther  along  the  coast,  among  the  houses  of  Hassein-Dey  and  Bel- 
court,  lies  the  Jardin  d'Essai,  backed  by  the  gardens  of  Mustapha- 
Superieur;  behind  the  harbour  of  Algiers  rises  the  high  terrace- 
wall  of  the  boulevards;  then,  above  the  new  towu,  the  white  houses 
and  lanes  of  the  Kasba  on  the  spurs  of  the  hill  crowned  with  the 
Fort  V Empereur ;  lastly,  on  the  slope  of  the  Bouzareah  hill,  be- 
tween the  N.W.  suburbs  Bab  el-Oued  and  St.  Eugene,  appears 
Notre-Dame  d'Afrique,  the  mariners'  church.  —  Arrival  in  the 
harbour,  see  p.  217. 

On  the  voyage  from  Marseilles  to  Bougie  the  course  is  more 
easterly,  out  of  sight  of  the  Balearic  Islands.  The  tedium  of  the 
voyage  is  at  length  compensated  for  near  the  Algerian  coast  by  an 
imposing  *View  of  the  mountains  of  Kabylia,  which  after  a  snow- 
fall in  winter  have  quite  an  Alpine  charm.  To  the  W.,  between 
Cape  Sigli  and  Cape  Carbon  (p.  264)  lies  the  abrupt  and  almost 
uninhabited  coast  of  Great  Kabylia,  overtopped  by  the  lofty 
Jebel  Arbalou  (p.  262).    To  the  S.,  behind  the  fine  curved  out- 

Baedkkkr's  Mediterranean.  9 

128     Route  20.  GULP  OF  STOBA. 

line  of  the  Gulf  of  Bougie  (p.  130),  and  beyond  the  plain  of  the 
Soumane  Valley,  rise  the  heights  of  Little  Kabylia,  with  the 
deep  depression  of  the  Agrioun  Valley,  and,  to  the  S.E.,  the  ser- 
rated range  of  Jebel  Tababor  (6460  ft.).  To  the  E.,  beyond  Cape 
Cavallo,  stretches  the  hill-region  of  Djidjelli.  In  the  N.E.  angle 
of  the  bay,  on  the  S.  slope  of  the  Jebel  Gouraya,  but  long  con- 
cealed by  the  three  spurs  of  that  mountain  (Cape  Carbon,  p.  264, 
Cape  Noir,  and  Cape  Bouah,  with  its  lighthouse),  lies  most 
picturesquely  the  quiet  seaport  of  Bougie,  embosomed  in  luxuriant 
evergreen  vegetation  (p.  262). 

The  crossing  to  Philippeville  is  specially  recommended  to  trav- 
ellers bound  for  Biskra  direct,  as  they  thus  avoid  the  long  rail- 
way journey  from  Algiers.  The  broad  Gulf  of  Stora,  with  its 
numerous  headlands  and  creeks  and  its  beautiful  wooded  hills, 
presents  a  charming  picture,  especially  in  spring.  In  the  back- 
ground, in  a  pleasant  creek,  lies  Philippeville  (p.  304).  In  passing 
through  the  outer  harbour  we  obtain  a  good  view  of  the  town. 

On  the  voyage  to  Bona  the  first  land  sighted  on  the  Algerian 
coast  is  the  lofty  Mount  Edough  (3307  ft.;  p.  169),  the  spurs  of 
which  extend  to  the  N.W.  to  the  Cap  de  Fer  (p.  131).  The  steamers 
then  enter  the  Gulf  of  Bona,  bounded  on  the  W.  by  the  Cap  de 
Garde  (lighthouse),  the  N.E.  spur  of  Mt.  Edough,  and  on  the  E. 
by  Cape  Rosa  (p.  131).  On  the  S.  margin  of  the  bay,  above  the 
marshy  alluvial  plain  of  the  Seybouse  and  the  Oued  Mafrag,  rise 
the  peaks  of  the  Tell  Atlas. 

On  the  W.  side  of  the  gulf,  between  the  spurs  of  the  Edough, 
lies  Bona  (p.  309),  one  of  the  most  important  and  most  beautiful 
seaports  of  Barbary,  with  rich  verdure  all  around.  Before  enter- 
ing the  grand  harbour,  commanded  by  the  hill  of  the  Kasba,  we 
view  the  Corniche  Road  (p.  311),  while  on  the  low  hill  of  Hippo, 
to  the  S.  of  the  town,  rises  the  church  of  St.  Augustine  (p.  312). 

21.  From  Marseilles  to  Tunis. 

555  M.  Steamboats  (agents  at  Marseilles,  see  p.  120;  at  Tunis,  p.  331). 
1.  North  German  Lloi/d  from  Marseilles  to  Goletta  (Alexandria)  every 
second  Wed.  foren.  (returning  Sat.  even.),  in  3OV2  hrs.  (90-150  or  60  marks). 
—  2.  Comp.  Genirale  Transatlantiqiie.  from  Marseilles  to  Tunis  direct 
(Malta,  R.  63),  Mon.  at  noon  (returning  Frid.  aft.),  in  Sl«/2  hrs.  (96  or  69  fr.) ; 
via  Bizerta  to  Tunis  (Sfax  and  Susa,  R.  64),  Frid.  at  noon  (returning 
Wed.),  in  41  hrs.  (81  or  59  fr.). — 3.  Navigation  Mixte  (To/iache  Co.)  from 
Marseilles  to  Tunis  direct  (Sfax  and  Tripoli,  R.  64),  rapide  mail-steamer 
Wed.  at  noon  (returning  Mon.  afternoon),  in  39  hrs.  (75  or  50  fr.);  cargo- 
boat  via  Bizerta  to  Tunis  (Palermo,  R.  26),  Sat.  evening  (returning  Thurs. 
at  noon),  in  49  hrs.  (60  or  40  fr.). 

Marseilles,  see  p.  119.  —  After  remaining  for  some  time  in 
view  of  the  coast  of  Provence  as  far  as  Cape  Side  (comp.  p.  132), 
the  vessel  steers  to  the  S.E.  and  loses  sight  of  land. 

TUNISIAN  COAST.  2'-  Route.     129 

Off  the  Isola  di  Mai  di  Ventre  we  may  catch  a  glimpse  of  the 
peninsula  of  Sinis,  which  lies  on  the  N.  side  of  the  large  Gulf  of 
Oristano,  on  the  W.  coast  of  Sardinia,  and  at  whose  S.  end  once 
lay  the  Phoenician  colony  of  Tharros.  The  bare  and  monotonous 
hills  of  the  S.W.  coast,  with  the  well-known  lead  and  zinc  mines 
of  the  Iglesiente,  the  region  round  Iglesias,  are  only  visible  in 
clear  weather.  The  steamer  rounds  the  islands  of  San  Pietro  and 
San  Antioco  (p.  118),  with  its  capital  of  the  same  name  on  the  E. 
coast,  occupying  the  site  of  the  Phoenician  Stdci.  We  pass  the  Golfo 
di  Palm  as,  with  the  uninhabited  islets  of  La  Vacca,  R  Vitello, 
and  R  Toro  (p.  118),  and  then  Cape  Teulada  (p.  118),  after  which 
.Sardinia  is  soon  lost  to  view. 

To  the  S.W.  appears  the  distant  He  de  la  Galite  (p.  132) ;  then, 
on  the  coast  of  Tunisia,  we  descry  the  low  spurs  of  the  Tell  Atlas 
(p.  320),  with  the  headlands  of  Eds  el-Koran,  Rds  Engelah  (light- 
house; the  northmost  point  of  the  African  continent),  Cap  Blanc 
(lighthouse ;  the  Promontorium  Candidum  of  antiquity),  and  Cap 
de  Bizerte  or  Cap  Guardia  (853 -ft. ;  lighthouse).  To  the  S.E. 
another  lighthouse  marks  the  rocks  of  'I  Cani'. 

Some  steamers  call  at  Bizerta  (p.  352) ;  the  others  steer  to  the 
left,  past  the  Cani  and  the  island  of  Pilau  (p.  132),  towards  the 
little  lie  Plane  (lighthouse),  which  lies  ofl  Cape  Farina  (Arabic 
Rds  Tarf;  the  ancient  Promontorium  Apollinis),  where  we  come 
in  sight  of  the  broad  Gidf  of  Tunis,  with  the  island  of  Zembra 
(p.  153)  in  the  background. 

We  now  cross  the  Bay  of  Utica  (p.  353)  to  the  S.,  which  since 
ancient  times  has  been  largely  filled  up  with  the  deposits  of  the 
Medjerda  (p.  320),  pass  Cape  Kamart  (p.  351)  and  La  Marsa 
(p.  351),  and  then  reach  the  picturesque  Cape  Carthage  (p.  351), 
with  its  lighthouse  and  the  sea-baths  and  white  houses  of  Sidi  Bou- 
Sa'id.  We  now  enter  the  *Inner  Bay  of  Tunis,  commanded  on  the 
E.  by  Jebel  Korbous  (p.  364)  and  on  the  S.  by  Jebel  Bou-Kornin 
(p.  363),  Jebel  Ressas  (p.  358),  and  Jebel  Zaghouan  (p.  359);  we 
pass  close  to  the  castle-hill  of  Carthage  (p.  344),  crowned  with  the 
cathedral,  the  sea-baths  of  Le  Kram,  IOiereddine,  and  Goulette 
Neuve  (p.  344),  and  reach  Goletta  (or  La  Goulette;  p.  343),  a 
small  seaport,  situated  on  the  tongue  of  laud  separating  the  Lac 
de  Tunis  or  Lac  Bahira  (p.  332)  from  the  open  sea. 

The  steamer  here  enters  the  canal,  5^2  M.  long,  110  yds.  wide, 
and  about  20  ft.  deep,  constructed  across  the  lake  in  1893,  where 
we  have  a  good  view  of  the  white  houses  of  Tunis.  On  the  right 
lies  the  island  of  Chikly,  with  relics  of  a  castle  built  by  Emp. 
Charles  V.  The  surface  of  the  lake  is  sometimes  enlivened  by 
flamingoes.  The  steamer,  at  half-speed,  takes  another  hour  to  reach 
Tunis  (p.  329). 



22.  Prom  Algiers  to  Tunis  by  Sea. 

432  M.  Steamers  (touching  at  intermediate  ports,  469  M. ;  agents  at 
Algiers,  see  p.  219;  at  Bougie,  p.  262;  at  Philippeville,  p.  304;  at  Tunis, 
p.  331).  1.  Comp.  Generate  Transatlantique,  cargo-hoat  Wed.  evening, 
via  Bougie,  Djidjelli,  Collo,  Philippeville,  Bona,  La  Calle,  Tabarca,  and 
Bizerta,  arrives  at  Tunis  Sun.  aft.  (returning  Sat.  noon,  arrives  at  Algiers 
Wed.  morn.);  100  or  80  fr. ;  pier-dues  at  Tunis  4  or  3  fr.  —  2.  German 
Levant  Line,  twice  or  thrice  a  month,  generally  calling  at  La  Calle. — 
3.  Hungarian  Adria  Co.,  cargo-boat  twice  a  month  to  Tunis  direct. 

Or  the  voyage  may  be  pleasantly  divided  as  follows  :  Marseilles  steamer 
of  Comp.  Gin.  Transatlantique  from  Algiers  to  Bougie  (Frid.  evening;  in 
10  hrs. ;  25  or  18  fr.) ;  Marseilles  steamer  of  Transports  Maritimes  Co. 
from  Bougie  to  Philippeville  (Tues.  afternoon ;  in  12  hrs. ;  18  or  12  fr.) ;  Mar- 
seilles steamer  of  Navigation  Mixte  from  Philippeville  to  Bona  (Sat.  fore- 
noon ;  in  5  hrs.;  10  or  8  fr.);  from  Bona  to  Bizerta,  by  cargo-boat  as  above, 
or  by  railway;  from  Bizerta  to  Tunis  by  Marseilles  steamer  of  the  C'omp. 
Gin.  Transatlantique  (p.  128;  Sat.  night;  in  5  hrs. ;  15  or  12  fr.).  — The 
small  coasting  steamers  of  Prosper  Durand  of  Marseilles  and  of  the 
Lignes  Cotieres  Algiriennes,  which  call  at  most  of  the  ports  as  far  as 
Bona,  can  only  be  recommended  for  short  voyages  by  daylight. 

The  coast  scenery  between  Algiers  and  Tunis  is  exceedingly  pictur- 
esque and  varied,  but  the  voyage  is  often  very  trying  for  bad  sailors. 
Storms  are  most  frequent  between  Djidjelli  and  Collo,  and  between  La 
Calle  and  Bizerta,  and  fogs  are  not  uncommon,  even  in  summer. 

Algiers,  see  p.  217.  As  the  steamer  leaves  the  harbour  a  beauti- 
ful *View  is  obtained  astern  of  the  town  and  of  the  coast  as  far  as 
the  Pointe  Pescade  (comp.  p.  127).  Beyond  Cape  Matifou  the 
coast,  overlooked  by  the  serrated  Jebel  Bou-Zegza  (p.  249),  recedes 
for  a  time  from  view. 

Near  Jebel  Djinet  (p.  253),  beyond  the  sand-hills  at  the  mouth 
of  the  Isser  (p.  253),  begins  the  bold  rock-bound  coast  of  Great 
Kabylia,  87  M.  in  length,  with  its  headlands  and  cliffs  worn  by 
the  surf,  its  secluded  little  seaports,  and  its  hill-sides  carefully  cul- 
tivated by  the  natives. 

"We  pass  the  mouth  of  the  Sebaou  (p.  253),  the  largest  stream 
in  Kabylia,  and  Cape  Bengut  (p.  254),  which  affords  scanty  pro- 
tection against  the  W.  winds  to  the  port  of  Dellys  (p.  254) ;  then 
Tigzirt  (p.  255),  Cape  Tedless,  and  Port  Gueydon  or  Azeffoun 
(lighthouse),  with  its  roadstead  open  towards  the  W.  Next  comes 
the  wildest  and  loneliest  part  of  the  coast,  between  Cape  Corbelin 
and  Cape  Carbon ;  we  pass  Cape  Sigli,  the  Pointe  Timri  n'  Tguerfa, 
where  Jebel  Arbalou  (p.  262)  comes  in  sight,  and  Cape  Boulima. 

Beyond  the  little  lie  Pisan  or  Djeribia,  overlooked  by  the  steep 
slopes  of  Jebel  Gouraya  (p.  265),  the  steamer  rounds  Cape  Carbon 
(p.  264),  passes  Cape  Noir  and  Cape  Bouak,  and  enters  the  har- 
bour of  Bougie  (p.  262). 

The  *Gulf  of  Bougie,  in  winter  the  finest  part  of  this  coast, 
presents  many  superb  scenes  (comp.  128),  notably  as  we  look  back 
at  the  town  of  Bougie  climbing  the  slope  of  Jebel  Gouraya. 

Near  Cape.  Cavallo,  in  the  E.  part  of  Little  Kabylia,  the  sum- 

COLLO.  22.  Route.     131 

mits  of  Jebel  Hadid  (4780  ft.)  and  Msid  Echta  (5072  ft.)  are 
specially  prominent.  We  next  pass  the  curiously  shaped  hill  in  the 
Tie  du  Grand-Carallo,  the  Petit- Cav alio,  and  the  headland  Rds 
Afia  (lighthouse),  and  reach  the  little  seaport  of — 

Djidjelli  (p.  267),  pleasantly  situated  at  the  foot  of  green  hills, 
where  the  steamers  anchor  in  the  open  roads  (landing  or  embarka- 
tion 1/2  fr.).   If  time  permit,  the  Vigie  should  be  visited. 

The  vessel  now  steers  to  the  N.E.  at  some  distance  from  the 
coast;  we  pass  the  mouths  of  the  Oued  Nil  and  the  Oued  el-Kebir, 
the  ancient  boundary  between  Mauretania  and  Numidia,  and  then 
the  Rds  Alia  (lighthouse).  Fine  view  of  the  Bougaroun  Mts.,  com- 
monly called  SaJwl  de  Collo,  famed  for  their  forest  of  cork-trees. 

Near  Cape  Bougaroun  or  Bougaroni  (lighthouse),  the  north- 
most  point  of  Algeria,  opens  the  broad  Gulf  of  Stora  (p.  128), 
bounded  on  the  E.  by  the  Cap  de  Fer  (see  below).  On  the  W.  bank 
11!'  the  gulf,  in  the  little  Bay  of  Collo,  and  between  the  penin- 
sula of  Djerda  (lighthouse)  and  the  Rds  Frao,  lies  the  small  sea- 
port of  — 

Collo  (Grand-Hotel,  poor),  important  only  for  the  export  of 
cork,  the  ancient  Chullu  or  Colonia  Minervia  Chullu,  one  of  the 
four  Colonise  Cirtenses  (p.  298),  in  a  fertile  hill-region.  From 
Hie  harbour  (landing  or  embarkation  30  c.)  we  walk  round  the 
•' l'liiinsula,  planted  with  vines  and  cacti,  and  overgrown  on  the 
N.  side  with  underwood,  and  affording  splendid  views  of  the  gulf. 

Steering  to  the  E.  we  now  skirt  the  coast,  where  the  Cape  El- 
Kalaa  or  Rds  Bibi  (535  ft.),  rising  abruptly  on  both  sides,  spec- 
ially strikes  the  eye,  and  pass  the  Pointe  Esrah  and  the  bay  of  that 
name.  By  the  islet  of  Sgrigina  (lighthouse),  which  lies  in  front  of 
the  Pointe  AJemes  or  Sgrigina,  opens  the  Inner  Bay  of  Stora, 
bounded  by  Jebel  Filfda,  a  mountain  rich  in  marble,  while  in  the 
background  lies  the  harbour  of  Philippeville  (p.  304). 

On  the  N.E.  margin  of  the  gulf,  beyond  the  plain  of  the  Oued 
fl-lubir,  with  its  border  of  sand-hills,  rise  the  spurs  of  Mont 
Edough  (p.  128).  The  steamer  next  rounds  the  almost  insular  Cap 
de  Fer  (1148  ft.;  lighthouse),  where  we  again  view  the  whole  ex- 
panse of  the  gulf,  and  passes  Cape  Toukouch,  which  shelters  the 
bay  of  Herbillon  (lighthouse)  from  the  W.  and  N.W.  winds.  "We 
now  steer  to  the  E.S.E.,  past  the  bare  Jebel  Gouari  (1880  ft.), 
Cape  Axin,  and  the  dark  rock  of  the  Voile  Noire  (213  ft.),  towards 
the  Cap  de  Garde  (p.  128),  which  projects  in  front  of  the  gulf  of 

Three  hours'  steaming  from  Bona,  past  the  low  Cape  Rosa, 
whose  light  is  seen  30  M.  away,  brings  us  to  the  open  roads  of 
La  Calle  (hotel),  where  landing  is  impossible  in  rough  weather. 

Beyond  the  rock  of  Kef  Mechtob  (591  ft.),  and  a  little  short  of 
Cape  Roux,  which  is  crowned  with  a  ruined  tower,  and  like  Cape 

132     Route  2a.  LA  GALITE. 

Rosa  was  once  famed  for  its  coral-reefs,  runs  the  frontier  of  Tu- 
nisia. The  wooded  hills  rising  abruptly  from  the  sea  belong  to  the 
region  of  the  Kroumirie  (p.  326),  so  often  mentioned  in  the  recent 
history  of  the  country. 

Tabarca  (p.  327),  the  next  port,  lies  picturesquely  in  a  bay 
behind  the  island  of  Tabarca  with  its  ruined  Genoese  castle. 

Again  steering  to  the  N.E.  we  pass  a  range  of  high  sand-hills 
and  the  mouth  of  the  Oued  Zouara,  where  we  have  a  glimpse  of 
the  Nefza  Mis.  (p.  328). 

Off  Cape  Negro  appears  in  clear  weather  the  coral-girt  lie  de 
la  Galite  (1290  ft.),  the  Calatha  of  antiquity,  about  24  M.  to  the 
N.W.  of  Cape  Serrat  (lighthouse),  where  the  ramifications  of  the 
Mogod  Mts.  approach  the  coast. 

Beyond  the  cliffs  of  the  two  Fratelli  and  the  Rds  al-Dukara 
we  round  the  Bizerta  Hills,  the  northmost  part  of  the  African 
coast,  with  the  four  headlands  Rds  el-Koran,  Rds  Engelah,  Cape 
Blanc,  and  Cape  de  Bizerte  (p.  129).  As  we  near  the  bay  of 
Bizerta  (p.  352),  fringed  with  low  olive-clad  hills,  we  descry,  far 
to  the  S.W.,  the  Jebel  Ichkeul  (p.  352). 

Steaming  farther  to  the  E.,  we  observe  the  Card  (p.  129)  on  the 
left,  and  pass  Rds  Zebib,  where  the  green  island  of  Pilau  (377  ft.) 
becomes  visible  in  the  foreground.  To  the  right,  on  the  N.  slope 
of  Jebel  Nadour  (p.  354),  covered  far  up  with  sea-sand,  lies  the 
highly  picturesque  Arab  village  of  Metlineh. 

For  the  voyage  from  Cape  Farina  to  Tunis,  see  p.  129. 

23.  Prom  Marseilles  to  Naples. 

512  (via  Genoa  615)  M.  Steamboat  Lines.  1.  Orient  Royal  3Iail  fort- 
nightly, on  the  way  from  London  to  Port  Said.  —  2.  North  German  Lloyd, 
for  Naples  and  Alexandria,  Wed.  afternoon,  in  33  hrs.  (100  or  70  marks) ; 
for  Genoa,  Naples,  Catania,  Piraeus,  Smyrna,  Constantinople  (Odessa, 
Batum)  every  other  Frid.  afternoon,  in  3  days  (80  or  56  marks).  —  3.  German 
East  African,  to  Naples  (and  Port  Said)  every  third  Sat.  in  2  days,  returning 
from  Naples  every  third  Wed.  (80  or  60  marks).  —4.  Messageries  Maritimes, 
to  Naples  (Pirasus,  Smyrna,  Constantinople,  Beirut,  RR.  77,  80,  75)  every 
second  Thurs.  (100  or  70  fr.).  —  5.  Chargeurs  Re'unis  (Tour  du  Monde), 
twice  quarterly  via  Genoa  to  Naples  (Colombo,  E.  Asia,  San  Francisco,  etc.). 
—  6.  Hungarian  Adria  Co.,  cargo-boats,  Sun.  forenoon,  via  Genoa  to  Naples 
in  4  days  (Palermo,  Malta);  also  Wed.  afternoon  to  Nice,  Genoa,  and 
Naples  in  4>/2  days  (Palermo,  Messina);  fare,  without  food,  42  fr.  —  The 
steamers  of  the  P.  &  O.  and  Rotterdam  Lloyd  companies  go  from  Marseilles 
to  Port  Said  direct. 

Marseilles,  and  departure  from  its  harbour,  see  p.  119. 

The  steamers  run  to  the  E.S.E.,  between  Cap  Croisette  and  the 
Re  du  Planter  (p.  119),  past  the  Re  Maire,  lie  Jarros,  and  Re 
Rio  to  the  Straits  of  Bonifacio.  Fine  view  of  the  richly  varied  coast 
of  Provence,  as  far  as  the  peninsula  of  Cape  Side,  with  the  bays 
of  Cassis  and  La  Ciotat,  the  latter  of  which  is  overlooked  by  the 

STRAITS  OF  BONIFACIO.       ™  Route.     133 

rock  called  the  Bee  de  VAigle.  In  the  background,  beyond  the  bare 
limestone  rocks  on  the  coast,  appears  the  Chaine  de  la  Ste.  Baurne 
(3786  ft.),  famed  for  its  ancient  forest,  the  property  of  the  state. 
Beyond  Cape  Sicie  and  the  Bay  of  Toulon,  we  pass  the  steep  rocky 
S.  coast  of  Porquerolles  (lighthouse),  the  largest  and  westmost  of 
the  lies  d'Hyeres,  the  ancient  Stoechades  Insulae. 

After  a  sail  of  several  hours  more  Corsica  (p.  143),  with  its 
high  mountains,  is  sighted  towards  theE.  In  the  distance  lies  the 
Bay  of  Ajaccio,  where  at  night  the  lights  on  the  Res  Sanguinairea 
may  be  descried.  "We  next  pass  the  Gulf  of  Valinco,  and  at  Cape 
Aquila  or  Senetosa  (lighthouse)  we  approach  the  S.W.  coast  of 
Corsica,  fringed  with  numerous  bays  and  creeks.  Off  the  rocks 
called  Les  Moines  (Monad)  we  sight,  to  the  left,  the  Montagne 
de  Cagna  (4518  ft.),  which  is  usually  covered  with  snow  in  winter. 

The  passage  of  the  * Straits  of  Bonifacio,  between  Corsica  and 
Sardinia,  is  very  beautiful  when  the  light  is  favourable.  At  the 
narrowest  part,  between  Cape  Pertusato  and  Punta  del  Falcone, 
they  are  7  M.  wide.  Between  the  lighthouses  of  Capo  di  Feno 
and  Capo  Pertusato,  amid  fissured  limestone  rocks  honeycombed 
with  caverns,  rises  a  headland  crowned  with  the  grey  old  Genoese 
citadel  and  the  white  houses  of  Bonifacio.  Opposite  to  it,  on  the 
N.  coast  of  Sardinia,  is  the  peninsula  of  Capo  Testa,  and  near  the 
Punta  del  Falcone  lies  the  narrow  Bay  ofLongo  Sardo,  with  the 
little  port  of  Santa  Teresa  di  Gallura.  Beyond  the  town  rise  the 
hills  of  the  Gallura  in  terraces,  stretching  far  away  to  the  Monti 
di  Limbara  (4469  ft.).  On  the  S.E.  the  horizon  is  bounded  by  a 
girdle  of  granitic  islands  and  rocks,  the  Insulae  Cuniculariae 
('rabbit-islands')  of  Pliny,  which  imperil  navigation,  especially  as 
they  are  washed  with  a  strong  current  from  the  Tyrrhenian  Sea. 

The  steamers  pass  through  the  Bocca  Grande,  between  the 
lighthouses  on  the  French  island  of  Lavezzi  and  the  Italian  Isola 
del  Iiazzoli.  To  the  right,  beyond  the  islets  of  Santa  Maria  and 
Isola  dei  Budelli,  appears  the  island  of  Maddalena,  on  which 
rise  a  signalling  station  and  the  fort  of  Guardia  Vecchia  (545  ft.). 
This  island,  the  largest  of  the  group,  is  connected  with  its  neigh- 
bours Santo  Stefano  and  Caprera  (696  ft. ;  once  the  residence  of 
Garibaldi;  d.  1882)  by  roads  built  on  embankments,  and  has  been 
converted  into  one  of  the  strongest  fortresses  on  the  Mediterranean 
in  emulation  of  Porto  Vecchio  in  Corsica  and  of  Bizerta.  Beyond 
Caprera,  and  adjoining  the  deeply  indented  Bay  of  Arsachena, 
appears  the  reddish  Capo  di  Ferro,  the  N.W.  point  of  Sardinia. 

We  now  steer  across  the  Tyrrhenian  Sea  to  the  E.S.E.  towards 
the  Ponza  Islands  (p.  xxxi).  We  first  pass  the  volcanic  N.W.  group, 
Palmarola  (the  ancient  Palmaria),  Ponza  (929  ft.;  Pontiae,  once 
a  Roman  colony),  with  the  lighthouse  of  Punta  della  Guardia,  and 
Zannone  (Siaonia).   Beyond  La  Botte,  a  rock  dreaded  by  sailors, 

134     Route  24.  RIVIERA  DI  LEVANTE.  From  Genoa 

begins  the  S.E.  group,  first  Ventotene,  the  well-known  Pandateria 
of  the  Romans,  to  which  Julia,  Agrippina,  and  Octavia  were  ban- 
ished, and  then  the  islet  of  Santo  Stefano  (lighthouse). 

In  the  distance  appear  the  Monte  Epomeo  and  the  lighthouse 
on  the  Punta  Imperatore  in  the  island  of  Ischia  (p.  118).  Ap- 
proach to  the  Bay  of  Naples,  see  p.  135. 

From  Naples  to  Alexandria  and  Port  Said,  see  R.  67;  to  Athens 
(Smyrna,  and  Constantinople),  see  R.  77. 

24.   From  Genoa  to  Naples. 

387  M.  Steamboat  Lines  (agents  at  Genoa,  see  p.  114;  at  Naples, 
p.  137).  1.  Canard  (New  York  and  Trieste  Line),  once  monthly  to  Naples. 
—  2.  White  Star  (for  New  York  or  Boston),  once  monthly  to  Naples  (SI. 
58.).  —  3.  North  German  Lloyd  (for  New  York),  two  or  three  times  a  month, 
in  21  hrs. ;  also  (for  Port  Said)  every  second  Thurs.  to  Naples,  in  about 
24  hrs. ;  also  Mediterranean-Levant  Service  (for  Catania,  Piraeus,  Smyrna, 
Constantinople;  RR.  23,  27,  77,  80),  every  second  Sat.,  in  about  26  hrs.  (70.40 
or  48.20  marks).  —  4.  Hamburg- American  (for  New  York),  once  or  twice 
monthly  to  Naples  (80  fr.).  —  5.  Societa  Nazionale:  Line  XX  every  Wed. 
night  to  Naples  (and  Messina,  etc.;  circular  trip,  comp.  p.  142)  in  33  his. 
(52  or  34  fr.);  Lines  V,  X,  &  XI  every  Mon.  and  Tues.  to  Leghorn  and 
Naples  in  42-48  hrs.  (63  or  42  fr.);  Line  I  monthly  to  Naples  (for  Port  Said 
and  Bombay).  —  6.  La  Veloce,  to  Naples  (for  Teneriffe  and  S.  America), 
comp.  p.  114.  —  7.  Lloyd  Sabaudo,  1-3  times  monthly  to  Naples  (Palermo 
and  New  York).  —  8.  Italian  Lloyd,  1-3  times  monthly  to  Naples  and 
New  York.  —  9.  Hungarian  Adria  Co.  (comp.  R.  23),  Tues.  ana  Sat.,  to 
Naples  in  36  hrs. ;  fare,  without  food,  24  fr. 

Genoa,  see  p.  113.  In  departing  we  survey  in  clear  weather 
the  whole  of  the  *Gulf  of  Genoa.  On  the  left  lies  the  Riviera  di 
Levante,  as  far  as  the  Monte  di  Porto fino  (2000  ft. ;  p.  117) ;  on 
the  right  are  the  Ligurian  Alps,  snow-capped  in  winter,  and  the 
Riviera  di  Ponente  as  far  as  Cape  Mele  (p.  113). 

The  vessel  steers  for  the  island  of  Gorgona  (see  below),  passing 
Monte  di  Portofino  at  a  distance  of  6  or  7  M.,  and  then  gradually 
leaves  the  coast;  the  last  place  visible  is  Chiavari  on  the  beautiful 
Bay  of  Rapallo.  Beyond  the  headland  of  Punta  del  Mesco,  where 
the  slopes  of  the  Cinque  Terre,  a  famous  wine-country,  descend 
abruptly  to  the  sea,  appear  the  rocky  islet  of  Tino  (302  ft. ;  light- 
house) and  the  fortified  island  of  Palmdria  (614  ft.),  at  the  S.  point 
of  the  Gulf  of  Spezia.  The  distant  pinnacles  of  the  Apuan  Alps 
are  seen  in  clear  weather.  Of  Leghorn  (p.  143),  where  some  of  the 
Italian  steamers  call,  the  lights  only  are  visible  at  night. 

The  islands  of  Gorgona  and  Capraia  (p.  143)  lie  on  the  right ; 
behind  the  latter  sometimes  peep  the  mountains  of  Corsica  (p.  143). 
From  the  Ligurian  we  now  pass  into  the  Tyrrhenian  Sea,  either 
through  the  Strait  of  Piombino,  between  the  port  of  Piombino  and 
the  rocky  islet  of  Palmaiola,  or  through  the  Palmaiola  Strait, 
between  that  islet  (lighthouse)  and  Elba  (p.  143).  By  Follonica, 
near  Piombino,  some  furnaces,  where  iron  from  Elba  is  smelted, 
gleam  through  the  night.    Beyond  the  Bay  of  Portoferraio  and 

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to  Naples.  NAPLES.  24.  Route.     135 

Capo  della  Vita,  the  N.E.  point  of  Elba,  are  seen  near  Rio  Marina 
the  reddish-black  hills  where  the  iron-ore  comes  to  the  surface. 
Farther  to  the  S.  is  seen  the  depression  of  the  bay  of  Porto  Longone. 

The  Promontory  of  Castiglione,  in  the  midst  of  the  marshy 
Maremma  Toscana,  and  the  small  group  of  the  islands  of  For- 
miche  di  Grosseto  remain  some  way  to  the  left.  The  steamer  then 
passes  through  a  strait  between  the  steep  headland  of  Monte  Argen- 
tario  (2083  ft.)  and  the  island  of  Giglio  (1634  ft.),  each  with  its 
lighthouse.    On  the  right  lies  the  islet  of  Giannutri  (305  ft.). 

Steering  towards  the  seaport  of  Civitavecchia  and  CapeLinaro, 
we  see  the  distant  Maremma  di  Roma,  backed  by  the  volcanic 
Tolfa  Mts.  (2011  ft.).  Above  the  Roman  Campagna  rise  the 
Sabine  and  Alban  Mts.,  followed  by  the  Volscian  Mts.  (Monti 
Lepini)  and  the  Monte  Circeo  (1775  ft.)  in  the  Pontine  Marshes. 
Farther  on,  we  obtain  a  glimpse  of  Terracina,  the  distant  hills 
on  the  Gulf  of  Gaeta,  and,  to  the  S.W.,  the  Ponza  Islands  (p.  133). 

In  the  foreground  we  next  sight  Vesuvius  and  the  island  of 
Ischia  with  Monte  Epomeo  (2589  ft.),  by  which  Capri  is  at  first 
concealed.  The  steamers  usually  pass  between  Ischia  and  Procida, 
but  sometimes  through  the  Strati  of  Procida,  between  that  island 
and  Cape  Miseno.  The  *Bay  of  Naples,  which  we  now  survey  in 
its  lull  expanse,  from  the  Bay  of  Pozzuoli  and  the  hill  of  Posilipo 
to  the  Peninsula  of  Sorrento  (p.  154),  is  strikingly  picturesque. 

Naples.  —  Akkival  by  Sea.  The  Mediterranean  and  New  York 
steamers  of  the  North  German  Lloyd  and  those  of  the  Society  Nazionale  are 
berthed  at  the  Immacolatella  Nuova  (PI.  Q-,  H,  5).  Passengers  by  other 
steamers  are  landed  at  that  quay  by  boat,  those  from  the  Lloyd  and  Orient 
Royal  Lines  free  of  charge  by  steam-tender  or  boat  respectively,  from 
others  by  rowing-boat  (1  fr.,  with  luggage,  but  bargain  advisable).  Travel- 
lers should  be  on  their  guard  against  boatmen  wearing  the  jerseys  of  well- 
known  steamboat-lines  though  not  employed  by  these  companies.  Porter 
(facchino)  for  small  valise  40,  trunk  80  c. 

The  Railway  Station  (Stazione  Centrale,  PI.  H,  3)  lies  at  the  E. 
end  of  the  city,  12  min.  from  the  Immacolatella  Nuova  (see  above),  and 
llraU  M.  from  most  of  the  hotels.  Here  arrive  all  the  express  trains  from 
the  north,  such  as  those  from  Verona  (I8V2-201/4  hrs.),  from  Milan  (17  hrs.), 
from  Turin  (17I/-2-22I/2  hrs.),  and  from  Venice  (20  hrs.).  As  the  delivery 
of  luggage  is  a  slow  process,  the  traveller  who  is  willing  to  pay  some- 
what more  may  drive  straight  to  his  hotel  without  it,  and  have  it  sent 
later.     Porter  (facchino)  for  each  small  package  15,  for  each  trunk  25  c. 

Hotels  (often  full  in  spring).  Of  the  very  first  class:  *Bertolini's 
Palace  Hotel  (PI.  p;  C,  61,  in  the  Parco  Grifeo  (with  lift  from  the  Corso 
Vittorio  Emanuele;  245  ft.),  R.  from  6  (Jan. -May  10)  fr.,  B.  2,  dej.  5, 
D.  8  fr. ;  *Excelsior  (PI.  0;  F,  7),  Via  Partenope  24,  R.  from  6,  B.  2,  dej.  5, 
D.  7  fr.,  new;  *Grand-HOtel  (PI.  d;  B,  7),  Piazza  Principe  di  Napoli,  near 
the  sea,  at  the  W.  end  of  the  Villa  Nazionale  (p.  141),  R.  from  6,  B.  l3/4, 
dej.  4'/ai  D.  7  fr.  —  In  the  higher  quarters,  with  beautiful  views:  Corso 
Vittorio  Emanuele  168,  *Bristol  (PI.  a;  D,  6),  R.  from  4,  B.  V/2,  dej.  4, 
D.  6fr. ;  No.  135,  *Pai:ker's  (PI.  b;  C,  6),  R.  5-10,  B.  l'/2,  dej.  3«/a>  D-  5Vsfr.; 
adjacent,  No.  133,  *Macpherson's  H6t.  Britannique  (PI.  q;  C,  6),  R~.  4-6 
(.Tan. -April,  5-8)  fr.,  B.  V/.,,  dej.  3'/a,  D.  5  fr. ;  *Grand  Eden  (PI.  u;  O,  6), 
Parco  Margherita  1,  R.  from  5,  B.  l>/2,  dej.  4,  D.  5>/2  fr. ;  Bellevite  (Pl.t; 
C,  6),  Corso  Vittorio  Emanuele  142,  R.  3'/2-4Va,  B.  l'/a,  d<5j.  3,  D.  4  fr. 

136     Route  24.  NAPLES.  Practical 

In  the  lower  quarters.  —  Via  Partenope,  facing  the  sea:  No.  23,  *Gr.- 
H6t.  Santa  Lucia  (PI.  m;  F,  7),  R.  from  5,  B.  V/2,  ddj.  4,  D.  6  fr. ;  No.  22, 
*Gr.-H6t.  du  Vesuve  (PI.  g;  E,  7),  R.  from  6,  B.  l'/2,  dej.  4,  D.  6  fr. ;  *Gr.- 
Hot.  Victoria  (PI.  v;  E,  7),  R.  from  5,  B.  l»/g,  ddj.  4,  D.  6  fr.;  No.  14, 
*Royal  dbs  Etrangers  (PI.  i;  E,  7),  R.  from  6,  B.  li/a,  dej.  4,  D.  6  fr. 
Piazza  del  Municipio  (convenient  for  passing  travellers):  *Gr.-H6L  db 
Londres  (PI.  1;  F,  6),  R.  from  5,  B.  V/2,  dej.  3>/2,  D.  5  fr.  Overlooking 
the  sea,  Via  Partenope  and  Strada  Chiatamone  55,  Hassler  (PI.  k;  E,  7), 
R.  5-10,  B.  li/g,  dej.  3'/2,  D.  5  fr.,  good;  Via  Caracciolo  15,  Savoy  (PL  r; 
B,  7),  R.  from  4,  B.  IV  2,  ddj.  4,  D.  5  fr.  Riviera  di  Chiaia  (PI.  D,  C, 
B,  7),  with  view  of  the  Villa  Nazionale  and  the  sea:  No.  276,  *Gr. 
Bretagne  &  Angleterre  (PI.  e;  D,  7),  R.  from  4,  B.  l'/g,  dej.  3J/.,,  D. 
5  fr.  —  By  the  sea,  Via  Partenope  20,  *Continental  (PI.  c;  E,  7),  R.  'Allr1, 
B.  lVgi  ddj.  3,  D.  472  fr.  Strada  Medina  76  (convenient  for  passing  tra- 
vellers), Isotta  &  Geneve  (PL  s ;  F,  5),  R.  4'/2-6,  B.  l»/2,  dej.  3,  D.  4'/2  fr. 
By  the  sea,  entrance  Strada  Chiatamone  59,  Metropole  &  Ville  (PL  h; 
E,  7),  R.  from  4,  B.  174,  ddj.  3Va,  D.  3-4'/2  fr.,  good.  Riviera  di  Chiaia  127, 
with  view  of  the  Villa  Nazionale  and  the  sea,  Riviera  (PL  f ;  C,  7),  R. 
3-4,  B.  l'/2)  ddj.  3'/2i  D-  5  fr.,  good.  Strada  Santa  Lucia  37,  Eldorado 
Modern  (PL  x;  E,  7),  R.  from  3,  B.  l>/g,  ddj.  3,  D.  4  f r. 

Unpretending:  La  Patria  (PL  w;  F  5)  Via  Guglielmo  Sanfelice  47, 
R.  31/2-5  fr.,  good;  Hot.  de  Naples,  Corso  Umberto  Primo  55,  R.  4-5  fr. ; 
Hot.  Milan  &  Schweizerhop,  Piazza  del  Municipio  84,  R.  3-4  fr.,  Russie 
(PL  n;  F,  7),  Strada  Santa  Lucia  82,  R.  gi/r8Va£r.,  both  plain. 

Restaurants  {Rietoranti,  Trattorie;  Italian  style,  a  la  carte).  Giar- 
dini  Internazionali,  Via  Roma,  entrance  Vico  Tre  Re  60,  good  cuisine; 
Giardini  di  Torino,  Via  Roma  292;  Ristorante  Milanese,  Galleria  Um- 
berto Primo,  N.  Italian  cookery;  Scotto  Jonno,  Galleria  Principe  di  Napoli 
(PL  F,  3),  ddj.  2  fr.,  Nic.  Esposito,  Salita  del  Museo  62  (these  two  suitable 
for  visitors  to  the  Museum);  Renzo  e  Lucia,  Mira  Napoli,  both  at  the 
terminus  of  tramway-line  Nr.  7  (for  visitors  to  San  Martino);  Ristorante 
Bella  Vista  (p.  142),  on  the  hill  of  Posilipo. — Beer.  *Pilsener  UrqueU, 
Strada  Santa  Brigida  36;  Bavaria,  Galleria  Umberto  Primo,  opposite  the 
Teatro  San  Carlo,  good. 

Caf6s.  Gambrinus,  Piazza  San  Ferdinando,  also  restaurant,  Calzona, 
Galleria  Umberto  Primo,  at  both  evening  concerts;  Nazionale,  Villa 
Nazionale  (p.  141),  near  the  Aquarium.  —  Tea  Rooms.  Galleria  Vittoria 
(PL  E,  7),  open  3-8  p.m.  only,  fashionable;  Via  Domenico  Morelli  8  (PL 
E,  7);  Strada  di  Chiaia  143  (Caflish,  confectioner). — Bars,  numerous  in 
Via  Roma. 

Taximeter  Cabs.  All  the  fares  given  below  are  for  drives  within 
the  city;  charges  for  drives  outside  the  city  at  any  time  of  day  are  the 
same  as  the  night-fares  given  below. 

a.  By  Day:  Open  one-horse  carriage  (for  2  pers.,  or  3  at  most),  for 
the  first  1500  metres  (ca.  1  M.)  or  12  min.  waiting  40  c,  for  each  additional 
500  m.  or  4  min.  waiting  10  c.  (two-horse  carr.,  for  4-6  pers.,  60  and  20  c). 
Closed  one-horse  carriage  ('coupd'),  for  the  first  1200  m.  (ca.  3/4  M.)  or 
12  min.  waiting  50  c,  each  addit.  400  m.  or  4  min.  waiting  10  c.  Motor 
Cab,  for  the  first  1000  m.  or  12'/2  min.  waiting  80  c,  each  addit.  200  m. 
or  2V2  min.  waiting  10  c;  each  addit.  pers.  above  three  40  c.  —  b.  By 
Night  (midnight  to  dawn):  Open  one-horse  carriage  for  the  first  1200  m. 
or  12  min.  waiting  40  c,  each  addit.  400  m.  or  4  min.  waiting  10  c.  (two- 
horse  carr.  60  and  20  c).  Closed  one-horse  carriage  for  the  first  1000  m. 
or  12  min.  waiting  50  c,  each  addit.  333'/3  m.  (ca.  365  yds.)  or  4  min. 
waiting  10  c.  Motor  Cab,  for  the  first  1000  m.  or  12>/2  min.  waiting  80  c, 
each  addit.  100  m.  (ca.  110  yds.)  or  2  min.  waiting  10  c. ;  each  pers.  above 
three  80  c. 

Luggage  up  to  25  kilos  (55  lbs.)  10  c.,  up  to  50  kilos  20  c;  small 
articles  free.  —  In  order  to  avoid  misunderstandings  the  driver  should 
be  asked  to  repeat  the  given  direction  before  starting.  The  numerous 
tramways  and  omnibuses  will  generally  enable  the  traveller  to  dispense 
with  cabs. 

Notes.  NAPLES.  24.  Route.     137 

Tramways  (numbered;  fare  15-40  c,  5  c.  less  in  2nd  class;  cars  stop 
regularly  at  stations  called  sezione,  and  when  required  at  those  bearing 
the  name  fermata). 

Chief  lines:  1.  Piazza  Sette  Settembre  (in  front  of  Spirito  Santo;  PI. 
E,  4;  Via  Roma,  p.  139)  to  the  Posta  (PI.  F,  5),  Piazza  del  Municipio,  Piazza 
San  Ferdinando,  Largo  della  Vittoria  (PI.  D,  7),  Torretta  (PI.  B,  7),  and 
Strada  Nuova  di  Posilipo  (p.  142).  —  4.  National  Museum  (PI.  E,  F,  3; 
p.  139)  to  the  Piazza  Cavour,  Central  Station  (PI.  H,  3;  p.  135),  Castel 
del  Carmine  (PI.  H,  4),  Strada  Nuova  (PI.  G,  H,  5),  Strada  del  Piliero,  and 
Piazza  del  Municipio;  thence  as  No.  1  to  the  Toretta. —  6.  Piazza  Dante 
(PI.  E,  F,  4;  p.  139)  to  National  Museum,  Via  Salvator  Rosa  (PI.  E,  3), 
Corso  Vittorio  Emanuele  (p.  141),  and  Torretta  (PI.  B,  7).— 7.  Piazza  Dante 
to  National  Museum,  Via  Salvator  Ro9a,  Antignano  (PI.  B,  C,  4;  p.  142),  and 
Castel  SanV  Elmo  (PI.  D,  5;  by  San  Martino,  p.  141).— 11.  Piazza  San 
Ferdinando  (PI.  E,  6),  to  Strada  del  Piliero,  Strada  Nuova  (PI.  F,  G,  5,  6; 
harbour),  Via  del  Duomo  (PI.  G,  F,  4,  3),  and  Strada  delle  V&rgini  (PI.  F,  3). 

Funiculars  (every  10-20  min. ;  up  20  or  15,  down  15  or  10  c). 
1.  Funicolare  di  C'hiaia,  Parco  Margherita  (PI.  C,  6),  to  Corso  Vittorio 
Emanuele  and  Via  Cimarosa  (PI.  C,  5).  —  2.  Funicolare  di  Monte  Santo 
to  Strada  Monte  Santo  (PI.  E,  4;  4  min.  from  Piazza  Dante),  Corso  Vit- 
torio Emanuele,  and  Castel  Sant'Elmo  (PL  D,  5). 

Omnibuses  (10  c),  among  others,  from  Piazza  San  Ferdinando  (PI. 
E,  6)   and   from  Largo  della  Vittoria  (PI.  D,  7)   to  the  National  Museum. 

Steamboat  Agents.  Canard,  Nic.  Ferolla,  Via  Guglielmo  Sanfelice 
59;  UnionCastle,  Anchor  Line,  Orient,  and  Hungarian  Adria,  Holme&Co. 
(see  below);  White  Star  and  Hamburg- American,  Piazza  della  Borsa  21; 
Norih  German  Lloyd,  Aselmeyer  &  Co.,  Corso  Umberto  Primo  6  (goods- 
oflke,  Piazza  della  Borsa  33);  German  East  African,  Kellner  &  Lampe, 
Piazza  della  Borsa  8;  Austro-Americana,  Fornari  &  Massara,  Via  Francesco 
Denza  2;  Messageries  Maritimes,  Fratelli  Gondrand,  Corso  Umberto  Primo 
12S ;  Societa  Nazionale,  Via  Agostino  Depretis  18;  Peninsular  &  Oriental, 
Thomson  Line,  Ferrovie  dello  Stato  (steamer  service),  Spanier,  Piazza 
della  Borsa  9;  Navi gazione  Generate,  Via  Agostino  Depretis;  La  Veloce, 
same  street,  No.  20. 

Post  &  Telegraph  Office  (PI.  F,  5),  Palazzo  Gravina,  Strada 

Consuls.  British  Consul-General,  S.  J.  A.  Churchill,  Via  dei  Mille  40 
(PI.  D,  (i);  vice-consul,  A.  Napier.  —  U.  S.  Consul,  A.  H.  Byington,  Piazza 
del  Municipio  4  (PI.  F,  6). 

Tourist  Agents.  Thos.  Cook  &  Son,  Galleria  Vittoria  (PI.  E,  7).  — 
Goods  Agents.  American  Express,  Via  Vittoria  27;  Elefante  &  Co., 
Piazza  del  Municipio  66;  Fratelli  Gondrand,  Corso  Umberto  Primo  128. 
—  Lloyd's  Agents.     Holme  &  Co.,  Via  Guglielmo  Sanfelice  24. 

Churches.  English  {Christ  Church;  'Chiesa  Inglcse' ;  PI.  D,  7),  Strada 
San  Pasquale;  Presbyterian  ('Chiesa  Scozzese'),  Vico  Cappella  Vecchia  2; 
American,  Viale  Principessa  Elena  15. 

Sights.  (The  churches  are  usually  open  in  the  morning  and  towards 
evening.  The  Museums  are  closed  on  great  festivals.)  Museo  Nazionale 
(p.  139),  week-days  10-4,  May-Out.  9-3,  adm.  1  fr.;  Sun.  9-1  free.— San  Mar- 
tino (p.  141),  week-days  10-4,  1  f  r. ;  Sun.  9-1,  free.  —  Aquarium  (p.  141), 
daily,  2  fr. ;  Sun.  and  holidays  1  fr. 

Naples,  Ital.  Napoli,  once  the  capital  of  the  kingdom  of 
Naples,  and  now  that  of  a  province,  is  the  most  important  seaport 
and  after  Milan  the  most  populous  city  of  Italy  (492,000  inhab.). 
It  lies  in  40°51'  N.  lat.  and  14°  15'  E.  long.,  on  the  N.  side  of  the 
bay  named  after  it,  at  the  foot  and  on  the  slopes  of  several  hills. 
Its  site  and  environs  are  among  the  most  beautiful  in  the  world. 
The  vicissitudes  of  its  history  are  as  remarkable  as  those  of  its 
volcanic  soil.    Here  in  hoar  antiquity  Greeks  from  Kyme  (Cumae) 

138     Route  24.  NAPLES.  Castel  Nuovo. 

founded  Parthenope,  afterwards  called  Palaeopolis  or  'old  town', 
and  Neapolis,  or  'new  town'.  Here,  too,  Ostrogoths,  Byzantines, 
Normans,  and  Hohenstaufen  held  sway.  Charles  of  Anjou  (1266-85) 
made  Naples  his  capital,  which  was  much  extended  by  Ferdinand  I. 
of  Aragon  (1458-94),  by  the  Spanish  viceroy  Don  Pedro  de  Toledo 
(1532-53),  and  by  the  Bourbon  Charles  III.  (1748-59).  At  length 
in  1860  the  kingdom  and  city  were  united  to  the  kingdom  of  Italy. 
In  historic  and  artistic  monuments  Naples  is  far  poorer  than  the 
towns  of  Northern  and  Central  Italy;  but  the  matchless  treasures 
from  Pompeii  and  Herculaneum  preserved  in  the  Museum,  which 
present  a  new  and  fascinating  picture  of  ancient  life,  afford  ample 

A  line  drawn  from  the  Castel  Sant'Elmo  (PI.  D,  5;  p.  141)  to 
the  Pizzofalcone  (PI.  E,  7),  a  height  which  terminates  in  the  nar- 
row rock  of  the  Castello  ddl'Ovo,  divides  the  city  into  two  parts. 
To  the  E.  lie  the  oldest  and  busiest  quarters,  of  which  the  long  Via 
Roma  (p.  139)  is  the  main  street.  The  smaller  part  of  the  town,  the 
strangers'  quarter,  extends  along  the  shore  to  the  W.  from  the  Pizzo- 
falcone and  up  the  slopes  of  Sant'Elmo  and  Posilipo  (p.  142). 

The  Harbour  Quarter,  and  particularly  the  lanes  between  the 
Strada  Nuova  (PI.  6,  H,  5)  and  the  broad  Corso  Umberto  Primo  (PI. 
F-H,  5,  4),  which  leads  to  the  station,  still  present  diverse  scenes 
of  popular  life.  Through  this  quarter  the  Strada  del  Duomo  (p.  140) 
leads  to  the  Strada  Foria  and  the  Museum  (p.  139). 

Passing  the  Immacolatella  Vecchia  (PI.  G,  5),  we  follow  the 
Strada  del  Piliero  (PL  G,  F,  5,6;  tramways  Nos.  4  and  11;  see 
p.  137)  to  the  Molo  Angioino  (PI.  F,  G,  6),  the  old  quay  which 
separates  the  Porto  Mercantile  from  the  Porto  Militare. 

Adjacent,  on  the  W.,  lies  the  Piazza  del  Municipio  (PI.  F,  6), 
with  the  Municipio  or  town-hall  at  its  W.  end.  On  the  S.E.  side 
of  this  piazza  is  the  approach  to  the — 

Castel  Nuovo  (PI.  F,  6),  built  for  Charles  I.  of  Anjou  in 
1279-83,  and  afterwards  much  enlarged.  It  was  the  residence  suc- 
cessively of  the  kings  of  the  houses  of  Anjou  and  Aragon  and  the 
Spanish  viceroys,  but  is  now  used  as  barracks.  The  inner  gateway 
of  the  castle  (adm.  free)  consists  of  a  ^Triumphal  Arch,  flanked 
with  two  towers,  in  the  early  Renaissance  style,  erected  in  1451-70 
in  memory  of  the  entry  of  Alphonso  I.  of  Aragon  (1442). 

From  the  Piazza  del  Municipio  the  Strada  San  Carlo  leads  to 
the  S.W.  to  the  GaUeria  Umberto  Primo  (PL  E,  F,  6),  built  in 
1887-90,  and  vying  with  the  grand  arcade  at  Milan,  and  to  the  — 

Piazza  San  Ferdinando  (PL  E,  6),  the  business  centre  of  the 
city.  (Tramcars  and  omnibuses,  see  p.  137.)  On  the  E.  side  rises  the 
Teatro  San  Carlo  (PL  F,  6),  dating  from  1737,  one  of  the  largest 
in  Europe.  Adjacent,  in  the  large  Piazza  del  Plebiscite,  rises  the 
Palazzo  Reale  (PL  F,  6),  begun  in  1600. 

Mweo  Nazionale.  NAPLES.  S4-  Route.     139 

At  the  Piazza  San  Perdinando  begins  the  Via  Roma,  the  chief 
artery  of  traffic,  named  the  Toledo  down  to  1870,  after  its  founder 
Don  Pedro  de  Toledo  (1540).  With  its  continuation  the  Salita  del 
Museo  Nazionale  it  ascends  for  over  a  mile,  between  the  lanes  on 
the  slope  of  the  Sant'Elmo  hill,  on  the  left,  and  the  chief  business 
part  of  the  city,  on  the  right,  to  the  National  Museum.  This  long 
line  of  streets,  poor  architecturally,  is  broken  only  by  the  small 
Largo  della  Carita  (PI.  E,  5)  and  the  Piazza  Dante  (PI.  E,  F,  4). 
About  halfway  between  these  the  Via  Domenico  Capitelli  diverges 
to  the  right  to  the  church  of  — 

Santa  Chiara  (PI.  F,  4),  the  Pantheon  of  Naples,  built  in 
1310-40,  but  tastelessly  restored  in  1742-57.  The  interior,  planned 
in  the  French  Gothic  style,  resembles  a  great  public  hall.  Behind 
the  high-altar  is  the  Gothic  *Monument  of  Robert  the  Wise  (d.  1343), 
the  founder  of  the  church.  The  transepts  contain  the  monuments 
of  other  Angevin  kings. 

The  **Museo  Nazionale  (PI.  E,  F,  3),  built  in  1586  as 
cavalry  barracks,  was  the  seat  of  the  University  from  1616  to  1780, 
but  since  1790  has  been  occupied  by  the  royal  art-collections, 
which  are  among  the  finest  in  the  world.    Adm.,  see  p.  137. 

On  the  Ground  Floor,  in  the  E.  wing  on  the  right  of  the  vestibule, 
are  the  *Greek  Sculptures  in  marble.  Entering  by  the  first  door,  we  begin 
our  visit  with  the  colonnade  of  the  archaic  sculptures  (Marmi  Arcaiei). 
In  the  centre:  6009,  6010.  Harmodios  and  Aristogeitou  (p.  506).  —  Turning 
to  the  right,  we  enter  the  rooms  on  the  S.  side  of  the  building,  which 
contain  sculptures  of  the  First  Golden  Age  of  Greek  art  (5th  cent.).  In  the 
central  room,  6322.  Bust  of  Athena,  probably  after  CephisodoU/s  (father 
of  Praxiteles) ;  by  the  window,  two  statues  of  Aphrodite  (after  Alca- 
menest);  I.  Room  on  the  right,  6005.  So-called  Hera  Faruese;  II.  Room 
on  the  left,  *6727.  The  famous  Orpbeus  relief  ;«*6024.  Statue  of  Athena 
(after  Phidias  f).     Also,  in  II.  R.  on  the  right,  fine  Mosaics. 

From  the  colonnade  of  the  archaic  sculptures  we  pass  through  R.  II 
into  the  Flora  colonnade,  the  rooms  on  the  right  of  which  contain  the 
sculptures  of  the  Second  Golden  Age  of  Greek  art  (4th  cent.)  and  of  the 
later  Greek  or  Hellenistic  period.  In  the  central  room,  6306.  Bearded 
Dionysus,  after  Praxiteles.  I.  Side-Room  on  the  right,  *6035.  Torso  of 
Aphrodite;  without  a  number,  Torso  of  a  man  sitting,  a  replica  of  the 
so-called  Ares  Ludovisi,  after  Lysippus.  II.  Side-Room,  Farnese  Hercules, 
after  Lysippus,  but  coarsened.  III.  Side-Room  on  the  left,  Farnese  Bull, 
a  colossal  group,  after  Apollonius  and  Tmiriscus  of  Rhodes. 

The  third  colonnade  contains  coloured  sculptures.  In  the  side-rooms 
are  fragments  of  sculptures  and  buildings.  Crossing  the  vestibule  to  the 
W.  wing,  we  enter  the  — 

Colonnade  of  the  Greek  portrait-statues  (Portico  Iconografico).  On  the 
right,  *6018.  ^Eschines,  the  Athenian  orator;  6023.  Homer;  6135.  Euripides. 
—  Straight  on,  we  next  come  to  the  Portico  degli  Imperatori,  containing 
Greek  and  Roman  portraits.  In  the  centre,  *Hermes  of  a  Greek  philos- 
opher. In  the  side-rooms,  Roman  sculptures  and  architectural  fragments. 
The  central  of  these  rooms  contains  the  celebrated  *Mosaic  of  the  Battle 
of  Alexander. 

The  remaining  rooms  contain  the  *Collection  of  the  larger  antique 
bronzes.  The  chief  rooms  (I,  II  Bronzes  from  Pompeii,  III-V  from  Her- 
culaneum)  are  on  the  S.  front  of  the  Museum.  Room  I.  5003.  Young 
Dionysos  (so-called  Narcissus).  Room  II.  5630.  Archaic  statue  of  Apollo 
playing  on   the  lyre;  4997.  Victory.    Room  III.    5625.  Hermes   reposing, 

140     Route  24.  NAPLES.  Cathedral. 

School  of  Lysippus;  5633.  Boy's  head  (end  of  5th  cent.);  *4885.  Bust  of 
the  Doryphorus  (spear-bearer),  after  Polycletus ;  *5618.  Head  of  bearded 
Dionysus,  after  a  work  of  the  School  of  Myron  (5th  cent.).  Room  V. 
5616.  Hellenistic  poet  (the  so-called  Seneca). 

In  the  Mezzanino  (entresol),  on  the  right,  is  the  *Collection  of  ancient 
wall-paintings  (Affreschi  Pompeiani)  from  Pompeii,  Herculaneum,  etc. — 
Room  I.  9105.  Briseis  carried  off  from  the  tent  of  Achilles;  9559.  Nuptials 
of  Zeus  and  Hera.  Room  II.  8976.  Medea  about  to  slay  her  children; 
9286.  Dionysus  and  the  sleeping  Ariadne.  Passage  to  R.  V,  9180.  'Cupids 
for  sale'.  Room  V.  8834.  Girl  gathering  flowers;  9295.  Bacchantes  and 
SatyTs;  9133.  Centaurs;  9118-21.  Rope-dancing  satyrs. 

The  First  Floor  (Priino  Piano)  contains,  in  the  E.  wing,  to  the  left 
of  the  staircase,  the  two  Sale  dei  Commestibili,  devoted  to  provisions, 
textiles,  pigments,  etc.  from  Pompeii;  also  seven  rooms  on  the  N.  side  of 
the  building,  occupied  by  the  *Collectiou  of  the  smaller  bronzes  (Piccoli 
Bronzi),  and  by  interesting  domestic  furniture  from  Pompeii,  affording  an 
admirable  idea  of  the  ancient  style  of  living. 

The  whole  of  the  W.  wing  is  occupied  by  the  Pinacoteca  or  picture- 
gallery,  chiefly  of  Italian  works.  Room  1.  Correggio,  Betrothal  of  St. 
Catharine.  Room  II.  *Titian,  Danae  (1545),  Pope  Paul  III.  Farnese  (1543 
and  1545),  and  Philip  II.  of  Spain.  Room  III.  Sebast.  del  Piombo,  Holy 
Family,  Popes  Hadrian  VI.  and  Clement  VII.  Room  IV.  Raphael,  Holy 
Family  (Madonna  del  divino  Amore).    Room  V.  Sandro  Botticelli,  Madonna. 

The  other  rooms  contain  Renaissance  objects  (Oggetti  del  Cinquecento), 
the  Engravings,  and  the  National  Library. 

The  Second  Floor  (Secondo  Piano)  is  dedicated  to  antique  glass, 
gold  and  silver  plate,  cut  gems,  etc.,  a  most  interesting  and  extensive 
collection,  one  of  the  finest  of  its  kind. 

The  N.E.  Quarter,  between  the  Museum  and  the  Central  Station 
(tramways  Nos.  4  and  11;  p.  137),  also  boasts  of  its  sights. 

We  follow  the  long  Piazza  Cavour  (PI.  F,  3)  to  the  N.E.  from 
the  Museum,  and  at  the  beginning  of  the  Via  Foria  descend  the 
Strada  del  Duomo  to  the  right  to  the  (4  min.)  — 

Cathedral  (PI.  G,,  3;  San  Gennaro;  best  seen  about  noon),  a 
Gothic  edifice,  built  in  1272-1323,  but  repeatedly  modernized. 
The  third  chapel  in  the  right  aisle  is  the  famous  Cappella  di  San 
Gennaro  or  Cappella  del  Tesoro,  added  to  the  church  in  1608-37; 
the  altar  contains  two  phials  of  the  blood  of  St.  Januarius,  which  is 
miraculously  liquefied  thrice  yearly.  The  crypt,  below  the  high- 
altar,  shows  the  finest  example  of  Renaissance  decoration  in  Naples 
(1497-1507).  From  the  left  aisle  is  entered  the  basilica  of  Santa 
Restituta,  the  old  cathedral,  founded  in  the  7th  century. 

The  church  of  San  Giovanni  a  Carbonara  (PI.  G,  3),  in  the 
street  of  that  name,  a  little  way  to  the  N.E.  of  the  cathedral,  con- 
tains, at  the  back  of  the  high-altar  (1746),  the  late-Gothic  *Monu- 
ment  of  king  Ladislaus  (d.  1414),  by  Andreas  de  Florentia. 

At  the  end  of  the  street,  opposite  the  Castel  Capuano  (PI.  G,  3; 
now  law-courts),  built  by  Emp.  Frederick  II.  in  1231,  rises  the  — 

*Porta  Capuana  (PI.  G,  H,  3),  one  of  the  finest  of  Renais- 
sance gateways,  built  by  the  Florentine  Giuliano  da  Maiano  (1485), 
with  sculptures  by  Giovanni  da  Nola  (1535). 

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San  Martino.  NAPLES.  **•  Route.     141 

The  chief  approach  from  the  Piazza  San  Ferdi7iando  (p.  138)  to 
the  W.  quarters  is  by  the  animated  Strada  di  Chiaia  (PL  E,  6). 
From  its  W.  end  we  proceed  along  the  Strada  Santa  Caterina,  bear- 
ing to  the  left,  cross  the  Piazza  dei  Martiri,  and  follow  the  Via 
Calabritto,  with  its  numerous  shops,  to  the  — 

Largo  della  Vittoria  (PI.  D,  7 ;  tramways,  Nos.  1  and  4,  and 
omnibus,  see  p.  137).  This  piazza  may  be  reached  also  from  the 
Eione  Santa  Lucia  on  the  E.  side  by  the  Via  Parteuope  (PI.  F,  E,  7), 
which  leads  along  the  coast,  past  the  Castello  dell' Ovo  (p.  138),  and 
affords  tine  views.    On  the  W.  side  of  the  Largo  lies  the  — 

*Villa  Nazionale  (PI.  C,  D,  7),  usually  called  La  Villa,  a 
beautiful  public  garden  planted  with  palms,  bounded  on  the  sea-side 
by  the  Via  Caracciolo,  the  fashionable  promenade  of  Naples,  and 
on  the  side  next  the  town  by  the  Riviera  di  Chiaia.  A  band  plays 
here  on  Sun.,  Tues.,  and  Thurs.,  2-4  o'clock  (June-Oct.  9-11  p.  m.). 
In  the  middle  of  these  grounds  is  the — 

Zoological  Station,  founded  in  1872  by  the  German  naturalist 
A.  Dohrn  (d.  1909).  The  central  building  contains  the  *Aquarium 
(PI.  D,  7  ;  adm.,  see  p.  137),  which  presents  an  unrivalled  and  most 
interesting  picture  of  submarine  life. 

The  winding  Corso  Vittorio  Emanuele,  over  2l/2  M.  long, 
ascends  from  the  coast  a  little  way  beyond  the  Villa  Nazionale,  or 
it  may  be  reached  from  the  Museum  by  the  Via  Salvator  Rosa 
(PI.  E,  3;  tramway  Xo.  6,  see  p.  137).  Above  the  'Villa',  on  the  S. 
slope  of  the  Sant'  Elmo  Hill,  are  situated  the  best  hotels. 

On  the  hills  to  which  the  two  funiculars  and  tramway  No.  7 
(p.  137)  ascend  from  the  lower  town  lies  the  new  quarter  of  JRione 
I  ero  (PL  C,  D,  5).  On  itsE.  side  rises  the  old  Castel  SanV Elmo 
(PL  D,  5;  817  ft.),  fortified  with  huge  walls  and  with  passages 
hewn  in  the  tufa  rock,  and  now  used  as  a  military  prison.  From  the 
outer  gate  of  the  castle,  at  the  tramway-terminus,  we  descend  to 
the  E.  to  the  suppressed  Carthusian  monastery  of  — 

*San  Martino  (PL  D,  5 ;  adm.,  see  p.  137),  a  Gothic  building 
of  the  14th  cent.,  tastefully  restored  in  the  baroque  style  about 
1650.  The  church,  the  old  farmacia  (Room  III),  and  the  cloisters 
are  interesting.  The  other  rooms  contain  Neapolitan  memorials 
and  art-industry  collections.  Rooms  XV  and  XVI  (once  the  library) 
are  filled  with  Neapolitan  majolicas  and  porcelain.  From  Room 
XXX,  to  the  right,  we  enter  a  *Belvedere  (XXXII),  whose  balconies 
offer  a  superb  view  of  the  city,  Vesuvius,  the  bay,  and  the  fertile 
plain  extending  to  the  Apennines  (best  by  afternoon  light). 

A  famous  view  (clear  weather  necessary)  is  obtained  from  the  old 
monastery  of  **Camaldoli  (1503  ft.),  founded  in  1585  on  the  highest  of  the 
hills  to  the  N.W.  of  Sant'  Elmo.  The  rough  road  to  it  (carr.  about  6,  with 
two  horses  9-10  fr. ;  there  and  back  4'/s  brs.)  leaves  the  city  near  the  Porta 
San  Martino  (PI.  A,  13,  2),  the  N.W.  gate  of  the  Cinta  Daziaria  or  wall 
of  the  octroi  (town-customs).  If  on  foot  or  on  donkey  back  (2-2>/2  fr.  and 
fee  to  attendant;  5-6  brs.),  we  go  from  Rione  Vomero  (see  above)  through 

142     Route  24.  NAPLES.  Posilipo. 

the  suburb  of  Antignano  (PI.  B,  C,  i,  5)  to  the  little  customs-office  of 
V Archetiello  (PI.  B,  4),  near  which  the  bridle-path  begins. 

The  monastery  (suppressed,  and  now  private  property,  but  still  occu- 
pied by  several  monks;  fee  30-50  c. ;  ladies  not  admitted)  offers  little 
attraction.  Straight  through  the  garden  we  reach  a  point  of  view  which 
commands  the  bays  of  Naples  and  Pozzuoli,  the  PhlegrEean  plain  with  its 
numerous  extinct  craters,  and  the  Bay  of  Gaeta  as  far  as  the  distant 
Ponza  Islands  (p.  133). 

When  ladies  are  of  the  party  we  turn  to  the  right,  near  the  N.W. 
angle  of  the  monastery-wall,  and  descend  a  little  to  the  (8  min.)  gate  of 
the  Veditta  Pagliana  (adm.  20  c),  where  the  view  is  similar. 

Travellers  whose  time  is  limited  may  at  least  visit  the  *Strada 
Nuova  di  Posilipo  (tramway  No.  1;  p.  137).  It  is  approached, 
beyond  the  Villa  Nazionale  (p.  141),  by  the  Strada  di  Mergellina 
(PI.  B,  7),  from  which  the  Corso  Vittorio  Emanuele  (p.  141)  di- 
verges. The  Strada  Nuova  di  Posilipo,  gradually  ascending  from 
the  sea,  leads  between  villas  with  luxuriant  gardens  round  the 
broad  hill  of  Posilipo,  which  bounds  the  Bay  of  Naples  on  the  W., 
and  offers,  especially  by  evening  light,  superb  views  of  Mt.  Vesuvius, 
the  peninsula  of  Sorrento  (p.  154),  and  the  island  of  Capri.  A  walk 
of  10  min.  straight  on  from  the  tramway-terminu3  brings  us 
through  a  cutting  to  the  Bella  Vista,  a  point  of  view  near  the 
restaurant  of  that  name  (p.  136),  where  we  have  an  unimpeded 
view  of  the  bay  of  Pozzuoli  and  of  the  islands  of  Procida  and 
Ischia  (p.  135). 

An  interesting  circular  trip  may  be  made  from  the  Corso  Vit- 
torio Emanuele  (p.  141),  up  the  Via  Tasso  (PI.  C,  B,  6),  with  its 
fine  points  of  view,  to  the  top  of  Posilipo,  then  along  the  crest  of 
the  hill  to  the  S.W.  to  the  tramway-terminus,  and  back  by  the 
Posilipo  road  (a  walk  of  3'/2-4  hrs.,  or  a  drive  of  V/2  hr. ;  a  cab 
should  be  taken  by  the  hour). 

For  Naples  and  its  Environs  comp.  also  Baedeker's  Southern  Italy, 
or  Italy  from  the  Alps  to  Naples. 

25.  From  Genoa  to  Tunis  via  Leghorn  and 

620  M.  This  route  forms  part  of  the  'Linea  Circolare  della  Tunisia 
e  Tripolitania'  (Lines  XVIII-XX)  of  the  Societa  Nazionale,  a  circular 
tour  which  offers  interesting  glimpses  of  Sardinia,  Malta,  and  the  E.  coast 
of  Sicily,  as  well  as  of  Oriental  life  at  the  N.  African  ports  (RR.  61,  27,  24). 
The  steamers  usually  leave  Genoa  on  Prid.  evening,  Leghorn  on  Sat. 
night,  and  Cagliari  on  Mon.  evening,  and  arrive  at  Tunis  on  Tues.  forenoon. 
(In  the  reverse  direction  they  leave  Tunis  on  Mon.  at  noon  and  reach 
Genoa  on  Thurs.  evening.)  Fare  111  or  83  fr.  (or  for  the  whole  round 
303  or  212  fr.).  As  some  of  the  steamers  are  hardly  up  to  date,  inquiry 
as  to  the  best  should  be  made  beforehand.  Office  at  Genoa,  see  p.  114; 
at  Leghorn,  Piazza  Micheli  (p.  143);  at  Tunis,  p.  331. 

Genoa,  and  voyage  to  (92  M.)  Leghorn,  comp.  pp.  113,  134. 
We  pass  Meloria,  a  cliff  4  M.  to  the  W.  of  Leghorn,  off  which  the 
Genoese  destroyed  the  fleet  of  Pisa  in  1284. 

ELBA  25.  Boute.     143 

Leghorn,  Ital.  Livorno  (Marble  Palace  Hotel;  Hot.  d'Angle- 
terre  &  Campari,  H6t.  Giappone,  both  in  Via  Vittorio  Emanuele, 
with  restaurants,  good  Italian  houses  for  passing  travellers;  Brit, 
cons.,  M.  Carmichael ;  U.  S.  cons.,  E.  A.  Man ;  pop.  78,000),  a  provin- 
cial capital,  one  of  the  chief  seaports  of  Italy,  and  a  sea-bathing 
place,  is  quite  a  modern  town.  The  harbour  consists  of  the  Porto 
Nuovo,  sheltered  by  a  semicircular  mole  (diga  curvilinea)  and 
the  new  Molo  Vegliaia,  and  the  old  Porto  Mediceo,  or  inner  har- 
bour.   (Landing  or  embarkation  1  fr. ;  trunk  30  c). 

Near  the  harbour  is  the  Piazza  Micheli,  adorned  with  a  curious 
monument  of  the  grand-duke  Ferdinand  I.  of  Tuscany  (1587-1609). 
Straight  on  runs  the  Via  Vittorio  Emanuele,  the  main  street,  lined 
with  shops.  It  leads  across  the  large  Piazza  Vittorio  Emanuele, 
which  is  flanked  by  the  Cathedral,  the  Municipio,  and  other  public 
buildings,  to  the  Piazza  Carlo  Alberto,  whence  the  Via  Garibaldi 
and  Via  Palestro  lead  to  the  left  to  the  railway-station. 

A  pleasant  walk  (or  tramway  from  the  station  to  Antignano)  is 
offered  by  the  Viale  Pegina  Margherita,  about  2  M.  in  length, 
the  seaside  promenade  to  the  S.  of  the  town,  in  summer  enlivened 
by  numerous  bathers.  Between  it  and  the  harbour,  and  adjoining 
the  Piazza  Mazzini,  is  the  Cantiere  Orlando,  the  dockyards  where 
iron-clads  and  other  vessels  are  built  for  the  Italian  navy. 

At  the  S.  end  of  the  sea-promenade  lie  the  villa-suburbs  of  Ar- 
denza  and  Antignano,  which  have  sea-baths  also. 

On  the  fine  Voyage  from  Leghorn  to  (339  M.)  Cagliari  we  at 
first  obtain  a  good  view  of  the  Tuscan  Archipelago,  relics  of  the 
primaeval  Tyrrhenis  (p.  xxxi).  These  islands  are  composed  mainly 
of  granite,  with  slate  and  limestone  strata  overlying  it  in  places. 

Passing  at  some  distance  from  the  barren  fisher-island  of  Gor- 
gona  (837  ft.)  and  from  Capraia,  the  Capraria  (goats'  island)  of 
antiquity,  we  steer  to  the  S.S.W.  towards  the  W.  coast  of  Elba, 
enjoying  in  clear  weather  a  line  distant  *View  of  the  peninsula  of 
Cape  Corse,  the  N.  extremity  of  Corsica,  and  of  Monte  Cinto 
(8892  ft.),  the  highest  mountain  in  the  interior  of  that  island. 

We  next  skirt  the  island  of  Elba,  the  JEthalia  of  the  Greeks 
and  Uva  of  the  Romans,  the  largest  island  in  the  archipelago,  19  M. 
long,  famous  as  the  scene  of  the  first  exile  of  Napoleon  I.  (1814-5). 
The  valuable  iron-mines  here  (comp.  pp.  134,  135),  worked  from 
very  ancient  times,  are  an  important  factor  in  the  industries  of 
Italy.  We  pass  the  rocky  N.  coast  of  the  island,  which  is  visible 
as  far  as  the  Capo  della  Vita  (p.  135),  and  on  its  W.  side  we 
observe  the  massive  granitic  Monte  Capanne  (3343  ft.). 

The  steamer  passes  between  the  hardly  less  steep  S.  coast  of 
Eba  and  the  flat  island  of  Pianosa  (85  ft.;  the  ancient  Plana- 
sia),  and  steers  to  the  S.S.W.  towards  the  S.  coast  of  Sardinia. 
On  the  left,  about  26  M.  from  Elba,  appears  the  bold  granitic  is- 

Baedskeu's  Mediterranean  10 

144     Route  25.  CAGLIARI.  from  Genoa 

land  of  Montecristo  (2126  ft.),  the  ancient  Oglasa,  the  scene  of 
the  well-known  novel  'The  Count  of  Monte  Cristo',  by  Alex.  Dumas. 

The  Straits  of  Bonifacio  (p.  133)  lie  far  to  the  W.  of  the 
steamer's  course.  Off  the  N.E.  coast  of  Sardinia  we  first  sight  the 
massive  rocky  island  of  Tavolara  (1821  ft.),  the  Bucina  of  the 
Romans,  masking  the  Bay  of  Terranova ;  then,  when  off  Capo  Co- 
mino,  the  eastmost  point  of  Sardinia,  we  see  Monte  Alvo  (3701  ft.), 
a  little  inland.  The  somewhat  monotonous  S.E.  coast  of  the  island 
is  backed  by  sterile  mountains.  We  pass  the  little  port  of  Arbatax 
(Tortoli  Marina),  the  Capo  di  Bellavista,  the  Capo  Sferra  Ca- 
vallo,  the  Monte  Ferrau  (2878  ft.),  the  Capo  Ferrato,  and  lastly 
the  islet  of  Serpentara. 

Beyond  Capo  Carbonara,  the  S.E.  point  of  Sardinia,  and  the 
Isola  dei  Cavoli  (p.  118),  opens  the  broad  Gulf  of  Cagliari  on 
the  fiat  S.  coast  of  the  island.  On  the  hill-side  at  the  head  of  the  gulf, 
beyond  the  fortified  Cape  SanVElia,  which  shuts  off  the  inner 
Golfo  di  Quarto,  lies  the  town  of  Cagliari.  Around  it  are  several 
large  coast-lakes,  the  Stagnodi  Molentargius,  on  the  E.,  the  Stagno 
di  Cagliari,  on  the  W.,  and  others,  which  yield  quantities  of  salt 
The  latter  has  been  separated  from  the  gulf  only  since  the  middle 
ages  by  a  neck  of  land  called  the  Plaia. 

Cagliari.  —  The  Steamer  is  moored  in  the  Darsena.  Landing  or 
embarkation  40,  with  baggage  60  c. 

Hotels.  Scala  di  Ferro,  Viale  Regina  Margherita  5,  with  good 
restaurant,  R.  2V2-3  ff- !  Quattro  Mori,  Largo  Carlo  Felice,  R.  from  2  fr., 
also  restaurant. —  Cafe  Torino,  Via  Roma. 

Post  &  Telegraph  Office,  Via  Lodovico  Bailie  22.  —  Cab  (bargaining 
advisable)  1,  at  night  l'/o  fr-  Per  drive;  baggage  20  c. 

British  Consul  (also  Lloyd's  Agent),  R.  E.  Pernis. 

Cagliari,  Sardin.  Casteddu,  the  Roman  Car  ales,  a  very  ancient 
town,  having  been  founded  by  the  Phoenicians,  now  the  seat  of  a 
university  and  of  an  archbishop,  with  48,000  inhab.,  lies  in  one  of 
the  hottest  and  driest  regions  in  Italy.  At  the  foot  of  the  Castello  or 
old  towu  (290  ft.)  lie  the  new  quarters  of  Villanova,  Marina,  and 
Stampace,  adjoined  on  the  W.  by  the  suburb  of  Sant'Avendrace. 

The  Via  Roma,  an  avenue  skirting  the  sea,  the  fashionable  corso 
in  the  evening,  leads  from  the  Palazzo  Comunale  to  the  Largo  Carlo 
Felice.  On  the  right  are  two  covered  Markets,  which  are  worth 
seeing  in  the  forenoon.  This  largo  leads  to  the  Piazza  Yenne, 
the  business  centre  of  the  modern  town. 

At  the  N.  end  of  the  Largo  Carlo  Felice  rises  a  statue  of  Charles 
Felix  I.  (1821-31),  and  in  the  Piazza  Yenne  an  antique  column. 
Between  these  passes  the  main  thoroughfare  of  the  town:  to  the 
left  the  Corso  Vittorio  Emanuele,  ending  near  a  group  of  ancient 
Roman  houses  recently  excavated,  now  called  Casa  di  Tigellio;  to 
the  right,  leading  to  the  upper  town,  the  animated  Via  Manno 
(popularly  lLa  Costa'),  with  numerous  shops,  where  among  other 

to  Tunis.  CAGLIARI.  25-  Route.     145 

things  the  gold  ornaments  commonly  worn  hy  the  country-people 
should  be  noticed. 

From  the  Piazza  della  Costituzione,  at  the  S.E.  end  of  the  Via 
Manno,  the  *Viale  Regina  Elena  runs  to  the  N.,  beneath  the  pre- 
cipnuus  E.  side  of  the  abrupt  Castello.  It  affords  a  fine  view  of 
the  ancient  town-wall,  of  the  cathedral,  and  of  the  picturesque  rear 
of  the  castle-buildings;  below,  on  the  right,  lies  Villanova,  with  its 
quaint  tiled  roofs,  while  beyond  it  we  have  a  splendid  view  of  Cape 
Sunt"  Elia  and  across  the  wide  plain  of  Quarto  to  the  mountains. 

From  the  Giardino  Pubblico,  at  the  N.  end  of  the  promenade, 
we  mount  to  the  W.  to  the  Passeggiata  Buon  Cammino  (see  below). 

Adjoining  the  Via  Manno  (p.  144)  is  the  small  Piazzetta  de'Mar- 
tiri  d'  Italia,  whence  the  Via  Giuseppe  Mazzini  ascends  in  two  bends 
to  the  ^Castello,  still  fortified  in  mediaeval  style.  At  the  top  is  the 
new  Passeggiata  Coperta,  one  of  the  finest  points  in  the  town.  The 
Via  dell'Uuiversita  leads  hence  to  the  left  to  the  University  and  to 
the  ponderous  Torre  deW  Elef ante,  which,  according  to  the  inscrip- 
tion, was  erected  by  the  Pisans  in  1307. 

Straight  on  we  pass  through  the  Torre  dell'Aquila,  an  old 
gateway  row  enclosed  within  the  Palazzo  Boyl,  to  the  Via  Lam  ak- 
mora,  the  main  street  in  the  Castello,  which  is  connected  with  the 
parallel  streets  by  steep  lanes,  dark  vaulted  passages,  and  steps. 

From  the  terraced  little  Piazza  del  Municipio,  with  the  council- 
hall  of  the  old  town,  a  flight  of  steps  to  the  right  ascends  to  the 
Cathedral  (Santa  Cecilia),  completed  by  the  Pisans  in  1312,  but 
since  then  frequently  altered.  A  new  facade,  in  keeping  with  the 
old  building,  is  now  under  construction. 

Farther  to  the  N.,  in  the  Piazza  dell'  Indipendenza,  is  the  Pisan 
Torre  San  Pancrazio  (14th  cent.),  a  modern  addition  to  which 
contains  the  very  notable  Museum  of  Antiquities  (if  closed  apply 
to  the  director,  Sig.  Nissardi).  Besides  Phoenician  and  Roman 
antiquities  we  may  note  the  cork  model  of  a  nuraghe,  one  of  the 
conical  fortresses  built  by  the  aboriginal  Iberian  inhabitants. 

Going  through  the  Citadel,  which  bounds  the  Castello  on  the  N., 
we  follow  the  Passeggiata  Buon  Cammino  to  the  Piazza  d'Armi. 
Just  beyond  the  barracks  a  road  to  the  left  leads  to  the  Roman  — 

Amphitheatre  (greater  diameter  97,  smaller  80  yds.;  arena 
55  by  37  yds.),  with  tiers  of  seats  mostly  hewn  in  the  rock. 

Below  the  amphitheatre  lie  the  garden  of  the  Poor  House  (Ri- 
covero  di  Mendicita)  and  the  Botanic  Garden  (Thurs.  4-7),  both 
containing  remains  of  antique  IrrigationWorhs,  which  are  continued 
on  the  cliffs  to  the  N.W.  of  the  old  town.  Close  by  is  the  ancient 
Necropolis  of  Carales.  Nearest  the  town  are  the  Punic  tomb-cham- 
bers, sunk  perpendicularly  in  the  rock  (care  should  be  taken  here), 
and  farther  to  the  W.  are  the  mostly  horizontal  Roman  tombs. 

From  the  rained  castle  of  San  Mlchde,  at  the  top  of  a  hill  about  2  M. 


146     Route  26.  TJSTICA.  From  Naples 

to  the  N.   of  the  Piazza   d'Armi   (p.  145),    we   overlook  the  Stagno  di 
Cagliari  (p.  144)  and  the  Campidano,  a  fruitful,  but  fever-stricken  plain 
between  the  bays  of  Cagliari  and  Oristano  (p.  129),  where  the  clay-built 
villages  and  the  cactus  hedges  recall  N.  Africa. 
See  also  Baedeker's  Southern  Italy. 

The  Steamer  on  leaving  the  Gulf  of  Cagliari  steers  to  the  S.S.E. ; 
astern  we  soon  sight  Cape  Spartivento  (p.  118),  at  the  N.W.  end 
of  the  gulf.  For  the  voyage  along  the  Tunisian  coast,  and  for 
Tunis,  see  K.  21  and  p.  329. 

Voyage  from  Tunis  to  Algiers,  see  E.  22;  to  Tripoli,  see  R.  64. 

26.  From  Naples  to  Tunis  via  Palermo. 

From  Naples  to  Palermo  (193  M.).  1.  Steamers  of  the  Ferrovie  dello 
Stato  (Line  C)  daily  in  9  hrs.,  at  10.45  p.m.  (returning  at  8.30  p.m.); 
fare  25  fr.  5  or  15  fr.  65  c.  —  2.  Societa  Nasioiude,  Line  XVI  (see  below) 
every  Mon.  evening  in  12  hrs.,  and  Lines  X  &  XI  every  second  Prid.  aft. 
in  173/4  hrs.  (fares  25  fr.  5,  15  fr.  65  c.).  -—  3.  Adria  Co.  (RR.  23,  24)  every 
Thurs.  afternoon,  in  15  hrs. ;  fare  18  fr.,  without  food.  — 4.  Lloyd  Sabaudo 
1-3  times  monthly  (comp.  R.  24).  Passengers,  both  going  and  coming, 
should  rise  early  in  order  to  enjoy  the  superb  approaches  to  the  bays  of 
Palermo  and  Naples. 

From  Genoa  to  Palermo  direct  (494  M.)  every  Thurs.  (returning 
on  Wed.)  by  Line  XXII  (for  Palermo,  Trapani,  Syracuse,  and  Catania) 
of  the  Societa  Nazionale  (fare  80  or  55  fr.). 

From  Palermo  to  Tunis  (217  M.).  1.  Societa  Nazionale:  a.  Line  XVI 
(from  Naples,  see  above),  leaving  Palermo  Tues.  aft.,  Trapani  Tues. 
evening,  arrives  at  Tunis  Wed.  morning  (returning  from  Tunis  Wed. 
night,  from  Trapani  Thurs.  morning,  from  Palermo  Thurs.  evening, 
arr.  at  Naples  Fnd.  morning);  fare  from  Palermo  to  Tunis  64  fr.  25  or 
43  fr.  25  c. ;  b.  Line  XVII,  from  Palermo  to  Pantelleria  and  Tunis  (small 
cargo-boats) ,  calling  at  Castellammare  del  Golf  o,  Trapani ,  Favignana, 
Marsala,  Mazzara,  Sciacca,  and  the  island  of  Pantelleria;  dep.  from  Pa- 
lermo Thurs.  morning,  from  Mazzara  (reached  also  by  railway,  89  M.  in 
41/4  hrs. ;  18  fr.  25,  12  fr.  80,  or  8  fr.  30  c.)  Frid.  afternoon  (landing  or 
embarkation  in  fine  weather  only),  arr.  at  Tunis  Sat.  evening  (returning 
from  Tunis  on  Sun.  evening,  arr.  at  Mazzara  on  Mon.  evening,  and  at 
Palermo  Tues.  night;  fare  from  Mazzara  73  fr.  or  50  fr.  35  c.— 2.  Na- 
vigation Mixte  (Touache  Co.),  cargo-steamer  from  Palermo  to  Tunis  direct 
(coming  from  Marseilles,  R.  21),  on  Wed.  noon,  in  18  hrs.  (returning 
Thurs.  at  noon) ;  fare  60  or  40  fr.  —  Combined  tickets  (Naples-Palermo- 
Tunis)  are  available  by  either  of  the  two  companies'  boats. 

Agents  at  Naples,  Palermo,  and  Tunis,  see  pp.  137,  148,  331. 

Naples,  see  p.  135.  The  bay  is  usually  quitted  at  night.  We 
proceed  to  the  S.S.W.,  through  the  Bocca  Grande  (p.  133).  After 
about  IV4  hr.  we  skirt  the  rocky  W.  coast  of  Capri  (p.  154). 

Towards  morning  appears  to  the  S.W.  the  island  of  Ustica 
(784  ft.),  which  was  visited  by  an  earthquake  in  March  1906;  to 
the  S.E.  in  clear  weather  are  seen  Filicuri  (2543  ft.;  Greek  Phoini- 
kusa)  and  Alicuri  (2175  ft.;  the  ancient  Ericusa),  the  westmost  of 
the  Lipari  Islands  (p.  155) ;  beyond  lies  the  N.  coast  of  Sicily, 
from  Cape  Gallo  (p.  152)  and  the  finely  shaped  Monte  Pellegrino 
(p.  151)  to  the  Madonie  Mts.  (6480  ft.),  snow-clad  in  winter. 

A  scene  of  striking  beauty  is  revealed  as  we  steam  into  the 


■i  I   H 




j  io,i 


to  Tunis.  PALERMO.  2$-  Route.      147 

*Bay  of  Palermo,  which  opens  towards  the  E.,  between  Monte 
Pellcgrino  and  the  smaller  pointed  headland  of  Monte  Catalfano 
(1237  ft.),  backed  by  a  cirrus  of  grand  mountains,  Monte  Cuccio 
(8  148  ft.),  Monte  Grifone  (2550  ft.),  and  others.  After  passing  be- 
tween the  harbour  piers,  the  Antemurale  on  the  S.  and  the  Molo 
(lighthouse)  on  the  N.,  we  observe  on  the  left  the  shallow  old  har- 
bour of  La  Cala  (p.  149)  with  the  ruined  fort  of  Castellammare. 

Palermo.  —  Arrival.  The  steamers  from  Naples  are  berthed  at 
the  new  Santa  Lucia  Pier  (PI.  G,  4,  5);  in  the  case  of  the  others  landing 
or  embarkation  is  etfected  by  boat  (GO  c. ;  with  baggage  1  fr.).  The  custom- 
house examination  is  slight.  Porter  (facchino)  for  hand-bag  10,  trunk 
50  c.  —  From  the  pier  to  the  town  ca.  3/4  M.  (tramway  No.  1,  see  below). 
Omnibuses  or  motor-cars  from  the  hotels  await  steamers  at  the  pier.  Cabs, 
see  below. 

Hotels  (most  frequented  Feb. -April).  *Villa  Igiea,  >/4  hr.  to  the 
N.  of  the  quay,  at  the  Acquasanta  terminus  of  tramways  Nos.  1  &  7, 
near  the  sea,  with  park,  casino,  and  fine  view,  R.  from  8,  B.  2,  dej.  5, 
D.  7,  oinn.  8  fr.;  *Excelsior  Palace  (PI.  e;  G,  2),  Via  della  Liberta,  near 
the  Giardino  Inglese,  good  restaur.,  R.  from  4,  B.  lVa,  D.  6,  omn.  l'/o  fr. ; 
*H6t.  des  Palmes  (PL  a;  E,  3),  Via  Stabile  103,  R.  4-12,  B.  iya)  D.  6, 
omn.  l'/zfr.;  three  houses  of  the  first  class,  closed  in  summer.  The  fol- 
lowing, also  of  the  first  class,  are  open  throughout  the  year.  *H6t.  de 
France  (PL  c;  C,  5),  near  the  Giardino  Garibaldi,  R.  4-10,  B.  I1/.,,  D.  5, 
omn.  l'/o  fr. ;  *Trw  acria  (PL  b ;  C,  5),  with  sea  view,  entrance*  in  Via 
Butera,  R.  from  4,  B.  1V2.  D.  5,  omn.  l'/.jfr.;  Savoy  (PL  g;  E,  3),  Via 
favour,  R.  from  3,  D.  4V2,  omn.  l-l'/ofr. ;  Panormus  (PI.  k;  E,  3,  4),  Via 
Michele  Amari  11,  R.  from  2'/..,,  B.  l'/4<  dej.  21/.,,  D.  3'/2fr.  — Less  pretending 
(open  all  the  year  round):  Milano  (PL  f ;  F,  3),  Via  Emerico  Amari  114, 
R.  from  SVjj  omn.  1  fr.,  well  spoken  of;  Albergo  Vittoria  (PL  h;  D,  4), 
Via  Bandiera  31,  and  Central  (PL  d;  C,  3),  Corso  Vittorio  Emanuele  343, 
R.  from  2  fr.,  both  with  restaurant;  Patria  (PI.  i;  B,  4),  Via  Alloro  96 
(view  from  roof-terrace),  Cavour,  Corso  Vittorio  Emanuele  330,  both  hotels 
garnis  (R.  from  l'/a  fr.). 

Restaurants  (Italian  cooking;  a  la  carte).  Gran  Caffe  Nuovo,  in 
the  Teatro  Biondo  (PI.  C,  4),  Restaurant  de  Paris,  Via  Maqueda  200,  both 
good.  Plainer:  Vanini,  Corso  Vittorio  Emanuele  405;  Ristorante  Napoli, 
same  street,  No.  265;  Ristorante  Bologni,  same  street,  No.  381. 

Cafes  (ran-iy  frequented  in  the  morning).  Caffe  del  Teatro  Massimo 
(p.  151);  Trtnacria,  Quattro  Canti  di  L'ampagna  (PL  E,  3);  Caflisch,  Via 
Maqueda  250;  Cafe  Italia,  Via  Cavour.  —  English  Tea  Rooms,  Piazza 
Marina  41.  —  Beeb.  Gran  Caffe  Niwto  (see  above);  Trinacria  (see  above); 
Qcanbrinus,  Teatro  Massimo. 

Cabs.  For  1-4  pers.,  within  Via  Lincoln,  Corso  Tukery,  Piazza  dell' 
Indipendenza,  and  Piazza  Ucciardone,  per  drive  50  c,  from  midnight  to 
dawn  1  fr. ;  to  outer  quarters,  drive  under  «/»  hr.,  also  to  the  quay  or  the 
railway-stations  1  fr. ;  from  midnight  to  dawn  1  fr.  50  c. ;  one  hour  1  fr.  80  c, 
each  addit.  '/4  hr.  40  c  — Hand-bag  20,  trunk  40  c  — Driving  in  the  inner 
city  on  Good  Friday  prohibited.  — For  long  drives  a  bargain  should  be 
made;  thus,  to  Monreale  (p.  152),  with  stay  of  l>/2  hr.,  7-8  (or  out  of 
season  4-6)  fr. 

Tramways  (within  the  citv  10,  transfer  15  c).  Among  the  chief 
ure  i  1.  From  Piazza  Marina  (PL  C,  5)  to  Via  Francesco  Crispi  (PL  E,  F,  4), 
Piazza  Ucciardone  (PL  G,  4),  and  Acquasanta  (Villa  Igiea).  — 4.  From 
Porta  Maqueda  (PL  D,  E,  3),  to  Via  Francesco  Crispi,  Piazza  Ucciardone, 
and  J'alde  (p.  151).  — 7.  From  Piazza  Marina  to  Via  Lincoln  (PL  B,  A,  6-4; 
Central  Station),  Corso  Tukery,  Piazza  dell'  Indipendenza  (PL  B,  1),  Corso 
Alberto  Auiedeo  (PL  B-D,  1),  Politeama  Garibaldi  (PL  F,  3),  and  Acqua- 

148     Route  26.  PALERMO.  History. 

santa  (Villa  Igiea). —  9.  From  Piazza  Bologni  (PI.  C,  3)  to  Piazza  dell' 
Indipendenza,  Rocca  (p.  152),  and  Monreole  (p.  152),  every  V2  nr->  in  35  min. ; 
fare  40  (back  30)  c.  —  Above  Rocca  (gradient  ca.  1  in  8)  there  is  a  funicular 
section  1100  yds.  long. 

Post  Office.  (PI.  C,  3),  Piazza  Bologni.  —  Telegraph.  Office  (PI. 
C,  3),  Via  Maqueda  222;  also  in  the  Piazza  Marina. 

Steamboat  Lines.  Societa  Nazionale,  Corso  Vittorio  Emanuele  96, 
corner  of  Piazza  Marina;  Ferrovie  dello  Stato  (steamer  service),  J.  &  V. 
Florio,  Via  Roma;  Navigation  Mixte  and  White  Star,  A.  Tagliavia, 
same  street,  No.  51;  Austro- American  (p.  425),  A.  Lauria;  Cunard,  Piazza 
Marina  13;  Anchor  Line,  E.  Gr.  Orr  (see  below). 

Banks.  Banca  Commerciale,  d'ltalia,  and  di  Sicilia,  all  in  Corso 
Vittorio  Emanuele.  —  Thos.  Cook  &  Son,  same  street,  No.  155. 

Consuls.  British  ,  R.  G.  Macbean,  Via  Francesco  Crispi ;  vice-con- 
sul,  W.  A.  Morrison.  —  United  States,  H.  De  Soto,  Piazza  Castelnuovo  44. 
—  Lloyd's  Agent,  E.  G.  Orr,  Piazza  Marina. 

English.  Church.  Holy  Cross  ('Anglicana';  PI.  E,  3,  4),  Via  Stabile; 
services  every  Sun.  at  11  a.  m.  and  7  p.  m.  in  winter. 

One  Day  and  a  Half  is  the  minimum  time  for  a  glance  at  the  sights. 
1st.  In  the  forenoon,  Cappella  Palatina(p.  149),  SanGiovanni  dcgli  Eremiti 
(p.  150);  Cathedral  (p.  149),  Martorana  (p.  150),  Museum  (p.  150);  in  the 
afternoon  (best  in  the  early  morning  in  summer),  Monte  Pellegrino  (p.  151); 
in  summer,  towards  evening,  Villa  Giulia  and  the  Marina  (p.  151). — 2nd. 
In  the  forenoon,  Monreale  (p.  152). 

Palermo,  the  capital  of  Sicily,  with  250,000  inhab.,  the  seat  of 
an  archbishop  and  a  university,  lies  on  the  beautiful  bay  named 
after  it,  in  the  midst  of  the  Conca  d'Oro,  a  fertile  plain  artificially 
watered,  and  yielding  oranges,  lemons,  mandarins,  and  other  fruits 
in  profusion.  Palermo  is  also  the  chief  seaport  in  the  island,  whence 
fruit,  wine,  sumach,  and  the  sulphur  of  S.  Sicily  (79%  of  the 
world's  consumption)  are  largely  exported. 

The  city,  the  Panormus  of  antiquity,  began  its  career  as  a 
Phoenician  colony;  it  next  became  the  capital  of  the  island  under 
the  Carthaginian  domination,  but  was  conquered  by  the  Romans  in 
254  B.  0.  Next  came  the  Ostrogoths  and  the  Byzantines,  who  were 
succeeded  by  the  Aglabides  and  Fatimites  (p.  323),  who  again 
made  the  town  the  capital  of  the  island  under  the  name  of  Balerm, 
and  opened  up  Sicily  to  Moorish  culture.  When  Palermo  became 
the  residence  of  its  Norman  conquerors  (1072-1194)  they  erected 
castles  and  churches,  partly  employing  Arabian  architects  and  arti- 
ficers, whose  work  shows  a  charming  blend  of  Byzantine,  Arabian, 
and  Oriental  features.  Later,  as  the  favourite  seat  of  the  Hohen- 
staufen  (1194-1266),  Palermo  attained  the  zenith  of  its  glory.  The 
old  town,  however,  owes  its  architectural  character  to  the  Spanish 
viceroys  (16-17th  cent.),  who  chose  it  as  their  residence  in  spite 
of  the  protests  of  Messina.  Since  the  union  of  Sicily  with  the  king- 
dom of  Italy  (1860)  there  has  been  a  great  revival  of  buildiDg 
enterprise,  with  the  result  that  broad  streets  and  villa-suburbs 
have  sprung  up,  particularly  on  the  N.  side  of  the  old  town. 

From  the  Santa  Lucia  Pier  (PI.  G,  4,  5)  we  enter  the  old  town 
by  the  Via  Francesco  Crispi  (PI.  F,  E,  4 ;  tramway  No.  1,  see  p.  147), 
leading  to  the  old  Porta  San  Giorgio  (PI.  E,  4).  The  Via  Cavour 

Cathedral.  PALERMO.  26.  Route.     149 

diverges  here  to  the  right  to  the  old  Porta  Maqueda  (p.  151) ;  we 
turu  to  the  left,  cross  the  Piazza  del  Castello  (PI.  D,  5),  pass  the 
old  Fort  Castellammare,  and  skirt  the  Cala  (p.  147),  or  old  harbour, 
a  little  beyond  which  is  the  — 

Piazza  Marina  (PI.  0,  5),  where  the  beautiful  *Giardino  Gari- 
baldi recalls  the  tropics  with  its  luxuriant  vegetation. 

A  little  to  the  N.E.  of  the  Giardino  is  the  Porta  Felice  (PI. 
C,  5,  6;  p.  151),  from  which  to  the  Porta  Nuova  (PI.  B,  1;  p.  150), 
over  1  M.  distant,  runs  the  Oorso  Vittorio  Emanuele,  intersecting 
the  whole  of  the  old  town.  This  long  street  owes  its  present  form 
to  Don  Pedro  de  Toledo  (p.  138),  but  having  been  for  centuries  the 
route  from  the  harbour  to  the  castle,  it  has  retained  its  old  popular 
name  of  Cussaro  (from  the  Arabic  kasr,  castle). 

At  the  Quattro  Canti  (PL  C,  3),  the  old  business  centre  of  the 
city,  the  Corso  is  crossed  by  the  Via  Maqueda  (PI.  A-D,  4,  3; 
p.  151),  begun  by  the  viceroy  Marques  de  Villena  in  1609,  and  now 
a  second  important  artery  of  the  old  town. 

The  Corso  leads  to  the  Piazza  del  Duomo,  on  the  N.  side  of 
which  rises  the  — 

*Cathedral  (PI.  C,  2),  dedicated  to  the  Assunta,  on  the  site 
of  an  older  church  which  the  Moors  had  converted  into  a  mosque. 
The  original  Romanesque  building,  erected  by  Archbishop  Walter 
of  the  Mill  (Gualterio  Oifamilio)  after  1185,  has  been  entirely  trans- 
formed in  the  course  of  centuries,  with  the  exception  of  the  lower 
part  of  the  clock-tower  and  the  external  decoration  of  the  choir 
niche.  The  handsome  W.  facade  with  the  two  towers  which  date 
from  1300-59,  the  incongruous  dome,  and  the  modernized  internal 
decorations  are  the  work  of  the  Florentine  Fern.  Fuga  (1781-1801). 
The  right  aisle,  on  the  left  of  the  S.  portal,  contains  the  *Monu- 
ments  of  Norman  and  Hohenstaufen  monarchs. 

At  the  S.W.  end  of  the  Corso  Vittorio  Emanuele,  beyond  the 
Piazza  della  Vittoria  (PI.  B,  2),  on  a  slight  eminence,  which  from 
the  earliest  times  has  been  the  site  of  the  castle,  rises  the  — 

Palazzo  Reale  (PI.  B,  1),  which  still  bears  traces  of  its  orig- 
inal fortified  character,  although  the  foundation  walls  alone  are 
Arabian,  and  the  central  tower  with  the  pointed  arch  (Santa  Ninfa, 
p.  150)  is  the  only  relic  of  the  Norman  part  of  the  building. 

The  last  door  on  the  left,  opposite  the  monument  of  Philip  V., 
leads  into  the  palace-yard  (sticks  and  umbrellas  are  left  with  the 
porter;  guide  1/2  fr.,  but  quite  unnecessary).  We  ascend  the  stairs 
to  the  left,  on  the  first  floor  turn  to  the  right,  and  pass  through 
the  arcaded  passage  to  the  — 

**Cappella  Palatina,  a  perfect  gem  of  mediaeval  art,  built  by 
king  Roger  II.  in  1132-40  in  the  Arabic-Norman  style  (adm. 
daily  7  to  10.30  free;  later,  week-days  till  4,  Sun.  till  3^  fee;  best 
light  in  the  morning).   In  the  interior  the  chapel  is  a  basilica  with 

150     Route  26.  PALERMO.  San  Giovanni. 

two  aisles;  including  the  choir  and  apse  it  is  36  yds.  long  and 
14yds.  in  breadth.  The  Arabian  pointed  arches  arc  borne  by  ten 
antique  columns;  the  central  dome,  59  ft.  high,  is  adorned  with 
Greek  and  Latin  inscriptions.  The  beautiful  Arabian  timber  ceiling 
in  the  nave,  with  its  Cufic  (early  Arabic)  inscription,  is  joined  to 
the  walls  by  stalactite  vaulting.  All  the  walls  are  incrusted  with 
glass-mosaics  on  a  gold  ground. 

The  palace-tower,  Santa  Ninfa,  now  an  observatory,  is  famed 
for  the  delightful  panorama  it  affords  (fee  1/.2-l  fr. ;  not  always 
accessible).  The  top  of  the  Porta  Nuova  (PI.  B,  1),  close  by,  also 
overlooks  the  city  and  the  Conca  d'Oro. 

Descending  the  steps  by  the  monument  of  Philip  V.,  we  now 
follow  the  Via  del  Bastione  a  Porta  di  Castro  and  the  Via  dei  Bene- 
dettini  to  the  ruined  church  of  *San  -Giovanni  degli  Eremiti 
(PI.  A,  B,  1,  2;  adm.  by  the  garden-gate;  fee  25  c).  The  interior 
is  in  the  form  of  a  so-called  Egyptian  cross  (p.  376),  with  three 
apses.  The  nave  is  divided  into  two  squares  by  a  pointed  arch. 
Quite  an  Oriental  effect  is  produced  by  the  five  unadorned  domes, 
which  are  best  viewed  from  the  pretty  cloisters  (now  a  garden). 
Adjoining  the  S.  side  of  the  church  is  a  dilapidated  little  mosque. 

We  now  return  to  the  Quattro  Canti  (p.  149)  and  turn  to  the 
right  into  the  Via  Maqueda.  Here,  immediately  on  the  right,  is  the 
University  (PI.  0,  3) ;  on  the  left  is  the  Palazzo  di  Citta  or  Muni- 
cipio.  Just  beyond  the  latter  is  the  small  Piazza  Bellini,  whence 
steps  ascend  to  two  old  Norman  churches  (adm.  daily  9-4,  1  fr. ; 
Sun.  free).  The  smaller,  San  Cataldo,  of  1161,  is  crowned  with 
Arabian  pinnacles.    Still  more  curious  is  the  larger  church  — 

*La  Martorana  (PI.  B,  0,  4),  named  after  its  founder,  the 
Greek  admiral  of  Roger  I.  (1143),  and  known  also  as  Santa  Maria 
dell' Ammiraglio,  a  Byzantine  edifice  with  Norman  additions,  now 
suitably  restored.  The  two  lower  stories  of  the  clock-tower  are 
part  of  the  original  church. 

From  the  Corso  Vittorio  Emanuele,  a  little  to  the  E.  of  the 
Quattro  Canti,  runs  the  new  Via  Roma  (PI.  C,D,  4)  to  the  N.N.W.  to 
the  Piazza  San  Domenico.  On  the  E.  side  of  this  piazza  rises  the 
large  church  of  San  Domenico  (PL  D,4),  containing  monuments  to 
many  eminent  Sicilians. — Behind  the  church,  in  the  Via  Bambinai, 
is  the  Oratorio  del  Santissimo  Rosario  (keys  at  No.  16,  adjacent), 
containing  a  fine  Madonna  del  Rosario  by  A.  van  Dyck. 

Prom  the  Piazza  San  Domenico  the  Via  Monteleone  leads  to  the 
N.W.  to  the  Piazza  dell'  Olive  11a,  where  an  old  monastery  on  the 
right  contains  the  — 

Museo  Nazionale  (PI.  D,  3 ;  week-days  10-3,  1  fr. ;  Sun.  11-3, 
free,  but  not  fully  shown;  closed  on  high  festivals,  on  the  last  three 
days  of  the  Carnival,  and  in  Holy  Week). 

Museo  Xazionale.  PALERMO.  26.  Route.      151 

Ground  Floor.  From  the  Friino  Cortile,  containing  mediaeval  and  Be- 
naissance  portals,  sculptures,  and  inscriptions,  we  enter  the  Secondo  Cortile 

}once  the  cloisters),  where  ancient  sculptures  and  inscriptions  are  exhib- 
tiil.  on  the  left  Sicilian,  on  the  right  those  of  foreign  or  uncertain  origin. 

From  the  vestibule,  beyond  the  cloisters,  we  pass  through  a  small 
rora:  containing  two  Phoenician  sarcophagi  found  near  Palermo,  to  the 
Sala  di  Panormo,  with  mosaics  and  inscriptions  from  Panormus,  and  oppos- 
ite to  it  the  Sala  del  Fauno,  so  named  from  the  fine  satyr  in  the  style  of 
Praxiteles  which  it  contains. 

The  adjoining  Sala  di  Selinunte  contains  the  celebrated  *Metopes  of 
Selinus  (p.  154).  On  the  left,  between  parts  of  the  ponderous  entablature 
of  the  oldest  temple,  are  three  rude  and  primitive  metopes  of  the  beginning 
of  the  6th  cent.  B.  C.  (quadriga,  beheading  of  Medusa.  Hercules  and  the 
Cercopes);  then  the  lower  halves  of  two  metopes,  dating  from  about 
the  middle  of  the  6th  cent,  (battle  of  the  gods  and  the  giants);  on  the 
back-wall  four  metopes  of  the  early  5th  cent.,  a  period  just  before  the 
prime  of  Greek  art  (Hercules  slaying  the  queen  of  the  Amazons,  Hera 
unveiling  herself  before  Zeus,  Actason  torn  to  pieces  by  the  dogs  of  Artemis, 
Athene  slaying  a  giant). 

The  stairs  in  the  forecourt  ascend  to  the  — 

First  Floor.  The  steps  to  the  left  lead  to  the  Sala  Araba,  which 
contains  Arabian  and  Arab-Norman  antiquities  found  in  Sicily  (door-frame 
from  the  Martorana  monastery,  earthenware  vase  from  Mazzara)  and  early 
Arabian  objects  from  Cairo.  The  Corridoio  di  Ponente  contains  painted 
female  figures  (4th-3rd  cent.  B.  0.),  similar  to  the  terracottas  of  Tanagra. 
Beyond  the  cloisters  is  the  room  of  the  ancient  bronzes,  among  which  we 
note  a  fountain-group  of  Hercules  and  the  Cerynjeau  hind,  from  Pompeii, 
and  a  ram  marvellously  lifelike.  Next  come  two  rooms  on  the  left  with 
Greek  vases.  From  the  corridor  on  the  opposite  side  we  enter  the  Gabi- 
nctto  di  Numismatica.  an  admirable  collection  of  the  ancient  coins  of  Sicily 
and  of  antique  trinkets.    The  last  room  contains  gorgeous  church  vestments. 

On  the  Second  Floor  is  the  Gallery  of  Pictures,  chiefly  by  Sicilian 
masters  (Pietro  NoveUi  and  others);  a  small  winged  altar-piece  by  Jan 
Mabute  (1501?),  a  gem  of  Netherlandish  art.  should,  however,   be  noted. 

From  the  Museum  the  Via  della  Bara  leads  to  the  W.  to  the 
Piazza  Giuseppe  Verdi  (PI.  D,  3),  in  which  rises  the  Teatro 
Massimo  or  Vittorio  Emanuele,  the  largest  in  Italy.  —  At  the  N". 
end  of  the  Via  Maqueda  (p.  149)  is  the  old  Porta  Maqueda  (PI.  D, 
E,  3),  whence  the  Via  Ruggiero  Settimo  leads  into  the  broad  — 

Via  jdklla  LibertA  (PI.  P,  G,  3,  2),  a  fashionable  evening 
promenade,  ending  ;it  the  pretty  Giardino  Inylese  (PI.  G,  IT,  2). 

The  Marina,  officially  named  Foro  Umberto  Primo  (PI.  C,  13,  6), 
which  begins  at  the  Porta  Felice  (PI.  0,  5,  6;  p.  149),  near  the 
harbour,  affords  a  superb  walk  and  is  a  favourite  resort  on  summer 
evenings  after  G  (music  at  9). 

At  the  S.  end  of  (he  Marina  lies  the  "'•Villa  Giulia  or  Flora 
(PI.  A,  B,  6),  one  of  the  most  beautiful  public  gardens  in  Italy, 
where  the  blossoming  trees  diffuse  their  fragrance  in  spring  far 
around.  It  is  adjoined  on  the  W.  by  the  *  Botanic  Garden  (PI.  A,  B,  6 ; 
gardener  23-50  c),  almost  vying  with  the  famous  Jardin  d'Essai  at 
Algiers  (p.  232). 

A  visit  to  *Monte  Pellegrino  (19G8  ft.),  the  ancient  Heirkte, 
a  bare  limestone  hill  to  the  N.  of  Palermo,  should  not  be  omitted 
in  clear  weather.    (Tramway  No.  4  to  Falde,  near  the  3.  foot  of 

152     Rotde  26.  PALERMO.  From  Naples 

the  hill,  see  p.  147;  donkey,  ordered  in  the  town  beforehand, 
with  attendant,  4  i'r.) 

The  zigzag  path,  visible  from  the  town,  ascends  in  about  l1^  hr. 
from  the  Punta  di  Bersaglio,  5  min.  to  the  N.  of  Falde,  to  the  Grotto 
of  St.  Rosalia  (d.  about  1170),  which  has  been  well  described  by 
Goethe.  Near  it  are  a  cottage,  where  bread  and  wine  may  he  ob- 
tained (bargaining  advisable),  and  the  restaurant  Argos-Eden  (open 
only  on  Sun.). 

A  steep  footpath  ascends  thence  in  l/2  hr.  to  the  TeUgrafo, 
the  signal-station  on  the  summit,  where  we  enjoy  a  *View  of  the 
beautiful  basin  of  Palermo,  of  the  indented  N.  coast  of  Sicily,  and 
of  the  Lipari  Islands  (p.  146).  To  the  E.,  beyond  the  Madonie 
(p.  146)  and  the  distant  Nebrodian  Mts.,  towers  Mt.  /Etna. 

Monreale  (tramway  No.  9  and  carr.,  see  pp.  147, 148)  is  reached 
from  the  Porta  Nuova  (PI.  B,  1;  p.  150)  by  the  Corso  Calatafimi. 
Beyond  (3  M.)  La  Rocca  the  road  ascends  to  the  (3/4  hr.)  top  of  the 
'royal  hill'  (1148  ft.).  The  town  of  Monreale  (Restaur.  Savoy, 
Eden;  pop.  24,000)  owes  its  origin  to  a  Benedictine  abbey,  founded 
by  William  II.  (1174),  and  to  the  famous  cathedral  (1174-89)  built 
here  as  the  seat  of  the  second  archbishopric  in  the  island. 

The  **Cathedral  is  a  Norman  Romanesque  basilica  consisting 
of  nave,  aisles,  and  three  apses,  335  ft.  long  and  131  ft.  wide.  Ex- 
ternally the  choir  end  of  the  church,  with  its  Arabian  pointed  arches 
and  mosaic  decoration,  is  particularly  fine.  The  magnificent  main 
portal,  flanked  in  northern  style  with  two  square  towers,  has  two 
admirable  bronze  doors  by  'Bonannus  Civis  Pisanus'  (1186).  The 
doors  of  the  side-portal  are  by  Barisano.  The  pointed  arches  of 
the  nave  rest  on  granite  columns,  and  all  the  walls  are  lavishly 
decorated  with  glass  mosaics.  The  roof  (172  steps;  verger,  who 
shows  the  chapels  also,  50-75  c.)  commands  a  splendid  view. 

Of  the  Benedictine  monastery  nothing  is  now  left  except  the 
*Cloisters,  the  pointed  arches  of  which  are  adorned  with  mosaics 
and  borne  by  216  columns  in  pairs,  remarkable  for  the  variety  of 
their  capitals  and  for  the  inlaid  ornamentation  of  their  shafts  (date 
ca.  1200).  Entrai  ce  (1  fr.)  from  the  Piazza  del  Duomo  by  the  side- 
door  to  the  left.  The  custodian  shows  also  the  garden  of  the  mon- 
astery, where  we  have  a  charming  view  of  Palermo. 

See  also  Baedeker's  Southern  Italy. 

Pursuing  our  Voyage  to  Tunis  we  soon  obtain  a  fine  view  of  the 
bold  limestone  rocks  of  Monte  Pellegrino  (p.  151).  We  next  pass 
the  beautiful  Bay  of  Mondello  and  the  Cape  Gallo  and  steer  to  the 
W.,  away  from  the  Sicilian  coast  and  the  Gulf  of  Castellammare. 
That  spacious  gulf  is  bounded  on  the  E.  by  the  Punta  di  Raisi,  a 
spur  of  Monte  Orso  (2900  ft.),  and  on  the  W.  by  the  mountains  of 
San  Vito  (Monte  Sparagio  and  others). 

to  Turn*.  MARSALA.  ««■  Route.      153 

Beyond  Cape  San  Vito  (lighthouse)  appear  to  the  S.W.  Monte 
San  Giuliano  (see  below)  and  the  JEgadean  Islands.  The  French 
steamers  bound  for  Tunis  direct  pass  near  these  islands;  first 
Levanzo  (951  ft.;  ancient  Plwrbantia),  beyond  which  to  the  S.  is 
Favignana  (1070ft.;  ancient  jEgusa),  the  largest  of  the  group; 
then  Maritlimo  (ancient  Hiera),  -with  Monte  Falcone  (2245  ft.). 

The  Italian  steamer  coming  from  Naples  rounds  Monte  San 
Givliano  (2464  ft.),  a  solitary  mass  of  Jurassic  rock,  the  ancient 
Eryx,  famed  for  its  temple  of  Venus  Erycina,  and  highly  revered 
by  all  the  Mediterranean  peoples,  and  next  calls  at  — 

Trapani  (Grand-Hotel,  on  the  quay;  landing  or  embarkation, 
wilhout  baggage,  60  c. ;  Brit,  vice-consul,  G.  Marino),  the  ancient 
Drepana  (from  drepanon,  a  sickle),  so  called  from  the  form  of 
the  peninsula.  Down  to  the  first  Punic  war  this  was  merely  the 
port  of  the  ancient  Eryx,  but  it  is  now  a  thriving  commercial 
place  (pop.  3S,000).  The  chief  export  is  the  sea-salt  yielded  by 
the  extensive  evaporation  grounds  on  the  W.  coast,  towards  Marsala. 
The  coral-fishery  also  is  an  important  industry. 

The  Naples  steamer  next  passes  through  the  strait  between  the 
islands  of  Levanzo  and  Favignana  (see  above)  and  the  flat  W.  coast 
of  Sicily,  and  then  steers  to  the  S.W.  through  the  Straits  of  Pantel- 
leria  (p.  396),  between  Favignana  and  the  Isola  Grande,  towards 
Cape  Bon  (Arabic  Rds  Addar,  the  Roman  Promontorium  Mer- 
curii),  the  E.  boundary  of  the  Bay  of  Tunis  (p.  129).  High  up 
on  this  bold  headland  stands  a  lighthouse  (410  ft.),  visible  for 
32  M.  around,  one  of  the  most  important  landmarks  for  mariners 
between  Gibraltar  and  Egypt.  Beyond  the  cape  rises  Jebel  Abiod 
(1273  ft.),  with  its  semaphore.  The  islands  to  the  W.  are  Zembretta 
and  Zembra  or  Jamur  (1420  ft.;  the  ancient  JEgimv/rus). 

The  great  quarries  near  El-Aouaria  (the  ancient  Aquilaria), 
between  Cape  Bon  and  the  Rds  el-Ahmar  (318  ft.)  yielded  the 
Phoenicians  the  material  for  building  Carthage.  We  next  pass  the 
Anse  de  Thonaire,  with  its  important  tunny-fishery  (Ital.  tonnara), 
and  the  Rds  al-Fortas. 

The  steamers  usually  enter  the  Inner  Bay  of  Tunis  and  Lake 
Bahira  in  the  early  morning.    Tunis,  see  p.  329. 

The  Italian  Cakoo-Steamers  (p.  146)  first  touch  at  Castellammare 
del  Golfo,  then  proceed  to  Trapani  (see  ahove),  where  they  spend  the 
night.  They  next  pass  Favignana  (see  above),  Isola  Grande,  the  lagoon 
of  Lo  Stagnone,  and  Capo  Boeo  or  Lilibeo,  the  W.  extremity  of  Sicily. 

Marsala  (Albergo  Centrale;  Leone;  Stella  d'ltalia;  lauding  or  embark- 
ation GO  c. ;  with  heavy  baggage  I'/jfr. ;  Brit,  vice-consul,  Chas.  F.  Gray; 
pop.  58,000)  is  a  busy  trading  town,  well  known  for  its  fiery  wines.  "It 
occupies  the  site  of  LUybaeum,  the  chief  fortress  of  Carthage  in  Sicily. 
The  modern  name  is  of  Moorish  origin  (Marsa-Ali,  harbour  of  Ali). 

Skirting  the  monotonous  S.W.  coast  of  Sicily  the  vessel  next  calls 
ft*  Mazzara  del  "Vallo  (Alb.  Centrale;  Alb.  Stella;  Brit,  vice-consul, 
I  ;ira),  founded  as  Masara  by  the  Greeks  of  Solinus,  but  destroyed 
alung  with  its  mother-city  by  the  Carthaginians  in  409  B.  C. 

154     Route  2$.  PANTELLERIA. 

Beyond  Mazzara  we  pass  the  Punta  di  Granitoid,  the  Bag  el-Bddt 
of  the  Moors,  who  in  827  began  their  victorious  progress  through  the 
island,  and  the  broad  bay  of  Selinunte  (Selinus),  where  the  grandest  ruined 
temples  in  Europe  are  situated.    Beyond  Cape  San  Marco  we  come  to  — 

Sciacca  (Nuova  Italia;  pop.  25,000),  a  seaport  situated  on  a  steep 
hill,  262  ft.  above  the  sea,  with  its  mouldering  castles  of  mediaeval  no- 
bility. The  name  was  originally  Arabic,  Shdkkah.  In  ancient  times  it 
was  called  Thermae  Selinuntiae,  from  the  already  famous  vapour-baths 
in  the  caverns  at  the  foot  of  Monte  San  Calogero  (1272  ft.)  and  the  hot 
salt-springs  (132°  Fahr.). 

The  steamer  next  steers  to  the  "VV.S.W.  through  the  Straits  of  Pantel- 
leria  (p.  396),  at  a  little  distance  from  the  shallows  where  the  volcanic 
Isola  Ferdinandea,  4-5  M.  in  circumference,  rose  from  the  sea  with  a 
crater,   on  18th  July,  1831,  but  disappeared  on  12th  Jan.,  1832. 

On  the  margin  of  the  shallower  water,  in  a  great  submarine  basin 
3900  ft.  deep,  lies  the  island  of  Pantelleria,  also  belonging  to  Italy. 
Its  chief  town,  off  which  the  steamer  anchors  for  some  hours,  is  on  the 
N.W.  side.  This  volcanic  island,  32  sq.  M.  in  area,  culminates  in  an 
extinct  crater  2743  ft.  in  height,  while  numerous  'fumaroli',  or  smoking 
and  steaming  fissures,  and  hot  mineral  springs  testify  to  a  continuous 
volcanic  activity.  This  was  further  indicated  by  a  submarine  eruption 
which  occurred  in  1891,  within  3  M.  of  the  island  to  the  N.W. 

The  steamer  afterwards  Tounds  Cape  Bon  (p.  153)  and  follows  the 
same  course  to  Tunis  as  the  larger  passenger  steamers. 

27.  From  Naples  to  Syracuse  (Malta,  Tunis, 
Tripoli)  via  Messina  and  Catania. 

Fkom  Naples  to  Messina  (204  M.).  1.  Steamers  of  the  Ferrovie  deJlo 
Stato  (Line  D),  leave  Naples  Sun.  evening,  arr.  at  Messina  Mon.  morning 
(at  Reggio  at  noon;  returning  from  Beggio  same  afternoon  and  from 
Messina  same  evening) ;  fares  22  fr.  85,  14  fr.  70  c.  —  2.  Societd  Nazionale: 

a.  Line  XX  (Linea  Circolare,  see  pp.  134,  142),  dep.  from  Naples  Sat. 
aft.,  arr.  at  Messina  Sun.  morning   (returning  from  Messina  Wed.  aft.); 

b.  Line  V  (Genoa-Alexandria;  p.  134),  dep.  from  Naples  Thurs.  aft.,  arr. 
at  Messina  Frid.  morning  (returning  from  Messina  Sun.  evening);  fares  by 
these  two  lines  22  fr.  85,  14  fr.  70  c;  c.  Lines  X  &  XI,  fortnightly  from 
Naples  via  Palermo  (comp.  p.  146)  to  Messina  (fares  50  fr.  10,  33  fr.  40  c). 

From  Naples  to  Catania  (258  M.),  the  Linea  Circolare  (see  below); 
also  the  North  German  Lloyd  (Mediterranean-Levant;  RR.  23,  24)  every 
second  Mon.  (from  Catania  Tues.)  in  16hrs.;  fare  36  or  24  marks. 

Fkom  Messina  to  Syracuse  (93  M.),  only  the  Linea  Circolare,  dep. 
from  Messina  Sun.  morning,  arr.  at  Reggio  same  morning,  at  Catania  Sun. 
afternoon,  at  Syracuse  Mon.  evening  (returning  from  Syracuse  Tues.  fore- 
noon, from  Catania  Tues.  midnight,  and  leaving  Messina  for  Naples  on 
Wed.  aft.).  This  steamer  may  be  overtaken  at  Syracuse  if  we  go  by  train 
from  Messina  to  Syracuse  (comp.  p.  158),  in  which  case  there  will  be  time 
to  spend  a  night  at  Taormina  and  see  the  sunset  and  sunrise.  At  Syra- 
cuse a  drive  through!  the  old  town  should  not  be  omitted  (comp.  p.  162). 

Naples,  see  p.  135.  Steering  across  the  bay  towards  the  Penin- 
sula of  Sorrento,  we  enjoy  a  delightful  retrospect  of  Mt.  Vesuvius 
and  the  hills  around  Naples.  Farther  on  we  admire  the  bold  rocky 
N.  coast  of  the  island  of  Capri. 

After  l1/^  hr.  we  pass  through  the  Bocca  Piccola,  a  strait  3  M. 
in  breadth,  between  the  huge  cliffs  of  Lo  Capo,  the  N.E.  point  of 
Capri,  and  the  Punta  di  Campanella  (154  ft.;  lighthouse),  the 
extremity  of  the  peninsula  of  Sorrento. 

j pit  Ans rait    ^-  YV^filuT  *  Pedes  .Leipzig 

lcq>o  Kasoroln 


CastMfiea     '     '     "■  ./itmu-qte-.    v -$&** c. 


STRAITS  OF  MESSINA.  ■      27-  Route.     155 

The  steamboat  now  proceeds  to  the  S.S.E.  towards  the  straits  of 
Messina.  We  have  a  fine  view,  in  passing,  of  the  Punta  Tragara, 
the  S.E.  headland  of  Capri,  with  the  cliffs  of  the  Faraglioni,  and 
of  the  precipitous  Monte  Soldro  (1920  ft.),  the  highest  hill  in  the 
island.  On  our  left  lies  the  broad  Gulf  of  Salerno,  with  the  bays 
of  Positano  and  Amalfi  on  the  S.  side  of  the  peninsula  of  Sorrento. 
Conspicuous  among  the  Neapolitan  Apennines  are  the  spurs  of 
Monte  Stella  (3708  ft.)  with  the  Punta  Licosa,  and  of  Monte 
Bulgheria  (4016  ft.)  with  Cape  Palinuro  (lighthouse). 

At  length,  far  off  the  coast  of  Calabria,  we  sight  to  the  S.  the 
volcanic  Lipari  or  JEolian  Islands,  the  ancient  Liparaeae  or 
JEoliae.  "We  pass  close  to  Stromboli,  the  Strongyle  of  the  Greeks, 
which  the  ancients  regarded  as  the  seat  of  iEolus,  god  of  the  winds. 
This  island  culminates  in  a  peak  (3038  ft.)  with  a  crater  on  its  N. 
side,  often  shrouded  in  smoke,  which  is  one  of  the  few  constantly 
active  volcanoes  in  Europe.  To  the  S.W.  we  descry  in  clear  weather 
Pandria  (1381  ft.),  with  its  archipelago  of  smaller  islands;  Lipari, 
the  largest  of  the  group  with  Monte  Sant' Angela  (1955  ft.);  and 
Vulcano  with  its  ever  smoking  crater  (1638  ft.). 

Off  Cape  Vaticano  (lighthouse),  a  spur  of  the  Calabrian  coast- 
hills  between  the  bays  of  Sant'Eufemia  and  Gioia,  we  sight  the  N. 
coast  of  Sicily,  with  the  Monti  Peloritani,  the  Myconius  Mons  or 
Mons  Neptuni  of  the  Romans,  overtopped  by  Mt.  JEtna  (p.  159). 
On  the  Calabrian  coast,  near  the  strait  which  was  the  chief  scene 
of  the  earthquake  of  1908  (p.  156),  appear  the  ruins  of  the  little 
town  of  Palmi,  halfway  up  Monte  Elia  (1900  ft.;  a  famous  point  of 
view),  and  those  of  Bagnara  and  of  Scilla  with  its  castle-rock. 

The  *Voyage  through  the  Straits  of  Messina  (Faro  or  Stretto 
di  Messina),  the  Fretum  Sieulum  of  antiquity,  is  one  of  the  most 
beautiful  in  the  Mediterranean.  Both  banks  are  luxuriantly  fertile, 
shaded  with  palms,  and  yielding  oranges,  pomegranates,  and  prickly- 
pears.  The  Calabrian  coast,  thickly  studded  with  villages,  partly 
in  ruins,  culminates  in  Montalto  (5424  ft.),  the  highest  peak  of  the 
wooded  Aspromonte,  the  ancient  Sila,  while  we  survey  the  Sicilian 
coast  as  far  as  Mt.  JEtna.  The  narrowest  part  of  the  straits,  2  M., 
is  between  the  Punta  del  Faro  (p.  158)  and  the  Punta  Pezzo, 
where  they  are  entered  from  the  Tyrrhenian  Sea;  between  Messina 
and  Villa  San  Giovanni  (p.  159)  they  are  4'/2  M.,  and  between  Capo 
di  Scaletta  (p.  158)  and  the  Punta  di  Pellaro  (p.  159)  in  the  Jovian 
Sea  83/4  M.  wide.  The  currents  which  sweep  past  the  headland 
of  Scilla  (see  above)  and  cause  strong  eddies  near  the  harbour  of 
Messina,  sometimes  augmented  by  gales,  gave  rise  at  a  very  early 
period  to  the  legend  of  Scylla  and  Charybdis,  and  Homer  has  de- 
scribed Scylla  as  a  roaring,  all-devouring  sea-monster. 

We  pass  the  lighthouses  of  the  Punta  del  Faro  and  tin  Pnnta 
di  Pezro.    Nearing  the  Harbour  of  Messina,  in  a  bay  formed  hj 

1 56     Route  27.  MESSINA .  From  Naples 

a  sickle-shaped  peninsula,  we  survey  the  ruins  of  the  city  on  the 
green  slopes  of  the  Monti  Peloritani  (p.  155),  whose  fissured  peaks 
tower  above  the  sea  of  houses,  once  so  picturesque. 

The  central  point  of  the  earthquake  of  Messina  (28th  Dec,  1908), 
caused  by  dislocation  or  subsidence,  was  the  strait  and  the  W.  slope 
of  Aspromonte  (p.  155).  The  first  terrific  shock  at  5  a.m.  was  fol- 
lowed almost  immediately  by  a  great  tidal  wave  caused  by  a  sub- 
marine earthquake,  and  aggravating  the  calamity  in  the  lower  parts 
of  the  coast  towns  and  villages.  The  effects  of  the  earthquake  were 
disastrous  also  in  Calabria  as  far  to  the  N.  as  Cosenza,  and  in  Sicily 
as  far  to  the  S.  as  Pachino  (near  Cape  Passero;  p.  411).  At  Messina 
the  sea-wave  rose  to  a  height  of  8-9  ft.,  at  Reggio  ll1/^  ft.,  and  at 
Giardini  and  Riposto  1972-20  ft.  The  area  of  the  seismic  disturb- 
ance extended  to  the  N.E.  to  Pizzo  on  the  bay  of  Sant'Eufemia 
(p.  155),  to  the  E.  to  the  mouth  of  the  Amendolea,  near  Cape 
Spartivento  and  the  small  town  of  Ferruzzano,  the  scene  of  the 
earthquake  of  1907,  and  to  the  S.  to  Riposto  (p.  158).  It  was  es- 
timated that  96,000  persons  lost  their  lives.  The  value  of  the 
buildings  destroyed  amounted  to  about  6,500,000^. 

Messina.  —  Arrival.  Landing  or  embarkation  1  fr.,  or  without 
baggage  50  c,  but  bargain  advisable.  Passengers  are  landed  at  the  quay 
(Approdo  Ferry-boats)  adjoining  the  old  Stazione  Porto,  where,  in  con- 
nection with  the  express  from  Naples  (steam-ferry  from  Villa  San  Giovanni), 
express  trains  to  Catania  and  Palermo  are  in  waiting. 

Hotels  (inquiries  should  be  made  as  to  prices),  all  with  the  exception 
of  the  Excelsior  built  of  wood  and  very  fair.  Gr.-Hot.  Regina  Elena, 
Viale  Roosevelt,  to  the  E.  of  Viale  San  Martino,  in  an  open  situation 
commanding  fine  views,  to  be  opened  in  1911;  Grand- Hotel,  R.  472-5, 
B.  lV^fr.;  Excelsior,  R.  4-10,  B.  l'/2fr.;  Belvedere,  R.  2y2-Sil2h.,  these 
three  in  the  Viale  San  Martino ;   Venezia,  Piazza  Cavallotti. 

Cab  per  drive  60  (with  luggage  80)  c,  at  night  1  fr. ;  by  time,  2  fr.  for  the 
first  hour,  and  1  fr.  50  c.  for  each  addit.  hour;  to  the  Punta  del  Faro  6-7  fr. 

Post  Office,  Viale  San  Martino.  —  Telegraph  Office  in  the  piazza 
of  the  chief  station. 

Tourist  Agency.  Mrs.  Pearce,  Via  Primo  Settembre,  opposite  the 
railway -station. 

British  Vice-Consul,  J.  B.  Heynes. 

The  town  of  Messina  was  like  Reggio  completely  destroyed 
by  the  earthquake  of  1908  (comp.  above)  and  has  now  only  80,000 
inhab.  as  against  110,000  in  1908.  Notwithstanding  this  catas- 
trophe it  was  finally  decided  in  autumn  1909  to  rebuild  the  town 
on  its  former  site.  Its  harbour,  one  of  the  best  in  the  Mediter- 
ranean, the  third  in  importance  in  Sicily,  sustained  no  damage  and 
has  even  now  a  very  brisk  trade  (1908:  3589  vessels  of  2,598,647 
tons  burden;  1910:  3148  vessels  of  2,050,733  tons  burden).  The 
great  charm  of  Messina  consists  in  the  beauty  of  its  environs  and 
the  views  they  afford,  particularly  of  the  Calabrian  coast  by 
evening  light. 

to  Syracuse.  MESSINA.  27-  Route.     157 

Originally  named  Zancle  {i.e.  sickle),  Messina  was  one  of  the  earliest 
of  the  Greek  colonies  in  Sicily,  having  been  founded  about  730  B.O.  Early 
in  the  5th  cent,  it  was  occupied  by  new  colonists  from  the  Messenian  Reggio 
(p.  159)  and  called  Messana.  From  the  earliest  times  the  Messenians  took 
a  leading  part  in  almost  all  the  political  agitations  in  the  island.  In  228 
the  Mamertines,  disbanded  mercenaries  of  Agathocles  (p.  163),  treach- 
erously seized  the  town  and  soon  afterwards  invoked  the  aid  of  the  Romans 
against  Hannibal,  thus  directly  giving  rise  to  the  first  Punic  war.  For  a 
time  Messina  enjoyed  the  special  favour  of  the  Romans,  and  even  of 
Verres,  the  notorious  proconsul,  but  when  it  became  the  naval  base  of 
Pompey,  in  36  B.C.,  it  was  plundered  by  the  soldiers  of  Octavian.  From 
the  period  of  the  Crusades,  by  which  Sicily  was  partly  affected,  date  the 
privileges  which  made  Messina  a  kind  of  free  city  and  the  seat  of  the  Sic- 
ilian opposition  to  foreign  domination.  The  failure  of  its  war  against  Spain 
(1672-8),  notwithstanding  the  help  of  French  troops  sent  by  Louis  XIV. 
and  two  naval  victories  won  by  Admiral  Duquesno  over  the  Spanish- 
Dutch  fleet  under  De  Ruyter  (1676),  caused  the  downfall  of  the  city. 
Terrible  pestilences  (the  plague  in  1740  and  cholera  in  1854),  severe  earth- 
quakes (in  1783  and  1894),  and  the  bombardment  of  the  town  by  the 
Neapolitan  fleet  (in  1818)  had  already  seriously  injured  Messina  prior  to 
its  recent  appalling  calamity. 

The  ruins  extend  along  the  shore  to  the  N.,  from  the  'sickle' 
of  the  harbour  and  the  citadel,  to  the  Giardino  a  Mare,  under 
whose  plane-trees  is  a  Camp  for  the  destitute.  The  Citadel  itself, 
with  its  broad  moats  and  its  bastions,  is  still  standing. 

On  the  Marina  or  Corso  Vittorio  Emanuele  (formerly  called 
also  La  Palazzata)  are  still  seen  several  palatial  facades,  inter- 
rupt! d  by  archways  and  passages  leading  to  the  parallel  Via  Gari- 
baldi. These  are  mostly  relics  of  a  uniform  row  of  palaces,  erected 
after  the  earthquake  of  1783.  Opposite  the  ruined  Palazzo  Muui- 
cipale  rises  the  Neptune  Fountain,  by  Montorsoli,  a  pupil  of 
Michael  Angelo  (1557),  with  a  colossal  statue  of  Neptune  between 
Scylla  and  Charybdis. 

Beyond  the  Via  Garibaldi  lies  the  Piazza  del  Duomo,  with 
the  almost  intact  Orion  Fountain  by  Montorsoli  (1547-51),  a  point 
which  may  be  reached  direct  from  the  Dogana  by  the  Via  Primo 
Settembre.  The  Cathedral  (la  Matrice),  founded  by  the  Normans 
in  1098,  is  now,  with  the  exception  of  the  choir  niche,  a  mass  of 
ruins.  The  short  Via  Universita  degli  Studi  led  to  the  S.E.  from 
this  piazza  to  the  University,  now  also  destroyed. 

A  few  paces  to  the  S.  of  the  University,  in  the  coast-plain  called 
the  Mosella,  between  the  Torrente  Portalegni  and  the  Torrente 
Zaera,  and  beyond  the  ruins  of  the  new  quarters  of  the  town,  lies 
the  main  Camp  of  wooden  barracks  for  the  homeless,  flanking  the 
Viale  San  Martino. 

A  good  Burvey  of  the  ruins,  as  well  as  a  superb  view  of  the  straits,  is 
obtained  from  the  old  Forte  Castellaccio,  which,  along  witli  the  modern 
forts,  the  barracks  of  the  mountain-artillery,  and  the  powder-magazine, 
has  escaped  destruction.  The  way  to  it  (35-40  min.)  is  up  the  Torrente 
Portalegni  close  to  ruined  houses;  we  then  skirt  the  Botanic  Garden, 
cross  the  Piazza  Venti  Settembre  occupied  by  barracks,  and  ascend  straight 
on  the  steep  Via  Castellaccio. 

158     Route  27.  TAORMINA.  from  Naples 

The  beautiful  Excursion  to  the  Punta  del  Faro  (cab,  see 
p.  156;  bargain  advisable)  affords  a  good  survey  of  the  devastated 
environs.  The  road  leads  from  the  Giardino  a  Mare  (p.  157)  and  the 
camp  called  Villaggio  Regina  Elena,  along  the  foot  of  the  hills,  past 
luxuriant  orchards,  and  through  the  ruined  fishing-villages  of  Sal- 
vatore  del  Greci,  Paradiso,  and  Pace;  it  then  skirts  two  lagoons, 
the  Pantano  Grande,  or  Logo  di  Ganzirri,  below  the  ruins  of 
Faro  Superiore,  a  village  famed  for  its  wine,  and  the  Pantano 
Piccolo.  On  the  Punta  del  Faro  or  Capo  Peloro  (once  Promon- 
torium  Pelorum),  the  N.E.  point  of  Sicily,  are  the  ruins  of  the 
fishing-village  of  Faro  or  Torre  del  Faro,  and  near  it  the  quite 
intact  Lighthouse  (200  steps;  keeper  50  c),  which  commands 
a  splendid  *Vie\v  of  the  Lipari  Islands  and  the  Calabrian  coast  as 
far  as  Cape  Vaticano  (comp.  p.  155). 

From  Messina  to  Syracuse,  115  M.,  railway  in  6Vi-7  his. ;  fares  22  fr.  60, 
15  fr.  85,  10  fr.  25  c.  (journey  may  be  broken  once;  to  Giardini-Taorm ina, 
3OV2  M.,  in  l'/»-2  hrs.).  The  quick  trains  start  from  Messina  harbour 
(comp.  p.  156);  the  morning  train,  which  runs  to  Syracuse  harbour,  has  a 
dining-car  (diij.  2V2  f  r-).  The  train  skirts  the  coast,  affording  fine  views; 
it  crosses  the  stony  channels  of  several  torrenti  or  flumare,  which  are 
generally  dry,   and  pierces  a  number  of  headlands   by  means  of  tunnels. 

7'/a  M.  Galati;  12  M.  Scaletta  Zanclea,  with  a  picturesque  castle,  not 
far  from  the  Capo  di  Scaletta;  15'/n  M.  All,  with  sulphur-baths.  Beyond 
the  (23  M.)  beautiful  cape  of  Sant'Alessio,  with  a  deserted  castle,  we  sight 
the  headland  of  Taormina. 

3OV2  M.  Giardini-Taormina.  The  village  of  Giardini  lies  in  a  small 
bay,  in  a  malarious  region,  l'/4  M.  beyond  the  Capo  di  Taormina.  Taor- 
mina is  reached  by  road  (3  M.),  by  a  bridle-path,  or  by  a  steep  footpath. 
(Diligence  1  fr. ;  down,  50  c;  carr.  according  to  number  of  party,  2-5  fr.; 
heavy  luggage  had  better  be  left  at  the  station.) 

Taormina  (673  ft.;  San  Domenico  Palace  Hotel,  Hotel  Castello  a 
Mare,  Timeo,  International,  Villa  San  Pancrazio,  Metropole,  all  often 
crowded  from  15th  Jan.  to  April  and  closed  in  summer;  plainer,  San  Gior- 
gio, Victoria,  Naumachia,  etc.;  Brit,  vice-cons.,  Dr.  S.  Cacciola-Cartella;  pop. 
4000),  the  ancient  Tauromenium,  a  highly  picturesque  little  town,  lies 
on  the  S.E.  spurs  of  Monte  Venere  (2900  ft.),  and  is  overlooked  by  a 
ruined  Castle  (1300  ft.)  and  by  the  village  of  Mola  (2083  ft.).  Its  chief 
attraction  is  the  * Ancient  Theatre,  at  the  E.  end  of  the  town,  which  is 
open  daily  till  dusk.  Originally  Greek  it  was  entirely  remodelled  in  the 
Roman  period.  The  spectators'  area  (cavea),  almost  wholly  hewn  in  the 
rock,  is  357  ft.  in  diameter,  and  the  orchestra  (seats  for  persons  of  dis- 
tinction) 115  ft.;  the  stage  (pulpitum)  is  particularly  well  preserved.  The 
*View  from  the  site  of  the  theatre  is  one  of  the  most  beautiful  in  Italy, 
especially  in  the  morning,  when  the  sun  rises  above  Calabria  or,  in  winter, 
from  the  sea,  imparting  a  rosy  hue  to  the  snowy  peak  of  Mt.  iEtna 
(p.  159),  and  gilding  the  rocky  heights  beyond  the  theatre. 

Between  Taormina  and  Catania  the  train  crosses  a  number  of  the  lava- 
streams  descending  from  Mt.  iEtna.  On  the  northmost  of  these,  near 
Schisb,  between  the  bay  of  Giardini  and  the  mouth  of  the  Alcantara 
(Arabic  al-kantara,  the  bridge),  lay  Naxos,  founded  in  735  B.  C,  the 
oldest  Greek  colony  in  Sicily. 

41  M.  Giarre-Riposto,  the  station  for  the  country-town  of  Giarre 
and  for  the  seaport  of  Riposto  which  has  a  brisk  trade  in  wine.  It  is 
also  the  starting-point  of  the  railway  round  the  W.  side  of  Mt.  .(Etna 
('Ferrovia  CircumetneV ;  68V2  M.  in  length). 

51  M.  Acireale  (525  ft.;  Sicil.  Iaci),  a  wealthy  country-town  built  on 

to  Syracuse.  REGGIO.  »7.  Route.     159 

several  lava-streams  and  much  frequented  as  a  bathing-place  on  account 
of  its  mineral  springs  (sulphur,  salt,  and  iodine).  —  Near  (55'/a  M.)  Ad 
Cash  ll'i  we  perceive  on  the  left  in  the  sea  seven  cliffs  of  columnar  basalt, 
the  Scoali  de'C'iclopi  or  Islands  of  Cyclops,  the  rocks  which  according 
to  Greek  myth  the  blinded  Polyphemus  hurled  after  the  crafty  Ulysses. 

59'/..,  M."  Catania,  see  p.  160. 

Running  inland  the  train  enters  the  Plana  di  Catania,  the  plain  of 
the  rivers  Simeto  and  Gornalunga,  which  is  often  flooded  in  winter.  This 
was  the  region  of  the  Laestrygovian  Fields  of  antiquity,  extolled  by  Cicero 
as  the  'uberrima  Sicilise  pars',  and  still  the  granary  of  the  island.  To  the 
right,  beyond  the  Monti  Cartina,  in  a  malarious  district  lies  the  Lago 
di  Lentini,  the  largest  lake  in  Sicily.  On  the  left,  beyond  (77'/2  M.) 
Lentini,  Greek  Leontinoi,  is  the  swampy  lagoon  Pantano  di  C'arlentini . 
We  pass  numerous  salt-works  and  suow-white  pyramids  of  sea-salt. 

94  M.  Augusta  (the  ancient  Xiphonia),  a  seaport  with  16,000  inhab., 
lies  in  a  site  similar  to  that  of  Syracuse,  on  the  N.  margin  of  the  Bay 
of  Mcgara,  which  is  bounded  by  the  headlands  of  Santa  Croce  and  Santa 
Panagia  (p.  162).  98V2  M.  Migara  Iblea,  not  far  from  the  site  of  the  Greek 
colony  of  Megara  Eyblea.  On  the  left  is  the  Penisola  Magnisi,  the 
ancient  Thapsos,  on  the  N.  side  of  which  lay  the  fleet  of  the  Athenians 
during  their  expedition  against  Syracuse  (p.  163). 

The  train  passes  the  small  bay  of  Trogilos,  where  the  fleet  of  Mar- 
cellus  once  anchored  (p.  163),  and  a  tunny-fishery  (tonnara),  runs  through 
a  cutting,  and  skirts  the  limestone  plateau  near  Cape  Santa  Panagia.  To 
the  left  we  have  a  fine  view  of  the  sea  and  the  modern  town,  and  at  length 
reach  the  (115  M.)  harbour-station  of  Syracuse  (p.  162). 

From  Messina  to  (8  M.)  Eeggio,  a  delightful  trip,  especially 
by  morning  light,  either  by  one  of  the  steamers  mentioned  at 
p.  154  or  by  one  of  the  ferry-boats  (comp.  p.  156).  To  the  left, 
nearly  opposite  Messina,  is  the  little  town  of  Villa  San  Giovanni 
(p.  155),  now  in  ruins,  as  are  also  the  villages  of  Catona,  Gallieo, 
Archi,  and  others  farther  to  the  S. 

Reggio  (Alb.  Veneto-Trentino,  a  temporary  hotel-restaurant), 
before  the  earthquake  of  1908  a  town  of  35,000  inhab.,  called 
Reggio  Calabria  to  distinguish  it  from  Reggio  in  the  Emilia,  lies 
at  the  W.  base  of  the  Aspromonte  (p.  155).  The  ancient  Rhegium, 
originally  a  Euboean  colony,  but  occupied  by  new  Messenian  settlers 
in  723  B.C.,  has  been  destroyed  eight  times  in  war  and  twice  by 
earthquakes  (1783  and  1908).  Its  last  disaster  was  most  appalling 
in  the  upper  quarters.  Along  the  shore  and  in  the  piazzas  the 
survivors  are  now  living  in  huts.  The  Strada  Reggio  Canvpi 
above  the  town  oilers  a  beautiful  view  especially  towards  evening. 

On  the  Voyage  to  Catania  we  enjoy  a  splendid  view  of  the 
whole  of  the  straits  as  far  as  the  Punta  del  Faro  (p.  158),  and  later 
of  the  coast  of  Calabria  from  the  Punta  di  Pellaro  (p.  155)  to  the 
Capo  dell'Armi.  On  the  Sicilian  coast  rise  the  Monti  Peloritani 
(p.  155)  and  the  majestic  ML  JEtna  (10,958  ft.;  Ital.  Etna),  the 
highest  volcano  in  Europe,  with  its  countless  minor  craters  and  the 
great  Valle  del  Bove,  the  remains  of  the  enormous  oldest  crater, 
3  if.  broad,  bounded  by  rocky  slopes  of  1900-3900  ft.  in  height. 
The  view  is  specially  striking  beyond  Taormina  (p.  158),  and  we 

160     Route  27.  CATANIA.  From  Naples 

obtaiii  also  a  good  idea  of  the  volume  and  the  direction  of  the  old 
lava-streams.  After  sixteen  years'  quiescence  fresh  flows  of  lava 
were  emitted  in  the  Yalle  del  Bove  in  1908  and  from  the  volcano's 
S.  slope  in  1910. 

Beyond  Acireale  (p.  158)  and  Cape  Molini,  the  N.  limit  of  the 
broad  Bay  of  Catania,  we  sight  the  Scogli  de'  Ciclopi  (p.  159). 
As  we  enter  the  harbour  of  Catania  we  have  a  fine  view  of  the  S. 
side  of  iEtna. 

Catania.  —  Arrival.  The  steamers  anchor  in  the  Nuovo  Porto 
(PI.  F,  G,  6),  whence  passengers  are  rowed  (60  c. ;  with  baggage  1  fr.)  to 
the  Dogana  (PI.  F,  G,  5)  in  the  Porto  Vecchio,  a  harbour  very  much 
contracted  by  the  lava-stream  of  1669  (see  below). 

Hotels.  *Grande  Bretagne  (PI.  a;  F,  4),  Via  Lincoln,  R.  3Va-6,  B. 
1V2,  dej.  31/2,  D.  5Vo  fr. ;  ^Bristol  &  du  Globe  (PI.  c;  E,  4),  Via  Santa  Maria 
del  Rosario,  R.  3V2-6,  B.  l>/8,  dej.  3,  D.  4i/2fr.;  Centrale  Europa  (PI.  d; 
E,  5),  cor.  of  the  Piazza  del  Duomo  and  Via  Raddusa,  R.  272-4,  omn.  3/4  fr., 
well  spoken  of;  and  others. 

Restaurants.  Marconi,  Piazza  Universita  15,  good;  Savoia,  Via 
Marietta  15,  behind  the  Municipio.  —  Gaffe  Tricomi,  Via  Stesicoro  Etnea 
30;  Gaffe  Amato,  Via  Stesicoro  Etnea  151.  —  Birreria  Svizzera,  Via  Stesi- 
coro Etnea  139  (dej.  21/2,  D.  3  fr.),  music  in  the  evening,  good. 

Steamboat  Agents.  Societa  Naxionale,  Piazza  Duca  di  Genova  18 
(PI.  F,  5) ;  North  German  Lloyd,  Munzone,  Mineo,  &  Co.,  same  piazza,  No.  3. 

British  Vice-Consul,  W.  A.  Franck.  —  Post  &  Telegraph  Office 
(PI.  E,  4),  Via  Manzoni. — English  Church  Services. 

Tramways.  The  chief  line  is  from  the  railway-station  (Stazione 
Sicula;  PI.  H,  4)  through  Corso  Vittorio  Emanuele  to  the  Piazza  del  Duomo 
(PI.  E,  5) ;  then  to  the  N.  through  Via  Stesicoro  Etnea  to  the  'Ingresso' 
of  Villa  Bellini  (PI.  E,  2)  aud  Piazza  Gioeni.  — Cab  40  (at  night  50)  c.  per 
drive ;  first  hour  l>/a  fr.  (two-horse  2  f r.  30  c). 

Catania,  a  wealthy  town  of  162,000  inhab.,  the  largest  in 
Sicily  after  Palermo,  the  seat  of  a  university,  a  bishop,  and  a  nat- 
ural science  academy,  has  lately  become  the  chief  outlet  for  the 
products  of  the  island,  especially  those  of  the  extremely  fertile  en- 
virons. Katana,  founded  like  Naxos  by  Eubceans,  about  729  B.C., 
became  famous  as  the  home  of  Charondas,  the  framer  of  the  earl- 
iest Greek  code  of  law  (about  640).  In  the  Athenian  and  Syra- 
cusan  war  (p.  163)  it  formed  the  Athenian  base  of  attack.  Katana 
was  one  of  the  first  places  in  Sicily  occupied  by  the  Romans,  and 
under  their  sway  became  one  of  the  most  populous  towns  in  the 
island.  In  the  middle  ages  it  vied  for  a  time  with  Palermo  and 
Messina  as  a  favourite  residence  of  the  Aragon  sovereigns.  It  has 
repeatedly  suffered  severely  from  the  eruptions  of  Mt.  iEtna  (espec- 
ially in  122  B.C.  and  in  1669)  and  from  earthquakes  (1169  and 
1693),  and  the  present  town  has  been  built  almost  entirely  since  1693. 

From  the  Porto  Vecchio,  into  which  falls  the  brook  Amenana 
after  passing  through  the  lava  under  the  town,  we  walk  through 
the  Pescheria  (fish  and  provision  market)  to  the  — 

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man Roger  I.  with  materials  from  the  ancient  theatre  (p.  161), 

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to  Syracuse.  CATANIA.  »?•  Route.     161 

but  almost  entirely  destroyed  by  the  earthquake  of  1169.  In  the 
choir  repose  the  Aragon  sovereigns  of  the  14th  cent. ;  in  the  right 
side-apse  are  treasured  the  remains  of  St.  Agatha,  who,  like  St.'Ro- 
s.i'n  (p.  152),  was  one  of  the  most  famous  saints  of  Sicily,  and 
whose  veil  is  said  to  have  diverted  the  lava-stream  of  1669  (PI.  B, 
1-3)  from  the  city  at  a  point  near  the  Benedictine  monastery  (see 
below).  Opposite,  on  the  right,  is  the  monument  of  the  viceroy 
Acufia  (d.  1494),  quite  Spanish  in  style.  By  the  second  pillar  on 
the  right  is  the  tomb  of  Vine.  Bellini,  the  composer,  a  native  of 
Catania  (1802-35). 

In  the  Piazza  del  Dtjomo  rises  a  fountain  with  an  antique  ele- 
phant in  lava,  bearing  an  Egyptian  obelisk  of  granite.  Past  its  N. 
side  runs  the  Corso  Vittorio  Emanuele,  with  the  Piazza  dei  Martiri 
and  (he  statue  of  St.  Agatha  at  its  E.  end  (PL  G,  5).  We  follow  the 
Corso  to  the  W.  to  the  Via  Sant'Agostino,  by  the  church  of  that 
name  (PI.  D,  5),  and  here  turn  to  the  N.  past  the  entirely  altered 
Roman  Odeum  (comp.  p.  349)  to  the  Via  del  Teatro  Greco.  Here, 
near  the  corner  on  the  right,  at  No.  37,  is  the  entrance  to  the  — 

Ancient  Theatre  (PI.  D,  4,  5 ;  custodian  at  No.  33 ;  fee  50  c), 
once  a  fine  structure,  but  now  so  buried  in  lava  that  some  parts  of 
it  can  be  explored  only  by  candle-light.  The  foundations  alone 
date  from  the  Greek  period.  —  In  the  Piazza  Dante,  a  little  to  the 
N.W.,  is  the  suppressed  Benedictine  monastery  of — 

San  Nicolb  (PI.  C,  D,  4),  or  San  Benedetto,  dating  in  its  pre- 
sent form  from  the  early  18th  cent.,  with  an  imposing  baroque 
church.  The  extensive  buildings  now  contain  barracks,  a  school,  the 
civic  museum,  the  library,  aud  the  observatory.  The  church-tower 
(entr.  through  the  portal  to  the  S.  of  the  facade;  gratuity)  commands 
a  panoramic  *View  of  the  town.  lit.  iEtna,  and  the  Sicilian  and 
Calabrian  coasts,  which  is  finest  before  9  a.m. 

At  the  Piazza  Dante  begins  the  Via  Lincoln  (PL  D-F,  4),  the 
second  great  thoroughfare  of  the  town  running  W.  to  E.,  partly  hewn 
through  the  lava-stream  of  1669.    This  street  is  crossed  by  the  — 

Via  Stesicoro  Etnea  (PL  E,  5-1),  which  intersects  the  whole 
town,  from  the  Piazza  del  Duomo  (see  above)  to  the  N.  end.  Here 
rise  the  chief  public  buildings  of  Catania,  the  Municipio  (PL  E,  5), 
the  University,  and  the  Prefettura  (PL  E,  4). 

Farther  to  the  N.  is  the  Piazza  Stesicoro;  on  its  left  side  is 
the  church  of  San  Cdrcere  (PL  E,  3),  with  an  interesting  Norman 
portal  brought  from  the  cathedral.  Close  by  the  N.  part  of  a  Roman 
Amphitheatre  has  been  laid  bare  (greater  diameter  138,  smaller 
116  yds.);  the  unusually  large  arena  (77  by  55  yds.)  is  second 
only  to  that  of  the  Colosseum  (94  by  59  yds.). 

Still  farther  to  the  N.,  on  the  left,  is  the  entrance  to  the  Villa 
Bellini  (PL  E,  2),  a  public  park  with  fine  views. 

After  returning  to  the  Porto  Vecchio  we  may  follow  the  Via 

162     Boute27.  SYRACUSE.  Practical  Notes. 

Scuto  to  the  picturesque  Castello  Ursino  (PI.  D,  6),  dating  from 
the  time  of  Emp.  Frederick  II.  (after  1239).  The  quarter  to  the 
E.  of  the  castle  is  almost  the  only  relic  of  the  old  town. 

On  the  Voyage  to  Sybacuse  the  steamer  proceeds  to  the  S.E. 
at  some  distance  from  the  Piana  di  Catania  (p.  159),  affording  a 
splendid  view  astern  of  Mt.  JEtnn,  and  passes  Capo  Campolato, 
Capo  Santa  Croce  (p.  159),  and  the  Bay  of  Megara. 

As  we  enter  the  Bay  of  Syracuse,  hounded  on  the  N.  by  the 
plateau  of  Capo  Santa  Panagia  (p.  159),  and  on  the  S.E.  by  the  low 
Penisola  delta  Maddalena  (177  ft.),  the  ancient  Plemmyrion,  we 
obtain  an  excellent  idea  of  the  site  of  the  present  island-city,  and 
of  the  vast  extent  of  the  ancient  city  on  the  mainland  to  the  N.W., 
stretching  up  the  hill  to  the  village  of  Belvedere  (p.  166). 

The  entrance  to  the  inner  bay  of  the  Porto  Grande,  now  much 
choked  with  sand,  between  the  lighthouse  at  the  end  of  the  island 
and  that  of  the  peninsula,  behind  the  cliff  of  La  Galera,  is  only 
1312  yds.  across.  In  the  swampy  and  in  summer  malarious  plain 
on  the  W.  bank  of  the  harbour  are  the  mouths  of  the  rivers  Andpo 
and  Ciani,  the  ancient  Anapos  and  Kyane. 

Syracuse.  —  Arrival  by  Sea.  The  steamers  anchor  near  the 
landing-place  at  the  Porta  Marina  (Scalo;  comp.  Map).  Landing  or  em- 
barkation 50  c,  with  baggage  1  fr. 

Railway  Stations.  The  Central  Station  (Stazione,  see  Map)  is  on 
the  Floridia  road  (p.  165),  1  M.  to  the  N.W.  of  the  town.  The  expresses 
run  down  to  the  Stazione  Porto. 

Hotels  (advisable  to  ask  charges  beforehand).  *Grand-H6t.  Villa 
Politi  (V.  P.  on  the  Map),  on  the  mainland,  near  and  in  the  Latomia  dei 
Cappuccini  (p.  165),  with  beautiful  garden  and  fine  views,  R.  4-8,  B.  l1^, 
dej.  3'/2.  D.  5,  pens.  10-16,  omn.  IV2  fr. ;  *H6t.  des  Etrangers  (formerly 
Oasa  Politi),  near  the  Arethusa  Fountain,  similar  charges;  *  Grand- Hotel, 
Piazza  Mazzini,  close  to  the  busy  harbour,  similar  charges.  —  Second-class: 
Alb.  Soma,  Via  Roma  64,  R.  l8/4-3  fr.,  well  spoken  of;  Alb.  Firenze,  Via 
Roma  73,  R.  from  IV2  fr. ;  Alb.  Cavour,  Via  Savoia,  behind  the  Dogana, 
R.  IV2-3  fr- ;  these  three  with  restaurants  (Ital.  cuisine). 

Cafe.     Croce  di  Savoia,  Piazza  del  Duomo. 

Cabs.  (Night  fares  from  V2  hr-  after  sunset  till  sunrise.  Fares  should 
be  ascertained  before  starting.)  Per  drive  in  the  town  (incl.  harbour- 
station)  40  c,  with  pair  1  fr.,  at  night  70  c.  or  IV2  fr. ;  to  or  from  chief 
station  65  c.  or  li/2  fr.,  at  night  90  c.  or  1  fr.  90  c.  (luggage  over  25  kilos 
or  55  lbs.  25,  over  50  kilos  or  1  cwt.  50  c);  first  hour  IV2  or  2l/2  fr.,  each 
addit.  V2  hr.  60  c.  or  IV2  fr.  —  For  a  long  drive  it  is  best  to  choose  one's 
own  vehicle  in  the  Piazza  del  Duomo.  For  an  afternoon  (noon  till  V2  nr- 
after  sundown)  5  or  10  fr.,  whole  day  10  or  20  fr.  Cheaper  fares  may 
generally  be  agreed  upon  out  of  the  season. 

Steamboat  Agents.  —  Societa  Nazionale,  Via  Ruggiero  Settimo  38, 
close  to  the  Dogana;  Hungarian  Adria  Co.,  also  Lloyd's  Agents,  Gaet. 
Bozzanca  &  Figlio. 

British  Vice-Consul,  Joseph  Lobb.  —  Post  &  Telegraph  Office,  Via 

English  Church  Service  in  winter. 

One  Dat.  The  chief  sights  in  the  modern  town  are  the  Cathedral, 
the  Museum,  and  the  Arethusa  Fountain  (p.  164).    The  greater  part  of  the 


Sea  la  nel    1:50.000 

^Abbreviation!:  C.  Casa  .X:Latonviiu. 

I'?  S.Pnnagia, 

History.  SYRACUSE.  27.  Route.     163 

day  should  be  devoted  to  the  ancient  town.  The  most  interesting  places 
there  (the  Euryelus  excepted)  may  be  visited  by  carriage  in  3-4  his.: 
Latomia  dei  Cappuccini  (p.  165),  Catacombs  of  San  Giovanni  (p.  165),  Amphi- 
theatre (p.  166),  Hiero's  Altar  (p.  166),  Greek  Theatre  (p.  166;  best  towards 
sunset  for  the  sake  of  the  view).  Walkers  should  ferry  direct  from  the 
Prigioni  in  the  town  to  the  N.  bank  of  the  Porto  Piccolo  (10  a). 

Syracuse,  Ital.  Siracusa,  the  most  populous  town  in  Sicily  in 
ancient  times,  and  indeed  the  most  important  of  all  the  Hellenic 
cities,  now  a  mere  shadow  of  its  glorious  past,  with  27,000  inhab. 
only,  lies  on  an  island  separated  from  the  mainland  by  a  narrow 
strait.  It  was  founded  under  the  name  of  Syracusae  by  Corinthians, 
in  734  B.  C,  on  the  island  then  called  Ortygia,  where  a  Phoenician 
settlement  had  perhaps  already  existed.  Endless  party  conflicts 
between  the  nobles  and  the  townspeople  led  in  485  to  the  inter- 
vention of  the  tyrant  Gelon  of  Gela,  who  made  Syracuse  his  res- 
idence. In  alliance  with  Theron  of  Acragas  (Girgenti)  he  de- 
feated the  Carthaginians  at  the  battle  of  Himera  in  480,  the  same 
year  in  which  the  victory  of  Salamis  (p.  506)  saved  the  mother- 
country  from  destruction.  The  Syracusans  thereafter  gradually 
extended  their  sway  over  the  greater  part  of  Sicily  till  the  year  415 
when  to  their  dismay  the  Athenians,  instigated  by  Alcibiades,  inter- 
vened in  Sicilian  politics,  and  with  the  aid  of  the  neighbouring 
towns  of  Catana  and  Leontinoi  (p.  159)  proceeded  to  besiege  the 
city.  In  413  the  might  of  Athens  was  for  ever  shattered  before  the 
walls  of  Syracuse,  but  the  dread  of  being  attacked  anew  by  the 
Carthaginians  induced  the  Syracusans  to  entrust  their  government 
to  the  tyrant  Dionysius  I.  (406-367),  next  to  the  Persian  monarchs 
the  most  powerful  prince  of  his  age,  who  refortiiied  and  embellished 
the  city.  The  tyrant  Agathocles  (317-289)  conducted  a  brilliant 
expedition  against  Carthage,  but  without  permanent  success.  The 
last  phase  of  the  glory  of  Syracuse  was  witnessed  in  the  long  reign 
of  Hiero  II.  (275-216).  As  the  Syracusans,  after  his  death,  allied 
themselves  with  Hannibal,  their  city  was  besieged  by  Marcellus 
in  214-212,  and  after  its  capture  was  sacked  and  destroyed.  Since 
then  it  has  never  again  taken  any  part  in  political  life,  but  in  spite 
of  its  downfall  it  is  still  one  of  the  most  interesting  places  in  the 
whole  of  Sicily,  while  the  beauty  of  its  environs  is  hardly  less 
fascinating  than  the  monuments  of  its  glorious  past. 

a.  The  Modern  Town. 

From  the  harbour-station  (p.  162)  the  broad  Corso  Umberto 
Primo  (p.  165)  crosses  the  strait  to  the  island  on  which  lies  the 
Modern  Town,  whose  narrow  winding  streets  are  still  of  mediaeval 
type.  A  pleasant  walk,  with  a  view  of  Mt.  J5tna,  is  by  the  Foro 
Vittorio  Emanuele  Secondo  and  Passeggio  Aretusa,  leading  from 
the  Piazza  Mazzini  and  the  landing-place  (p.  162)  along  the  harbour. 

164     Route  27.  SYRACUSE.  «•  Modern  Town. 

In  the  grounds  at  the  S.  end  of  the  promenade  is  a  statue  of  the 
famous  mathematician  Archimedes,  who  defended  his  native  city 
against  Marcellus.  Near  it  is  the  Fontana  Aretusa,  enclosed  by 
papyrus-shrubs.  From  this  point  the  Via  Maniace  leads  to  the  S.E. 
to  the  Castello  Ma?iiace,  a  Hohenstaufen  castle  at  the  S.  end  of 
the  island,  completed'  under  Emp.  Frederick  II.  in  1239,  but  now 
modernized.    To  the  N.  of  the  Fontana  lies  the  Piazza  del  Duomo. 

The  Cathedral  is  built  into  a  Doric  temple,  probably  of 
Minerva,  the  beauty  of  which  was  extolled  by  Cicero  in  his  oration 
against  Verres  (p.  157).  It  stood  on  a  basement  of  three  steps, 
about  61  yds.  long  and  24  yds.  broad.  The  ancient  columns  with 
their  entablature  still  project  on  the  N.  side,  and  in  the  interior 
nineteen  columns  also  are  visible. 

The  Archaeological  Museum,  opposite  the  cathedral,  to  the 
N.W.,  contains  valuable  antiquities,  mostly  Sicilian,  from  the  ear- 
liest ages  down  to  the  Christian  period.  Adm.  on  week-days,  Oct.- 
June  9-3,  July-Sept.  8-2,  lfr. ;  Sun.  (not  all  rooms  accessible) 
10-2,  free. 

Ground  Floor.  In  Boom  I,  Early -Christian  inscriptions  and  the 
sarcophagus  of  Adelfia  (5th  cent.)  from  the  catacombs  of  San  Giovanni 
(p.  165).  In  Rooms  III-V,  Greek  inscriptions,  sarcophagi,  cinerary  urns, 
and  architectural  fragments.  Room  VI.  Earthenware  sarcophagi  from  Gela 
(6-5th  cent.  B.C.),  Hellenistic  and  Roman  sculptures.  Room  VII.  Chiefly 
Greek  sculptures.    In  Room  VIII,  a  fine  Venus  Anadyomene  (Hellenistic). 

The  Staircase  and  First  Floor  (Rooms  XI  and  XVII-XIX)  contain 
the  ancient  historical  collection,  showing  the  progress  of  Sicilian  culture 
from  the  pre-Greek  period  (from  the  15th  cent.)  down  to  the  5th  cent.  B.C. 
—  Rooms  XII,  XIII.  Greek  vases  from  Sicily  and  Lower  Italy,  archaic 
bronzes   and    coins   from    ancient   Sicily.     Rooms   XIV-XVI.  Terracottas. 

The  mediaeval  and  modern  collections  of  the  Museum  are  to  be  trans- 
ferred to  the  Palazzo  Bellomo,  a  building  of  the  15th  cent.,  in  the  Via 
Capodieci  running  to  the  E.  from  the  Fontana  Aretusa. 

The  Via  Cavour  leads  to  the  N.  from  the  Piazza  del  Duomo 
to  the  Via  Diana,  where  on  the  left  are  the  ruins  of  the  so-called 
Temple  of  Diana  (keys  at  the  barber's  opposite;  fee  30  c),  bat 
now  believed  to  have  been  dedicated  to  Apollo.  This  is  one  of 
the  most  curious  of  Greek  temples.  In  front  stood  two  rows  of  six 
columns  each.  The  side-walls  were  of  unusual  length  and  were 
each  probably  flanked  by  nineteen  columns. 

b.  The  Ancient  City. 

Long  before  the  Athenian  campaign  (p.  163)  Ancient  Syracuse 
had  extended  her  boundaries  far  beyond  her  island  of  Ortygia  and 
across  the  high  plateau  to  the  N.  to  the  bay  of  Trogilos  and  the 
present  tonnara  near  Cape  Santa  Panagia  (p.  159).  The  earliest 
extension  consisted  in  the  Aehradina,  the  smaller  half  of  which 
lay  between  the  great  harbour  and  the  plateau,  while  the  larger 
half  occupied  the  E.  margin  of  the  latter,  and  was  enclosed  by  a 

b.  Ancient  City.  SYRACUSE.  27.  Route.      165 

wall  whose  ruins  still  exist.  Adjoining  the  Achradina  on  the  W. 
were  the  Xeapolis,  or  new  city,  on  a  terrace  above  the  great  har- 
bour, and  the  quarter  named  Tyche  after  a  temple  of  the  goddess 
of  Fortune.  The  Epipolae,  the  fifth  and  highest  quarter,  on  the  "W. 
side  of  the  plateau,  was  the  chief  base  of  the  Athenian  besiegers; 
but  it  was  only  completed  after  Dionysius  I.  had  (about  402-385) 
enclosed  the  entire  half  of  the  plateau  stretching  from  the  Achra- 
dina wall  westwards,  with  a  huge  city-wall,  and  had  built  the 
fortress  of  Euryelus  at  itsW.  end.  The  circumference  of  the  city, 
which  however  embraced  a  good  deal  of  unoccupied  land,  was  thus 
no  less  than  17  M.    Of  the  enclosing  wall  101j2  M.  still  exist. 

We  begin  with  the  Achradina.  The  Corso  Umberto  Prinio 
(p.  163),  the  main  street  of  the  new  suburb  on  the  mainland,  leads 
in  lOmin.  to  a  round  piazza  whence  radiate  theFloridia  road,  passing 
the  central  station,  and  the  Catania  and  Noto  roads.  The  remains  of 
columns  on  the  drilling-ground  between  this  piazza  and  the  small 
harbour  probably  belonged  to  a  superb  Agora  or  market-place. 

From  this  point  we  follow  the  Catania  road  to  the  N.,  whence 
an  avenue  soon  diverges  to  the  right  to  the  Porto  Piccolo  (ferry, 
see  p.  163),  now  choked  with  sand,  and  leads  along  the  shore,  below 
the  suburb  of  Santa  Lucia,  aud  across  a  railway  cutting,  to  (25  min.) 
the  Capuchin  Monastery  (now  a  poor-house).  Close  by,  on  the 
right,  is  the  entrance  to  the  — 

*Latomia  dei  Cappuccini  (adm.  30  c),  one  of  the  wildest 
and  grandest  of  the  old  quarries  of  Syracuse,  now  clothed  with  rich 
vegetation.  It  was  here  probably  that  the  7000  Athenian  prisoners 
of  war  languished  in  413  B.  C. 

Following  the  road  to  the  W.  we  skirt  the  plateau  and  pass  the 
Cimitero  to  (10  min.)  the  road  coming  from  the  upper  Achradina, 
and  go  on  by  a  cart-road,  whence,  by  the  Latomia  del  Casale,  we 
see  the  Catania  road  before  us  and  the  church  of  San  Giovanni 
below,  on  the  left. 

San  Giovanni  occupies  the  W.  part  of  an  old  Norman  basilica; 
steps  in  the  N.E.  corner  lead  to  the  crypt  of  St.  Marcian  (4th  cent.). 
A  monk,  who  shows  the  church  also  if  desired  (fee  J/2-l  fr. ;  ring, 
on  the  S.  side,  door  to  the  E.  of  the  vestibule),  conducts  us  to  the  — 

*Catacombs  of  San  Giovanni,  which  like  most  of  the  cata- 
combs of  Syracuse  and  its  environs,  far  surpass  those  of  Rome  in 
extent.  The  main  passage  of  this  great  burial-place  (4-7th  cent. 
A.D.),  10  ft.  high  and  6  ft.  wide,  runs  through  the  rock  from  W. 
to  E.  for  116  yds.,  and  from  it  diverge  short  lateral  passages  ending 
in  circular  chambers.    Of  the  mural  decoration  little  is  now  left. 

A  little  farther  to  the  W.  we  cross  the  Catania  road  to  the 
region  of  Neapol*is,  and  follow  the  road  leading  to  the  Greek 
theatre.  To  the  left,  in  5  min.,  we  reach  the  house  of  the  custodian 
(V,  fr.)  of  the  Roman  — 

166     Route  27.  SYRACUSE.  b.  Ancient  City. 

Amphitheatre,  constructed  in  the  time  of  Augustus,  153  by 
130  yds.  in  area.  In  the  arena  lie  many  blocks  of  the  marble  para- 
pet belonging  to  a  restoration  of  the  3rd  century. 

About  120  yds.  farther  to  the  W.  is  the  entrance,  also  on  the 
left,  to  the  great  Altar  of  Hiero  II.  (30-50  c).  On  this  vast  altar, 
219  yds.  long  and  25  yds.  broad  and  originally  rising  in  two  huge 
steps  to  a  height  of  34J/2  ft.,  were  probably  sacrificed  the' annual 
hecatombs  of  450  bulls  in  memory  of  the  expulsion  of  the  tyrant 
Thrasybulus  (466). 

Opposite  we  see  the  Latomia  del  Paradiso,  an  ancient 
quarry  95-130  ft.  deep,  so-named  from  the  most  luxuriant  vege- 
tation which  now  clothes  it  (entrance  through  the  gateway  on  the 
left).  In  its  W.  slope  is  the  so-called  Ear  of  Dionysius  (entrance 
below,  on  the  left),  an  S-shaped  cavern,  71  yds.  deep,  6-12  yds. 
wide,  and  76  ft.  high,  tapering  at  the  top.  with  remarkable  acoustic 
properties.  As  the  tyrant  is  said  to  have  had  prisons  where  from 
a  certain  spot  he  could  hear  every  whisper,  the  tradition  has  been 
arbitrarily  associated  with  this  cavern. 

The  road  next  passes  under  the  modern  arches  of  the  aqueduct 
and  reaches,  on  the  right,  the  *Greek  Theatre  (5th  cent.  B.C.), 
one  of  the  largest  in  the  Hellenic  world.  It  is  hewn  in  the  rock, 
forming  more  than  a  semi-circle.  Its  diameter  is  147  yds.;  46  tiers 
of  seats  are  still  preserved;  the  eleven  lower  rows  were  covered 
with  marble.  Towards  sunset  We  have  a  delightful  *View  of  the 
town,  the  Porto  Grande,  the  headland  of  Plemmyrion,  and  the  sea. 

Above  the  theatre  is  the  so-called  Nymphaeum,  a  grotto  into 
which  the  aqueduct  (see  below)  was  led.  On  its  left  side  the  Via 
delle  Tombe,  hewn  in  the  rock,  ascends  in  a  curve  for  165  yds.,  with 
many  lateral  cuttings  and  tomb-chambers  of  the  late-Roman  age. 

From  the  Catania  road,  1/i  M.  to  the  N.  of  the  hranch-road  to  the 
Greek  theatre,  diverges  to  the  left  the  New  Euryelus  Road,  3  M.  long. 
It  leads  to  the  W.,  soon  passing  the  C'asa  del  Gesuiti,  to  which  walkers 
may  ascend  direct  from  the  Nymphaeum.  It  runs  parallel  with  an  Ancient 
Aqueduct  ('Acquedotto  Galerrni'),  crosses  the  desolate  plateau,  very  hot 
in  summer,  once  the  site  of  the  Greek  Neapolis  and  of  Epipolae  (p.  165), 
and  joins  the  old  Euryelus  road  beyond  the  S.  wall  of  Dionysius  I.  A 
little  farther,  where  the  road  diverges  to  the  left  to  the  village  of  Belve- 
dere and  the  Posto  Semaforico  or  Tele'grafo  (617  ft.;  fine  view),  is  the 
C'asa  dei  Viaggiatori  (rfmts. ;  open  from  15th  Jan.  to  15th  May).  Our  road 
ends   on   the  W.  side  of  Euryelus,   130  yds.  from  the  custodian's  house. 

The  *Euryelus  (adm.  50  c),  the  'outer  fort'  of  the  Epipolae,  built 
about  400  B.C.,  at  the  junction  of  the  N.  and  S.  walls  of  Dionysius,  is 
one  of  the  best-preserved  of  ancient  Greek  fortifications.  The  five  mas- 
sive towers  on  the  W.  side,  whence  we  survey  the  whole  site  of  ancient 
Syracuse  and  enjoy  a  fine  view  ranging  from  Mt.  2Etna  to  Calabria,  are 
flanked  with  two  deep  moats  hewn  in  the  rock.  In  the  first  of  these  are 
subterranean  apertures  for  sallying  purposes. 

We  may  return  to  Syracuse  by  the  Old  Euryelus  Road.  On  the 
S.  side  of  the  plateau  it  joins  the  Floridia  road,  1V4  M.  from  the  station. 

■  Bougie  * 


Route  Page 
Geographical  and  Historical  Sketch.  Preliminary  Inform- 
ation        168 

28.  Oran 175 

a.  The  Harbour  and  the  Old  Town,  178.  — b.  The  New 
Town,  180.  —  c.  Environs  (Fort  Santa  Cruz,  Belvedere, 
Mers  el-K6bir,  Promenade  des  Falaises),  182. — From  Oran 
to  Hammam  Bou-Hadjar,  184. 

29.  From  Oran  to  Tlemcen 185 

From  Oran  to  Ain-Teniouchent.  From  Al'n-Temouchent 
to  Tlemcen  vii  Pont-de-1'Isser  or  Beni-Saf,  185. 

30.  Tlemcen 187 

Mansura,  193.  — Sidi  Bou-Medine,  194.  — Agadir,  196. 

31.  From  Tlemcen  to  Nemours  via  Lalla-Marnia  .     .     .     197 

Ondjda,  197. 

32.  From  Oran  to  Beni-Ounif  de  Figuig  (Colomb-Bechar) 

via  Damesme  and  Perregaux 199 

From  Damesme  to  Arzew,  199.  —  From  Tizi  to  Mascara, 
200.— From  A'in-Sefra  to  Tiout,  202. 

33.  From  Oran  to  Algiers 206 

Kalaa.  From  Relizane  to  Mostaganem;  to  Tiaret,  207.--- 
Mazouna,  208.  —  From  Orleansville  to  Tenes,  209.  — 
From  Affreville  to  the  Cedar  Forest  of  Teniet  el-Haad, 
210.  —  From  Miliana  to  Margueritte.  From  Bou-Medfa 
to  Hammam  Rhira,  212.  —  From  Blida  to  Berrouaghia. 
From  Boghari  to  Ghardal'a  via  Djelfa  and  Laghouat,  215. 

34.  Algiers 217 

a.  Lower  Quarter  of  the  Old  Town  (Harbour,  Mosqu6e  de 
la  Pecherie,  Great  Mosque,  Jardin  Marengo,  Archev§che\ 
Cathedral,  National  Library),  222.  — b.  The  Kasha,  226.— 
c.  Mustapha-Superieur  and  Environs  (Museum,  Chemin 
du  TcSlemly,  Birmandreis),  228.  — d.  The  S.E.  Suburbs 
(Jardin  d'Essai,  Hussein-Dey,  Kouba),  232.  —  e.  El-Biar 
and  Bouzardah  (Foret  de  Balnem),  233.  —  f.  Notre-Dame 
d'Afrique  and  St.  Eugene,  235. 

35.  From  Algiers  to  Tip:iza  and  Cherchell 236 

a.  Via  Castiglione 236 

Jebel  Chenoua,  242. 

b.  Via  El-Affroun  and  Marengo 243 

36.  From  Algiers  to  Cape  Matifou  and  to  Aln-Taya  via 

Maison-Carree 247 

L'Arba,  247.  — Rovigo,  248. 

37.  From  Algiers  to  Bougie  via  Beni-Mausour      .     .     .     249 

Aumale,  250.  — Thubusuctu,  252. 

Baedeker's  Mediterranean.  H 

168  ALGERIA. 

Route  Page 

38.  From  Algiers  to  Tizi-Ouzou.    From  Camp-du-Mare- 

chal  to  Tigzirt 252 

Port-aux-Poules.  From  Mirabeau  to  Boghni,  253.  —  From 
Mirabeau   to  Dra  el-Mizan,  254.  —  Taksept,  256. 

39.  From  Tizi-Ouzou  via  Fort -National  to  Maillot  or 

Tazmalt 256 

From  Fort-National  through  the  Djemaa  Valley  to  Mi- 
chelet;  to  Boghni,  257. — The  Jurjura  Mts.  Icherridene, 
258.  — The  Lalla  Khedidja,  259. 

40.  From  Fort-National  via  Azazga  to  Bougie       .     .     .     260 

Toudja,  262. 

41.  Bougie 262 

Cape  Carbon,  264.  —  Arise  des  Aiguades.  Jebel  Gouraya, 

42.  From  Bougie  through  the  Chabet  el-Akra  to  Setif    .     265 

From  Souk  et-Tenine  to  Djidjelli.  Mila,  267.  —  From 
Kerrata  via  Ain-Abessa  to  Setif,  268.  — Pdrigotville,  269. 

43.  From  Algiers  to  Constantine  via  Beni-Mansour,  Setif, 

and  El-Guerrah 269 

From  Bordj-Bou-Arreridj  to  Bou-Saada,  270. — Djemila. 
From  Ouled-Rahmoun  to  Ain-Beida  and  Khenchela,  272. 
—  A'in-el-Hammam,  273. 

44.  From  Constantine   to    Biskra  via   El-Guerrah  and 

Batna 274 

The  Medracen,  274.  —  Zana.  Jebel  Touggour,  275.  —  Jebel 
Metlili.  Gorges  deTilatou,  277.  — The  Aures  Mts.,  278.— 
Environs  of  Biskra,  281.  —  From  Biskra  to  Sidi-Okba, 
283. —  From  Biskra  to  M'chounech;  to  Touggourt,  284. — 
The  Oued  Rhir.  From  Touggourt  to  Nefta  via  El-Oued. 
The  Souf,  285. 

45.  From  Batna  via  Lambese  to  Timgad      .     .     .  286 

Ichoukkan,  296. 

46.  Constantine 297 

47.  From  Constantine  to  Philippeville    .     .  .     .     303 

From  St.  Charles  to  Bona,  303. 

48.  From  Constantine  to  Bona  via  Duvivier     ....     306 

Announa  (Tbibilis),  307.  — Bugeaud,  811. 

49.  From  Constantine   or  Bona  via  Duvivier  to  Souk- 

Ahras  (Tebessa,  Tunis) .     312 

From  Souk-Ahras  to  Khamissa,  813. 

50.  From  Souk-Ahras  to  Tebessa 313 

Madaura.    Vasampus,  314. 

Algeria,  the  central  part  of  Barbary  (Arab.  Jezirat  el-Magh- 
reb) and  since  1830  a  French  colony,  covers  an  area  of  about  77,500 
sq.  M.,  or,  including  the  S.  territories  (p.  170),  about  342,500  sq. 
M.,  and  contains  5,232,000  inhab.  (4^2  million  Mohammedans  and 
730,000  Europeans,  mostly  of  French,  Spanish,  and  Italian  origin). 

ALGERIA.  169 

It  extends  from  Oried  Kiss,  which  was  substituted  for  the  MuliLya 
(p.  93)  by  the  Morocco  treaty  of  1845,  to  Cape  Roux  (p.  131), 
the  boundary  of  Tunisia,  and  from  the  Mediterranean  to  the 
Highlands  of  Ahaggar  in  the  interior  of  the  Sahara.  The  arbitrary 
division  of  N.  Algeria  into  the  three  departements  of  Oran,  Alger, 
and  Constantine  is  a  survival  of  the  Turkish  administration.  The 
orographical  regions,  sharply  defined  except  towards  the  E.,  are 
the  Tell  Atlas  (p.  xxx),  the  E.  prolongation  of  the  Rif  Mts.  (p.  93), 
the  Great  Steppe,  and  the  Sahara  Atlas. 

The  Tell  Atlas  (Atlas  Tellien),  the  most  important  part  of 
this  vast  territory,  consists  of  two  parallel  ranges  of  folded  hills 
of  recent  origin,  which  intersect  a  great  basin  stretching  from  the 
Atlantic  to  the  bay  of  Tunis.  The  highest  points  of  the  range  next 
the  coast  are  the  Traras  (3727  ft.),  the  Dahra  (5181  ft.),  the  Atlas 
of  Blida  (5345  ft.),  the  Jurjura  Chain  (7572  ft.)  in  Great  Kabylia, 
and  the  Babor  Range  (6575  ft.)  in  Little  Kabylia.  In  the  interior 
rise  the  Tlemcen  Group  (6047  ft.),  the  Ouarsenis  (6512  ft.),  the 
Jebel  Dira  (5938  ft.),  and  the  Hodna  Mts.  (6112  ft.),  which  last 
form  the  only  considerable  link  between  the  Tell  and  the  Sahara 
Atlas.  The  Littoral,  842  M.  in  length,  with  long,  precipitous,  and 
almost  inaccessible  stretches,  has  ever  been  dreaded  on  account 
of  its  storms ;  it  is  broken  by  the  bays  of  Oran,  Arzew,  Algiers, 
Bougie,  Philippeville,  undBona,  but  does  not  possess  a  single  good 
natural  harbour.  Flanking  the  coast,  in  front  of  the  Tell  Atlas, 
are  several  ranges  of  lower  hills  (Sahel),  as  the  Sahel  of  Oran, 
between  Lourmel  and  the  mouth  of  the  Chelif,  the  Sahel  of  Algiers, 
and  the  Sahel  of  Collo,  while  the  Edongh  Group  (3307  ft.),  com- 
posed of  crystalline  rock,  forms  an  independent  mountain.  The 
extensive  plains  behind  the  Sahels,  which  at  Oran  are  marshy 
(Marais  de  la  Macta)  and  have  besides  the  remains  of  great  salt 
lagoons  (Sebkha  d'Oran  and  Salines  d' Arzew),  and  especially  the 
Mitidja  near  Algiers,  once  a  bay  of  the  sea,  and  the  Blaine  de 
Bone,  are  the  most  fertile  and  richly  cultivated  parts  of  Algeria. 

The  Hauts-Plateaux  or  Great  Steppe,  an  almost  unwatered 
region,  was  originally  a  deep  depression  between  the  Tell  and  the 
Sahara  Atlas,  which  in  the  course  of  thousands  of  years  was  gradu- 
ally filled  up  with  the  alluvial  deposits  of  mountain-torrents,  and 
thus  converted  into  a  great  and  monotonous  undulating  plain,  2300- 
3300  ft.  above  the  sea-level.  The  saline  and  gipseous  soil  is  very 
sterile  and  is  only  at  a  few  places  adapted  for  the  culture  of  grain, 
but  has  proved  suitable  for  sheep-grazing.  In  the  depressions  of 
the  steppe  lie  a  number  of  extensive  shotts  or  salt-lakes,  which 
in  summer  are  dry  and  recognizable  only  by  their  dazzling  snow- 
white  incrustation.  Among  these  are  the  Chott  Gharbi  (Rharbi) 
and  the  Chott  ech-Chergui  in  Oran,  the  Zahres  Gharbi  and  Zahres 
Chergui  in  Algiers,  and  the  Chott  el- Hodna  at  Constantine. 


170  ALGERIA. 

The  Sahara  Atlas  (Atlas  Saharien)  forms  the  great  barrier 
between  Algeria  and  the  desert.  It  is  'a  region  of  grand  and  wildly 
fissured  gorges,  partly  caused  by  erosion  in  the  pluvial  period,  of 
valleys  worn  by  torrents,  of  lofty  plains  converted  into  mountains, 
and  of  marine  basins  now  filled  up'  (Theob.  Fischer).  The  chief 
heights  are  the  Montagues  des  Ksour  (7004  ft.),  a  prolongation  of 
the  much  higher  Morocco  Atlas  (p.  93),  Jebel  Amour  (6467  ft.), 
the  Monts  des  Ouled-Na'il  (5295  ft.),  and,  beyond  the  depression 
of  the  Monts  du  Zab  (4304  ft.),  the  Aurts  Mts.  (7634  ft.),  which 
are  wooded  in  their  N.  half,  and  next  to  Great  Kabylia  have  the 
finest  hill-scenery  in  Algeria. 

The  Sahara,  which  belongs  to  the  Territoires  du  Sud  or  de 
Commandement,  governed  by  the  military  'Bureaux  Arabes',  con- 
sists of  the  Bassin  du  Gourara  or  Bassin  de  VOued  Saoura  on 
the  W.,  a  plateau  330-2600  ft.  above  the  sea,  and  of  the  Bassin  du 
Melrir,  named  after  the  Chott  Melrir,  on  the  E.,  lying  partly  be- 
low the  sea-level.  Within  this  desert  region,  which  is  divided  by 
the  limestone  plateau  of  the  Mzab,  are  distinguished  the  Hamma- 
das,  or  lofty  plateaux,  with  rocky  or  hard  clay-soil,  entirely  water- 
less and  sterile,  and  the  Areg  (sing.  Erg),  the  extensive  sand-hills 
rising  a  few  hundred  feet  above  the  plains.  From  the  Sahara  Atlas 
and  from  the  hills  of  the  S.  Sahara  descend  numerous  water-courses, 
mostly  subterranean,  towards  the  plains,  enabling  the  natives  by 
means  of  irrigation  to  form  a  girdle  of  oases,  which  like  the  coast- 
plains  are  apt  to  be  malarious  in  summer. 

Climatically  also  Algeria  is  a  land  of  striking  contrasts.  The 
rainfall  in  the  provinces  of  Algiers  and  Constantine,  on  the  coast, 
and  especially  in  the  higher  parts  of  the  Tell  Atlas,  is  abundant 
(thus  at  Algiers  25  inches,  at  Blida  37,  Bougie  411/2,  Fort-National 
45  inches).  Being  partly  sheltered  from  the  rainy  N.W.  winds  by 
the  Tell  Atlas,  the  Hants- Plateaux  have  a  lower  rainfall  (16- 
20  inches),  which  as  in  the  Tell  often  takes  the  form  of  snow- 
storms. In  the  Sahara  Atlas  and  the  Sahara  itself,  where  the  dry 
trade-winds  prevail  during  the  greater  part  of  the  year,  the  rainfall 
diminishes  considerably  as  we  go  southwards  (thus  at  Biskra  7,  at 
Golea  23/4  inches).  Even  in  the  coast-lands,  however,  the  prolonged 
drought  of  summer  necessitates  the  use  of  artificial  irrigation  by 
means  of  barrages  across  the  valleys.  The  temperature  on  the  coast 
varies  comparatively  little  (thus  at  Algiers  54'/2°  Fahr.  in  winter, 
74°  in  summer),  but  the  moisture  of  the  air  renders  it  almost 
unbearably  hot  in  summer.  On  the  Hauts-Plateaux,  on  the  other 
hand,  in  the  Sahara  Atlas,  and  notably  in  the  Sahara,  there  are 
great  extremes  of  heat  and  cold,  the  variations  not  only  between 
summer  and  winter,  but  also  between  day  and  night  (in  consequence 
of  the  great  evaporation  after  hot,  cloudless  days)  being  very  marked 
(thus,  minimum  at  Constantine  16°  Fahr.,  at  Aln-Sefra  ll1/^,  at 

ALGERIA.  171 

Geryville  ^jf,  at  Touggourt  19y2°;  maximum  at  Geryville  109°, 
at  Biskra  118°,  at  Touggourt  122°). 

The  fauna  of  Algeria  is  comparatively  poor.  The  Barbary  lion 
and  the  ostrich  have  been  exterminated,  and  the  panther  is  now 
rare;  but  we  occasionally  see  camels,  hyaenas,  jackals,  maned 
sheep  (p.  277),  one  species  of  ape  (Magot,  Macacus  ecaudatus),  a 
few  poisonous  snakes,  and  the  unduly  dreaded  scorpion.  The  flora 
on  the  other  hand  is  strikingly  rich  and  varied.  In  the  coast-zone 
occur  all  the  usual  Mediterranean  plants.  In  the  Tell  Atlas  there 
still  exist,  in  spite  of  the  wanton  destruction  of  trees  by  the  natives, 
remains  of  ancient  forests  of  cork-trees  (Quercus  suber),  evergreen 
oaks  (Quercus  Ilex  and  Quercus  cenis),  Aleppo  pines,  and  occasion- 
ally of  cedars  (p.  210).  In  marked  contrast  to  this  vegetation  is 
that  of  the  great  steppes,  where  the  saline  plants,  the  meagre  dwarf- 
palms  (Chamserops  humilis),  and  particularly  the  alfa  (halfa)  or 
esparto  grass  (Macrochloa  tenacissima),  of  which  immense  quantities 
are  exported  chiefly  from  the  province  of  Oran,  proclaim  the  pro- 
ximity of  the  sterile  and  dreary  desert.  At  Bou-Saada  (p.  270),  in 
the  hottest  S.  valleys  of  the  Sahara  Atlas,  and  in  the  oases  of  the 
Sahara  we  find  the  home  of  the  date-palm  (Phoenix  dactylifera, 
Arabic  nakhl),  whose  fruit  is  the  chief  food  of  the  poorer  classes 
and  also  an  important  article  of  commerce,  whose  sap  yields  palm- 
wine,  whose  trunks  afford  building  material,  and  with  whose  leaves 
are  made  the  mats  and  bedding  of  the  natives. 

The  majority  of  the  native  inhabitants,  who  in  the  S.  regions, 
away  from  the  oases,  are  chiefly  nomadic,  are  Berbers  (p.  94). 
These,  however,  since  the  immigration  of  the  Beni  Hilal  and  Beni 
Solei'm  (p.  323),  have  mingled  with  Arabs  much  more  than  in  Mo- 
rocco, and  outside  of  their  mountain  fastnesses  have  completely 
exchanged  their  own  individuality  for  that  of  the  Arab.  The  town 
populations,  especially  in  the  province  of  Algiers,  are  composed  of 
a  motley  assemblage  of  Moors,  descended  from  Spanish  Moriscoes 
or  from  pirates  (largely  Christian  apostates),  of  Kabyles  (p.  252), 
Mozabites  (p.  216),  BisJcris  (p.  280),  and  lastly  of  Kuluglis, 
descended  from  Turks  and  Moorish  women.  The  Jews,  partly 
settled  in  Barbary  since  ancient  times,  partly  immigrants  from 
Spain,  have  enjoyed,  unlike  the  Mohammedans,  the  full  rights  of 
citizenship  since  1870,  but,  though  thriving  materially,  they  are 
hardly  superior  in  culture  to  the  less  favoured  inhabitants. 

Down  to  the  end  of  the  middle  ages  Algeria  was  historically 
inseparable  from  Tunisia  and  Morocco  (see  pp.  95,  187,  188,  322). 
After  the  whole  coast  as  far  as  the  Atlantic  had  been  colonized  by 
the  Carthaginians,  and  the  whole  of  S.  Algeria  by  the  Romans,  but 
with  diminishing  energy  as  they  proceeded  from  E.  to  W.,  a  period 
of  decadence  set  in.  Troubles  began  with  the  revolt  of  the  Circum- 
celliones,  and  were  succeeded  by  the  party  strife  between  Catholics 

172  ALGERIA. 

and  Donatists,  by  the  religious  persecutions  under  the  Arian  Vandal 
kings  (p.  322),  by  the  misgovernment  of  the  Byzantines  (534-698), 
and  by  the  irruption  of  the  Arabs  (p.  322).  During  the  Moorish 
period,  as  Algeria  only  formed  an  independent  state  for  a  time 
under  the  lbadites  (p.  323)  and  the  Hammadites  (p.  263),  while  in 
the  W.  regions  the  kingdom  of  Tlemcen  (p.  188)  was  afterwards 
founded,  it  proved  a  constant  apple  of  discord  between  the  powerful 
dynasties  of  Morocco  and  Tunisia.  The  intrusion  of  the  Spaniards 
(p.  178)  next  led  to  the  intervention  of  the  Turks  and  to  the  estab- 
lishment of  a  piratical  state  by  Horuk  Barbarossa  (comp.  p.  221). 
Under  the  sway  of  France  great  improvements  have  been  introduced ; 
many  of  the  most  fertile  regions  on  the  coast  and  in  the  Tell  Atlas 
have  become  state  property  and  that  of  French  companies  or  of 
industrious  colonists  (mostly  Spaniards,  S.  French,  Alsatians,  and 
Lorrainers),  and  the  long  neglected  seaports  have  awoke  to  new 
life.  The  whole  country  has  been  opened  up  by  a  network  of  ex- 
cellent roads,  and  railways  have  been  carried  to  the  confines  of 
the  Sahara.  In  the  towns,  with  the  exception  of  Tlemcen  and  Con- 
stantine,  most  of  the  old  Moorish  and  Turkish  buildings  have  been 
superseded  by  French.  While  but  few  specimens  of  Moorish  arch- 
itecture have  been  spared  by  enthusiasts  for  improvement,  there 
still  survive  in  the  Hauts-Plateaux  some  interesting  relics  of  Roman 
buildings,  recently  unearthed  from  the  oblivion  of  centuries,  and 
now  carefully  preserved  from  further  destruction. 

For  much  fatigue  and  privation  the  traveller  in  Algeria  will 
be  compensated  by  many  a  glimpse  of  picturesque  Oriental  manners 
and  costumes  and  by  the  varied  scenery  of  the  peaceful  and  luxur- 
iantly fertile  plains,  the  wild  mountains,  and  the  stony  and  sandy 
wastes  of  steppe  and  desert.  Most  striking  of  all  are  the  wonderful 
effects  of  light  and  shade  on  land,  sea,  and  sky,  under  the  glorious 
African  sunshine.  Amid  the  manifold  green  hues  of  the  rich  sub- 
tropical vegetation,  enlivened  by  a  wealth  of  flowers  and  blossom, 
gleam  the  dazzling  white  Moorish  country-houses  and  Mohammedan 
shrines  (kubbas  or  marabouts)  and  the  red-tiled  roofs  of  the  moun- 
tain villages  and  the  European  settlements.  Travellers  penetrating 
from  the  coast  to  the  Sahara  will  marvel,  especially  in  winter,  at 
the  extraordinary  clearness  of  the  atmosphere  and  the  gorgeous 
sunsets,  such  as  neither  Italy  nor  Greece  can  boast  of,  awakening 
in  every  beholder  an  enthusiastic  admiration  for  the  desert. 

Notwithstanding  the  considerable  rainfall  (p.  170)  and  the  occasional 
gales  to  which  it  is  exposed,  the  town  of  Algiers  is  a  favourite  winter 
resort.  The  best  months  for  travelling  on  the  sea-board  and  the  Hauts- 
Plateaux  are  April,  May,  and  November,  and  for  the  Sahara  February 
and  March.  The  favourite  goals  are,  in  the  province  of  Oran:  Oran, 
Tlemcen,  and  Figuig;  in  the  province  of  Algiers:  Teniet  el-Haad,  Miliana, 
Hammam  Ehira,  Blida,  Fort-National,  and  Michelet;  and  in  the  province  of 
Oonstantine:  Bougie,  theChabet  el-Akra,  Oonstantine,  Timgad,  El-Kautara, 
Biskra,  and  Tebessa. 

ALGERIA.  173 

The  Railways,  with  the  exception  of  the  Chemins  de  Fer  Alg6riens 
de  l'Etat,  belong  to  three  private  companies,  the  Paris-Lyon-M6diterranee 
Alg<5rien,  the  Ouest  Algenen,  and  the  Bone-Guelma  (et  prolongements). 
Tliey  are  all  single  lines.  The  express  on  the  chief  line,  that  from  Algiers 
.::,  travels  26%  M.  an  hour  only;  the  speed  of  the  ordinary  trains 
is  12-19  M.  per  hour.  On  all  the  main  lines  dining  and  sleeping  cars  are 
provided.  On  the  branch-lines  the  trains  often  have  one  first-class  car- 
riage only.  For  night  journeys  in  the  Hauts-Plateaux  the  heating  by 
means  of  foot-warmers  is  inadequate.  In  E.  Algeria  the  traffic  is  some- 
times stopped  for  several  days  in  winter  by  snow-drifts  and  cloud-bursts. 

The  time-tables  are  to  be  found  in  the  Livret  A.  Jourdan  (Indicateur 
des  Chemins  de  Fer,  de  la  Navigation,  etc.;  50c),  in  the  Livret-Chaix 
(Guide  pour  les  Chemins  de  Fer  de  I'Algerie,  de  la  Tunisie  et  de  la  Corse; 
50  c.),  or  in  the  Indicateur  Officiel  (Guide-poche  Algerien  par  L.  Chappuis; 
60  c).  Greenwich  time  (ca.  59  min.  behina  mid-European  time),  which  has 
been  recently  introduced  in  France,  is  observed  everywhere.  Travellers 
should  go  to  the  ticket-office  early,  as  the  officials  have  much  writing  to  do 
and  their  proceedings  are  slow.  In  the  larger  towns  tickets  may  usually 
be  taken  and  luggage  booked  beforehand  at  the  town-office  of  the  railway 
company.  As  in  France  each  passenger  is  allowed  30  kilos  (about  66  lbs.) 
of  luggage.  Return-tickets  (billets  d'aller  et  retour)  for  a  distance  of  50  kilo- 
metres (31  M.)  are  valid  for  two  days,  for  distances  over  400  kilom.  (248  M.) 
for  at  least  seven  days.  The  Indicateurs  above  named  contain  further  in- 
formation as  to  return -tickets  'collectifs  pour  families',  'collectifs  d'ex- 
cursion',  and  'demi-places',  which  last  only  benefit  those  who  make  a  stay 
of  several  months  in  the  colony. 

As  the  roads  are  good  and  the  trains  slow,  those  who  can  bear  the  ex- 
pense will  often  find  a  Motor  Car  the  swiftest  and  pleasantest  kind  of 
conveyance.  Among  fine  motoring  trips  may  specially  be  noted  those  from 
Oran  to  Tlemcen  (comp.  p.  184);  from  Algiers  to  Castiglione,  Tipaza,  Ham- 
mam  Rhira,  Affreville,  and  Teniet  el-Haad,  returning  via  Blida  and  Bou- 
farik;  from  Algiers  to  CapeMatifou,  Menerville,  Tizi-Ouzou,  Fort-National, 
and  Michelet  (Tazmalt);  from  Bougie  through  the  Chabet  el-Akra  to  Ker- 
rata,  or  vi4  Djidjelli  and  Mila  to  Constantine;  also  from  Algiers  or  Con- 
stantine  to  Biskra.  The  maximum  speed  allowed  in  towns  and  villages  is 
lfi  kilometres  (9>/2  M.)  an  hour,  on  highroads  30  kilom.  (19  M.)  per  hour. 
The  cars  offered  for  hire  in  the  larger  towns  are  generally  good  machines 
of  15-60  horse-power. 

Where  neither  railways  nor  motor-omnibuses  are  available  persons 
of  limited  means  travel  by  Diligence  (see  time-tables  in  Jourdan's  Indi- 
cateur, mentioned  above).  Besides  the  'Courrier',  or  postal  diligence,  there 
is  sometimes  a  'Concurrence',  an  inferior  and  cheaper  vehicle.  Careful 
inquiry  as  to  time-table  and  fares  should  be  made,  and  front  seats  secured 
beforehand.  The  officials  sometimes  charge  strangers  more  than  the  legit- 
imate fare.  If  the  passenger  prefers  to  walk  or  ride  part  of  the  way, 
he  may  arrange  with  the  driver  as  to  the  carriage  of  his  luggage. 

Off  the  highroads  and  for  mountain  excursions  Riding  is  often  pre- 
ferable to  walking.  A  mule  (mulet)  or  a  donkey  (boitrricot)  is  more  com- 
monly used  than  a  horse.  The  Arabian  saddle  with  its  high  cantle  and 
pommel  gives  a  certain  sense  of  security  to  the  novice,  but  the  exper- 
ienced riuer  will  prefer  an  English  saddle,  which  may  be  obtained  in  the 
larger  towns.  The  animals  are  badly  kept  by  the  natives,  but  are  quiet 
and  sure-footed.  Instead  of  a  saddle,  mules  and  donkeys  often  have  a 
kind  of  sack  thrown  over  their  backs,  into  which  the  rider  thrusts  his 
feet.  The  attendant  has  to  provide  food  for  himself  and  his  beast,  and 
he  is  always  expected  to  walk  except  on  very  long  excursions. 

For  excursions  of  any  length  in  the  Sahara  the  traveller  must  have 
recourse  to  the  camel,  the  'ship  of  the  desert'.  The  superior  trotting 
camel  (mehara)  must  be  distinguished  from  the  ordinary  beast  of  burden, 
which  only  walks  about  2'/2  M.  per  hour,  but  has  wonderful  powers  of 
endurance,  even  in  the  most  trying  weather.    In  the  case  of  the  trotting 

174  ALGERIA. 

camel  the  rider  sits  on  a  narrow  saddle  and  crosses  his  feet  (with  shoes 
removed)  on  the  animal's  neck.  On  the  broad  pack-saddle  of  the  camel  of 
burden  is  a  seat  for  men,  and  right  and  left  are  others  for  ladies,  for 
whom  a  kind  of  litter  (attatouch)  also  is  provided.  While  the  rider 
mounts  the  kneeling  animal  the  attendant  usually  puts  his  foot  on  one 
of  its  fore-legs  to  prevent  it  from  rising  too  suddenly,  as  it  is  very  apt 
to  do.  As  the  camel  rises  on  its  hind-legs  first,  tilting  the  rider  for- 
wards, it  is  advisable  to  lean  well  back  at  first,  and  then  forwards,  and 
to  keep  firm  hold  of  the  saddle.  Practice  alone  will  enable  the  rider  to 
get  used  to  the  peculiar  gait  of  the  animal.  The  rider's  head  should  be 
well  protected  by  a  pith-helmet  or  other  efficient  covering.  Luggage  is 
best  carried  in  (rwo  saddle-bags  (gibera)  of  leather  or  carpet,  for  which 
the  natives  ask  20  fr.,  or  even  in  ordinary  sacks.  As  to  provisions, 
see  p.  97.  Intending  travellers  are  expected  to  present  themselves  at 
the  Bureau  Arabe  before  starting,  where  they  may  apply  for  a  Saharien 
or  Cavalier  du  Maghzen  (p.  390)  to  accompany  them.  In  some  cases  an 
escort  is  considered  indispensable. 

The  Money  for  a  tour  in  Algeria  had  better  be  taken  in  the  form 
of  notes  of  the  Banque  de  France  or  the  Banque  de  l'Algcrie  (for  Algeria 
and  Tunisia  only)  or  in  gold  of  the  Latin  monetary  union.  Bank  of 
England  notes  and  sovereigns  are  always  readily  exchanged  in  the  larger 
towns  and  tourist-resorts.  Circular  notes  are  less  convenient,  but  have 
the  merit  of  being  safer.  Letters  of  credit  addressed  to  the  Compagnie 
Algenenne  or  the  Credit  Lyonnais  also  form  a  safe  vehicle  for  large 
sums,  but  the  branch -offices  sometimes  require  a  week's  notice  before 
paying.  The  banks  and  public  offices  are  mostly  open  at  9-11  and  2-5  only, 
but  the  cashier's  office  usually  closes  at  3. 

Comfortable  first-class  Hotels,  owned  chiefly  by  French,  Swiss,  or 
German  proprietors,  are  to  be  found  at  Algiers,  Oran,  Hamniam  Rhira, 
and  Biskra.  Those  of  the  second  class  usually  make  a  fixed  charge  (5  to 
12  fr.  per  day)  for  room,  dejeuner,  and  dinner.  Charges  vary  greatly, 
however,  according  to  the  season  and  to  the  traveller's  nationality.  The 
beds  are  very  good  as  a  rule,  and  the  rooms  fairly  clean,  but  the  sani- 
tation is  often  defective  and  the  servants  inefficient.  Under  these  circum- 
stances the  scale  of  gratuities  is  lower  than  in  Europe. 

As  for  food,  the  staple  of  almost  every  repast  in  Algeria  is  mutton. 
The  wheaten  bread  is  generally  excellent.  Among  the  best  wines  are 
the  white  of  Medea  and  Mascara,  the  red  and  the  white  of  Tleincen  and 
Staoueli,  and  the  red  of  Miliana,  Margueritte,  and  Hammam  Rhira.  At 
the  Capes,  which  are  often  beset  by  shoe-blacks  {cireurs;  10  c),  we  may 
try  a  cup  of  'Nossi-Bey'  (50  c.),  considered  a  specially  good  cotfee.  A  cup 
of  coffee  or  tea  at  the  Moorish  cafes  costs  one  sou,  but  strangers  are  often 
charged  two  (no  gratuities).  A  few  good  Restaurants  are  to  be  found 
in  the  larger  towns,  and  food  also  is  provided  by  the  better  brasseries. 
Tobacco  and  cigars  are  much  cheaper  than  in  France,  there  being  no  govern- 
ment monopoly  here,  but  there  is  a  duty  of  36  fr.  per  kilogramme  (2'/5  lbs.) 
on  imported  cigars. 

The  Post  Office  arrangements  are  the  same  as  in  France.  A  favour- 
ite way  of  sending  small  parcels  is  by  sample-post  ('echantillons  3an8 
valeur';  12-15  days  from  Algiers  to  England),  up  to  350  grammes  (about 
12V4  oz.).  Inland  postage  for  letters  of  20  grammes  (not  quite  3/4  oz.)  or 
post-cards  10  c,  foreign  25  c.  (for  20  gr.)  or  10  c.  —  Senders  of  registered 
letters  and  telegrams  must  fill  up  a  form  giving  their  name  and  address. 
Postal  orders  and  parcel-post  are  not  recommended. 

Drawing  or  Photographing  in  fortified  places,  if  not  expressly  for- 
bidden, is  at  least  inadvisable,  nor  should  maps  or  plans  be  too  closely 
studied  in  public  places.  With  regard  to  intercourse  with  the  natives, 
see  p.  xxv.   The  police  arrangements  are  generally  as  good  as  in  Europe. 

The  Mosques  (p.  xxv)  in  Algeria  are  all  state  property  and  may 
therefore  be  visited  at  any  time  except  during  prayer.     A  fee  (20-50  c.) 

ORAN.  *8-  Route.     175 

need  only  be  given  to  the  custodian  for  providing  slippers  or  rendering 
special  services.  Smoking  is  forbidden  in  the  forecourts,  and  of  course 
in  the  buildings  themselves. 

The  Moorish  Baths  (ladies'  hours  12-6)  may  be  glanced  at  in  passing. 

Books  (eonip.  also  pp.  vi,  325).  Sir  R.  L.  Plat/fair's  Bibliography 
of  Algeria  (London,  2  vols.)  goes  no  further  than  1895.  Among  works 
on  the  history  of  Algeria  and  its  development  may  be  mentioned: 
M.  WailL  L'Algerie  (5th  ed.,  Paris,  1908;  5fr.);  Hanoteau  et  Letourneux, 
La  Kabylie  (2nd  ed..  3  vols.,  Paris,  1893;  25  fr.);  R.  L.  Play  fair,  The 
Scourge  of  Christendom  (London,  1884);  Graham,  Roman  Africa,  History 
of  the  Roman  Occupation  (London,  1902);  Randall  Maciver  and  Wilkin, 
Libyan  Notes  (London,  1901).  For  the  history  of  art:  Stephane  Gsell, 
Lea  Monuments  antiques  de  l'Algerie  (2  vols.,  Paris,  1901;  20  fr.); 
W.  et  G.  Marcais,  Les  Monuments  Arabes  de  Tleincen  (Paris,  1903;  out 
of  print).  Delightful  descriptions  of  the  country  and  its  inhabitants  are 
contained  in  R.  S.  Hichens's  The  Garden  of  Allah  (London,  1904);  Frances 
E.  Xesbitt's  Algeria  and  Tunis  (London,  1906;  20s.);  Irene  Osgood's  novel 
'Servitude';  Guy  de  Maupassant's  novel  Au  Soleil  (nouv.  ed.,  Paris, 
1891;  31/2  fr.);  E.  Fromentin's  Un  dte  dans  le  Sahara  (Paris,  1857)  and 
Une  Anniie  dans  le  Sahel  (Paris,  1859);  Col.  Fein's  Lettres  familieres  sur 
l'Algerie  (Chalous-sur-Marne,  1871;  3  fr.). 

The  French  Carte  de  l'Algerie  (of  the  'Service  Geographique  de 
l'Armee')  is  completed  for  the  N.  districts  only.  Each  sheet  on  the  scale 
of  1  :  50,000  costs  l'/2  fr. ;  sheets  on  the  scale  of  1  :  200,000  cost  90  c.  each. 
Sine e  1908  M.  Jourdan,  of  Algiers,  has  been  bringing  out  a  new  official 
map  for  the  north  (1 :  200,000)  and  the  south  (1 :  400,000)  at  1  fr.  per  sheet. 

28.  Oran. 

Arrival  by  Sea.  The  steamers  of  the  Compagnie  Generate  Tram- 
atlantique  (RR.  19,  18)  are  berthed  at  the  Quai  Bougainville  (PI.  C,  1), 
those  of  the  Transport  Maritimes  (R.  19)  at  the  Quai  de  la  Gare  (PI.  C, 
D,  2),  those  of  the  Navigation  Mixte  (RR.  19,  18)  at  the  Quai  Lamoune 
(PI.  B,  1).  Baggage  is  conveyed  to  the  custom-house  (Douane;  PI.  B,  2), 
and  thence  to  the  cabs  or  hotel-omnibuses.  The  porters  (portefaix),  mostly 
Dtttives,  are  notorious  for  their  extortionate  demands.  Charges  should  be 
agreed  upon  beforehand. 

Bail  way  Stations.  1.  Gare  Centrale  or  du  P.  L.  M.  et  de  I'Ouest 
Alge'rien  (PI.  E,  4;  p.  173),  Boul.  Marceau  (p.  181),  for  Perregaux  and  Algiers 
(R.  33),  Tlemcen  (R.  29),  and  Aln-Temouchent  (p.  185).  — 2.  Gare  d'Arzew 
(PI.  F,  5),  1  M.  from  the  hotels,  for  the  line  via  Damesme  (Arzew)  and 
Perregaux  to  Beni-Ounif  de  Figuig  (R.  32).  — The  Gare  de  la  Marine 
(PI.  C,  2)  is  the  terminus  of  the  harbour  goods-line. — Town  Office  of 
the  P.  L.  M.  and  Ouest  Algerien  railways,  Boul.  du  Lycee  5. 

Hotels.  *H0t.  Continental  (PI.  a;  D,  3),  Boul.  Seguin  1,  corner 
of  Place  des  Amies,  fine  open  site,  with  restaurant,  R.  4-6,  B.  1V2,  dej.  4, 
D.  5,  pens.  11-15,  omn.  1  fr.  —  Hot.  "Victor  (PI.  b;  D,  3),  Rue  d'Arzew  5 
and  Rue  de  la  Bastille  8,  R.  2>/2-5,  B.  '/2-8/.i>  D-  3,  pens.  71/2-8,/2,  omn. 
'Vt  fr.,  plain  but  good;  Hot.  dd  Theatre,  Rue  Bosquet,  next'the  theatre 
(PI.  (',  3),  new;  HOT.  d'Europe  (PI.  d;  D,  3),  Boul.  Charlemagne  16,  H6t 
dh  Progres  (PI.  f;  I),  3),  Rue  de  Belleville  14,  both  with  restaurants, 
very  unpretending.  — Hotels  G-arnis.  *Koyal  (PI.  g;  D,  3),  Boul.  du 
Lycee  8,  with  restaurant,  R.  8-8,  omn.  1  f r. ;  Central  (PI.  h;  D,  3),  Rue 
de  Belleville  13,  R.  2>/2-4  fr. 

Cafe's.  Continental  (at  the  hotel),  Riche,  and  de  la  Mosqute,  all  in 
Boul.  Seguin  (Xos.  1.  22,  19);  da  TM&tre,  Place  d'Armes  11;  Nouvel 
Aquarium  (p.  182),    Promenade    de  Letang;    Glacier,    Place  Kleber  3. 

Restaurants  at  the  hotels;  also  Nouvel  Aquarium  (p.  182);  Brasserie 

Situation.  ORAN.  28.  Route.     177 

vard,  No.20bis  (Oriental  goods). —  Photographic  Requisites.  Luck,  Rue 
de  Belleville  9;  Schnell,  Boul.  Seguin  14.  —  Picture  Post  Cards.  Caspari, 
Rue  d'Arzew  24;  Craveya,  same  street,  No.  20. 

Tourist  Offices.  Lubin,  Galerie  Perez,  Boul.  Seguin ;  Syndicat  d'lni- 
.  Hot.  de  Ville  (p.  180);  R.  Heckmann,  Place  de  la  Republique  7. 

Consuls.  British  Vice-Consul,  Thos.  A.  Barber,  Quai  Ste.  Marie  4 
(PI.  B,  2).  — U.  S.  Consular  Agent,  A.  11.  El  ford,  Rue  Charles  Quint  14. 

French  Prot.  Church  {Temple;  PI.  13,  C3),  Rue  de  la  Revolution; 
s.ivi'-p  f>n  Sun.  at  9.30  a.m. 

Theatres.  Grand  TM&tre  Municipal  (PI.  C,  3),  Place  d'Armes; 
TM&tre- Casino  (PI.  14;  C,  2),  Rue  Philippe;  Cirque-Theatre  des  Nou- 
vea life's  (PI.  C,  4),  Boul.  National ;  Alhambra  (PI.  D,  E,  3),  Rue  d' Arzew  38bis. 

Music  (in  winter,  4-5  p.  m.).  Sun.,  Promenade  de  Letang  (p.  181),  near 
the  Restaur.  Aquarium;  Tues.,  at  the  Cercle  Militaire  (p.  180);  Thurs. 
(fortnightly  in  both),  Place  de  la  Republique  and  Square  du  Palais  de 
Justice;  Sat.,  at  the  Hopital  Militaire  (PI.  C,  2).  —  Concerts  in  the  Salle 
U/t*irale  (PI.  D,  3),  Rue  de  Paixhans. 

Two  Days.  1st.  In  the  forenoon,  Place  d'Armes  (p.  180),  Grande 
Mosquie  (p.  180),  Promenade  de  IAtang  (p.  181),  Old  Town  (p.  179);  after- 
noon, Belvddere  (p.  182)  or  Plateau  du  Marabout  (p.  183).  —  2nd.  Forenoon, 
Mers  el-Kibir  (p.  183);  afternoon,  Promenade  des  Falaises  (p.  184).  —  As 
to  visiting  the  mosques,  see  p.  174. 

Oran,  Arabic  Wardn,  the  capital  of  the  province  of  that  name, 
with  110,000  inhab.  (29,700  being  foreigners,  mostly  Spaniards, 
16,000  Mohammedans,  and  13,200  Jews),  is  a  strongly  fortified 
place,  the  headquarters  of  an  army  corps  and  a  torpedo-boat  station, 
and  has  been  an  episcopal  see  since  1867.  Next  to  Algiers  it  is  now 
the  greatest  seaport  and  commercial  place  in  Barbary.  The  town 
lies  in  35°  44'  N.  lat.  and  0°  5S' W.  long.,  on  a  bay  of  the  spacious 
Gulf  of  Oran  (p.  126),  between  Jebel  Santon  (1043  ft.;  p.  183) 
on  the  W.  and  the  Pointe  Canastel  (784  ft.;  p.  184)  on  the  E.  side. 
At  the  W.  end  the  quiet  streets  of  the  old  town,  overlooked  by  the 
bare  limestone  rocks  of  the  Pic  d'Aidour  or  Montagne  de  Santa 
Cruz  (1221  ft.),  ascend  the  ravine  of  the  small  brook  Paz  el-Ain 
or  Oued  Pehhi  to  the  hill  of  the  Kasb  a,  the  ancient  Moorish  castle. 
The  modern  industrial  quarters  lie  to  the  E.  of  the  hill  of  Clidieau- 
Neuf  and  beyond  the  ravine  of  the  A'in  Rouina,  extending  far  over 
the  plateau  of  Karguentah  (about  250-390  ft.),  a  table-land  which 
descends  abruptly  to  the  sea  and  slopes  gradually  to  the  S.  E.  down 
to  the  plain  of  the  Daya  Morselli  and  the  Plaine  du  Figuier 
(p.  185).  The  town  is  defended  by  several  old  forts  of  the  Spanish 
period  and  by  a  number  of  modern  coast-batteries,  and,  like  most 
of  the  Algerian  towns,  is  enclosed  by  a  wall  for  protection  against 
the  natives.  The  chief  suburbs  outside  the  gates  are  Gambetta, 
St.  Eugene,  Lamur,  and  Eckmiihl-Noiseux. 

Oran  is  essentially  a  modern  town,  which  is  being  extended 
and  embellished  with  feverish  zeal,  but  notwithstanding  its  French 
veneer  it  derives  a  certain  individuality  from  the  preponderating 
Spanish  element  in  its  population.  The  Mohammedan  element  is 
diminishing  here  even  more  rapidly  than  in  Algiers.  Owing  to  the 
scantiness  of  the  rainfall  the  euvirons  and  their  vegetation  are 

178     Route  28.  ORAN.  Harbour. 

quite  African  in  character,  and  the  neighbouring  shotts,  or  salt- 
lakes,  resemble  those  of  the  Hauts-Plateaux  (p.  169). 

The  Gulf  of  Oran,  where  the  Portus  Divinus  (Mers  el-Kebir,  p.  183) 
was  the  only  Roman  settlement,  was  unimportant  in  ancient  times.  Native 
tradition  ascribes  the  foundation  of  the  town  of  Oran  to  Moorish  merchants 
of  Andalusia  in  902,  but  it  was  not  till  the  late  middle  ages  that  the  town 
began  to  thrive.  After  the  rise  of  the  kingdom  of  Tlemcen  (p.  188)  Oran 
superseded  the  neighbouring  ports  of  Rachgoun  (p.  185),  Honei'n  (p.  125), 
and  Arzew  (p.  199)  as  the  chief  staple  of  the  W.  Algerian  coast,  its  trade 
being  chiefly  carried  on  by  Italians. 

Jealous  of  the  successes  of  Portugal  in  Morocco  (p.  96),  and  eager, 
after  the  capture  of  Granada  (p.  75),  to  carry  their  crusade  against  Islam 
into  African  territory,  the  Spaniards  sent  an  expedition  against  Melilla 
(p.  124)  in  1496,  while  the  all-powerful  Card.  Ximenez,  archbishop  of 
Toledo,  proceeded  to  attack  the  Ziyanides  (p.  188).  In  1505  Mers  el-K6bir, 
which  had  been  twice  occupied  by  the  Portuguese  in  the  15th  cent.,  was 
attacked  and  after  a  brave  defence  captured,  and  in-  1509,  on  a  second 
expedition,  Oran  fell  into  the  hands  of  the  cardinal.  Thenceforth  Oran 
formed  the  base  of  the  further  campaigns  of  the  Spaniards,  who  in  their 
victorious  career  soon  captured  all  the  important  towns  on  the  seaboard 
as  far  as  Tripoli,  and  penetrated  inland  to  Tlemcen.  The  Spanish  governors 
succeeded  in  defending  Oran  against  all  the  attacks  of  the  barbarescos 
down  to  1708,  when  the  Bey  Bu-Chlar'em  bombarded  the  Spanish  forts 
from  Jebel  Murjajo,  captured  them,  and  slew  the  entire  garrison.  A 
Spanish  army  under  the  Count  of  Montemar  gained  a  brilliant  victory  over 
the  Moors  at  Ain  et-Turk  (p.  184)  and  recaptured  the  town  in  1732,  but 
the  Spaniards  soon  found  themselves  again  overmatched  by  their  enemies. 
In  1790  the  town  was  almost  entirely  destroyed  by  an  earthquake,  and 
in  1792  the  Spaniards  at  length  withdrew  their  garrison. 

Under  the  bey  3Iohammed  el-Kebir  the  town  was  erected  into  the 
capital  of  the  province  of  W.  Algeria;  but  in  consequence  of  the  earth- 
quake, the  interminable  wars,  and  its  entire  separation  from  the  inland 
regions  during  the  centuries  of  the  Spanish  occupation,  Oran  had  declined 
so  lamentably  that  when  it  was  occupied  by  French  troops  in  1831  it 
scarcely  numbered  4000  inhabitants.  Its  rapid  recovery  since  that  period 
has  been  due  to  its  favourable  situation ,  its  proximity  to  the  Spanish 
coast  and  to  the  rich  inland  district  of  Tlemcen,  and  particularly  to  the 
extension  of  the  Algerian  railway  system  as  far  as  the  Sahara  and  to 
the  promotion  of  trade  with  Morocco  by  the  opening  of  free  marts  at 
Lalla-Marnia  (p.  197),  Ai'n-Sefra  (p.  202),  and  Beni-Ounif  de  Figuig  (p.  203). 

a.  The  Harbour  and  the  Old  Town. 

The  Harbour  (PI.  B-D,  1,  2),  72  acres  in  area,  is  bounded  on 
the  E.  side  by  the  QuaiSte.  Thercse,  330  yds.  long,  and  is  sheltered 
on  the  N.  by  the  Ghrande  Jetee  or  Jetee  du  Large,  a  pier  1200  yds. 
in  length,  with  a  lighthouse  at  the  end  (Phare;  PI.  D,  1).  The 
shallow  Vieux  Port  (PI.  B,  C,  1,  2),  now  the  S.W.  bay  of  the  new 
harbour  bounded  on  the  N.  by  the  Quai  Bougainville,  was  the 
harbour  of  the  Moorish  and  Spanish  periods.  The  rapid  increase  of 
the  shipping  trade  (now  exceeding  4  million  tons  annually)  is  being 
met  by  the  construction  of  an  outer  harbour  (PI.  D-G,  1,2).  The 
chief  imports  are  sugar,  coffee,  rice,  English  coal,  timber,  petro- 
leum, candles,  and  paper;  the  chief  exports  wine,  grain,  flour,  fruit, 
early  vegetables,  alfa,  'crin  vegetal'  (dwarf -palm  fibre),  tobacco, 
cattle,  hides,  wool,  marble,  and  onyx. 

Museum.  ORAN.  20.  Route.     179 

From  the  Douane  (PI.  B,  2)  the  Rue  d'Orleans  (PI.  B,  C,  2 ;  tram- 
way No.  1,  see  p.  176)  ascends  in  a  curve,  skirting  the  Quartier  de 
la  Marine  and  the  Quartier  de  la  CaUre,  the  Spanish  quarters, 
to  the  upper  part  of  the  town.  Halfway  up,  to  the  right,  on  the 
parapet  of  the  small  Place  d'Orleans  (PI.  B,  2)  are  seen  the  Spanish 
Armorial  Bearings  (1789). 

Beyond  the  Palais  Consulaire  (PI.  8,  C  2;  Chamber  of  Com- 
merce and  Commercial  Court)  the  street  reaches  the  two  chief 
squares  of  the  old  French  part  of  the  town,  the  Place  de  la  Repu- 
blique,  with  the  Fontaine  Aucour  (PI.  C,  2;  concerts,  see  p.  177), 
and  the  Place  Kleber  (PI.  C,  3).  Adjoining  the  latter  is  the  Boule- 
vard Malakoff  (PI.  C,  3),  constructed  over  the  vaulted  channel  of 
the  Raz  el-Ain  (p.  177),  with  a  fine  avenue  of  planes. 

On  the  S.W.  side  of  the  Place  Kleber,  between  Boul.  Malakoff 
and  Boul.  Oudinot,  rises  the  Prefecture  (PI.  C,  3),  the  seat  of  the 
provincial  government. 

The  Boul.  Oudinot  leads  to  the  Magasin  du  Campement 
(PI.  C,  3;  military  stores;  adm.  by  leave  of  the  military  author- 
ities), in  the  garden  of  which  we  perceive  the  minaret  of  a  Mosque 
(about  1800)  dedicated  to  Sidi  el-Hawdri,  the  chief  saint  of  Oran. 

The  Rup  Larrey  leads  past  the  E.  side  of  the  military  stores  to 
a  terrace  above  the  harbour-quarter,  on  which  rises  the  — 

Church  of  St.  Louis  (PI.  12;  C,  2),  an  unimportant  edifice 
of  1839,  whose  choir-niche  is  a  relic  of  the  Spanish  church  of  the 
time  of  the  Count  of  Montemar  (p.  178).  The  Wall  of  the  Rue  de 
Berlin  (PI.  C,  B,  2),  which  leads  hence  to  the  Porte  du  Santon 
(p.  182),  is  of  Spanish  origin. 

We  return  to  the  Boul.  Oudinot  and  glance  at  the  Quartier  de 
la  Kasba,  the  oldest  quarter  of  Oran,  lying  on  the  hill-side  below 
the  Kasba  (PI.  B,  C,  3;  adm.  on  application  at  the  guard-house), 
the  old  citadel.  The  old  Moorish  castle  on  this  site  was  succeeded 
in  the  16th  cent,  by  the  Spanish  Castillo  Viejo,  the  nucleus  of  the 
Spanish  fortifications,  and  now  occupied  by  French  barracks.  Above 
the  Porte  d' Espagne,  a  side-entrance  at  the  end  of  the  narrow 
Rue  du  Vieux-Chateau  (PI.  C,  3),  are  still  seen  the  arms  of  Spain. 

The  Rue  de  Madrid  (PI.  C,  3,  2),  a  side-street  of  the  Rue  Larrey 
(see  above),  and  the  steps  in  the  Rue  d'Orleans  near  the  S.W.  angle 
of  the  Place  de  la  Republique  lead  to  the  small  public  — 

Musee  Demaeght  (PI.  7;  C,  2),  Rue  Montebello  9,  founded 
in  1886  and  named  after  its  founder.  Admittance,  except  on  great 
festivals,  daily  1-5,  free.  Catalogues  of  the  antiquities  and  the 
ancient  coins,  l3/4  fr.  each.   Curator,  Prof.  A.  Moulieras. 

In  the  vestibule  are  Roman  mosaics  from  a  dwelling-house  at  Portus 
Magnus  (Saint-Leu,  p.  199),  freely  restored  in  parts;  Roman  stelae,  mile- 
stones, inscriptions,  etc.  from  the  province  of  Oran. 

First  Floor.     On  the  left,   in  Room  C,   natural  history  collections, 

180     Route  28.  OR  AN.  Grande  Mosquie. 

including  specimens  of  marble  and  onyx  from  the  province  of  Oran. — 
On  the  right,  in  Room  D,  prehistoric  relics  from  Barbary  and  ethno- 
graphical collections. 

Second  Floor.  On  the  left,  in  Room  E,  casts  from  the  antique; 
Moorish  ornaments  from  Toledo  and  Granada;  and  a  graphic  collection. 
—  On  the  right,   in  Room  F,  modern  paintings. 

Third  Floor.  On  the  left,  in  Room  G,  natural  history  collections. — 
On  the  right,  in  Room  H,  a  line  collection  of  coins,  Numidian,  Mauretanian, 
Roman,  Byzantine,  Moorish,  old  Spanish,  etc. ;  in  the  wall-cases  small 
relics  from  Portus  Magnus. 

b.  The  New  Town. 

The  loftily  situated  New  Town  is  reached  from  the  Place  Kleber 
(PL  C,  3;  p.  179)  by  several  steep  lanes  in  steps  (Rue  de  Genes, 
etc.),  but  more  easily  by  the  Boulevard  Malakoff  (p.  179)  and  the 
Rue  des  Jardins  (PI.  0,3;  tramway  No.  1,  see  p.  176),  or  by  the 
Rue  de  Turin  (PI.  C,  3,  2)  and  Rue  Philippe  (tramway  No.  2). 

The  Rue  de  Turin  leads  in  a  bend  past  the  MarchC  Pastrana 
(PI.  5;  C,  3)  and  the  Promenade  de  Letang  (p.  181). 

The  Rue  Philippe,  which  ascends  direct,  passes  on  the  right 
the  elegant  Demeure  de  Hassan  (PI.  2 ;  C,  3),  which,  apart  from 
the  fortifications,  is  the  sole  relic  of  old  Oran.  According  to  the 
inscription,  it  was  built  in  1700  and  restored  in  1900,  and  is  named 
after  one  of  its  later  owners,  a  tobacco-merchant  who  became  Bey 
of  Oran  in  1812. 

The  adjacent  Grande  Mosqu^e,  or  Mosque'e  du  Pacha  (PI.  4, 
C  3;  Arabic  Jdma  el-Pasha),  erected  by  order  of  the  Dey  of  Al- 
giers after  the  withdrawal  of  the  Spaniards  in  1792,  is  now  the 
only  mosque  in  the  town  used  for  divine  service. 

The  front  building-,  erected  in  the  form  of  a  kubba,  or  saint's  shrine, 
at  the  sharp  bend  of  the  Rue  Philippe,  dates  only  from  the  French  per- 
iod (1864).  The  pretty  Sahn,  or  court  of  the  mosque,  enclosed  by  a 
pinnacled  wall,  is  planted  with  palms  and  bananas. 

In  the  mosque  itself,  whose  vaulting  rests  alternately  on  short  pillars 
and  clustered  columns,  is  the  Sedda  or  stage,  under  the  great  central 
dome,  where  at  the  Friday  service  the  Mosammi,  or  leader  of  prayer, 
repeats  the  words  of  the  priest  (Imam)  for  the  benefit  of  worshippers 
at  a  distance.  On  the  right,  by  the  plain  mihrab  or  prayer-niche,  is  the 
mimbar,  the  pulpit  for  the  Friday  sermon. 

At  the  back  of  the  mosque,  in  the  Rue  de  la  Mosquee,  rises  the 
octagonal  Minaret  (Sauma),  the  tower  from  which  the  muezzin 
summons  the  faithful  to  prayer  five  times  daily. 

The  pretty  Place  d'Arrnes  (PI.  C,  D,  3 ;  233  ft.),  where  the 
Rue  des  Jardins  and  the  Rue  Philippe  end,  is  the  business  centre 
of  the  town  and  the  chief  tramway  station  (p.  176).  A  Monument 
here  recalls  the  battle  near  the  Kubba  Sidi-Brahim  (p.  198). 

On  the  S.  side  of  the  square  rises  the  H6tel  de  Ville,  or  Mairie 
(PL  C,  3),  a  building  in  the  French  Renaissance  style,  approached 
by  a  high  flight  of  steps.  On  the  W.  side  is  the  Gh'and  Theatre 
Municipal  (p.  177),  opened  in  1908.    The  grounds  of  the  Cercle 

Promenade  de  Litang  ORAN.  2*-  Route.      181 

Militaire  (PL  C,  D,  3;  concerts,  see  p.  177),  on  the  N.  side  of  the 
square,  extend  to  the  S.  bastions  of  the  Chateau-Neuf  (p.  182). 

On  the  margin  of  the  plateau,  to  the  S.W.  of  the  Place  d'Armes 
and  W.  of  the  Rue  de  la  Revolution,  lies  the  poor  Jewish  Quarter, 
with  its  dirty  streets,  of  which  the  chief  is  the  Rue  d'Austerlitz 
(PI.  C,  3,  4).  Here  an  interesting  fruit  and  vegetable  market  takes 
place  daily  (Sat.  excepted).  The  best  time  for  a  glance  at  the 
Jewish  quarter  is  a  Saturday  morning,  between  8.30  and  9,  when 
the  women  in  all  their  finery  go  to  the  synagogues  (in  the  Rue  de 
Ratisbonne,  etc.). 

At  the  N.E.  angle  of  the  Place  d'Armes  begins  the  Boulevard 
Seguin  (PI.  D,  3,4),  now  the  main  street,  with  the  chief  banks, 
shops,  and  cafes,  a  favourite  evening  resort.  —  In  a  side-street,  the 
Boul.  du  Deuxieme-Zouaves,  rises  the  new  Cathedral  (PL  D,  3,  4), 
begun  in  1905  and  now  nearly  completed.  To  the  S.  of  it  is  the 
Palais  de  Justice  (PL  D,  4)  in  the  pleasant  square  named  after 
it  (music,  see  p.  177).  —  From  the  S.  end  of  the  Boul.  Seguin  the 
Rue  de  Mostaganem  and  Boul.  Marceau  (PL  D-F,  4,  5)  lead  to  the 
new  Gare  Centrale  (PL  E,  4;  p.  175),  in  the  modern  Moorish 
style  (1907-9). 

The  S.  quarter  of  the  town,  between  the  Barracks  (PL  C,  D, 
4,  5),  built  in  the  charming  nco-Moorish  style,  and  the  town-walls, 
is  the  so-called  Village-N"6gre  (PL  C,  D,  5),  a  growth  of  the 
French  period.  It  consists  chiefly  of  small  one-storied  houses,  oc- 
cupied by  the  natives,  the  working  classes,  and  the  poorer  Mo- 
hammedans, with  the  Marche  Arabe  as  its  nucleus.  A  visit  may 
be  paid  to  it  in  the  morning,  or  better  on  a  Friday  or  Sunday  after- 
noon. In  an  open  site  on  the  E.  side  of  this  quarter,  near  the  Rue 
Dutertrc  (tramway  No.  6,  see  p.  176),  is  the  picturesque  Marabout 
Sidi  el-Bachir  (PL  D,  5;  p.  172). 

Near  this  is  the  Porte  du  Cimetiere,  leading  to  the  Jewish 
Burial  Ground  (PL  D,  5),  to  the  Christian  Cimetiere  Tamazhouet 
(PL  E,  F,  5),  and  to  the  suburb  of  Lamur  occupied  by  natives. 

The  E.  part  of  the  new  town  is  intersected  by  the  Rue  d'Arzew, 
passing  the  new  Gallerie  Auddoud  with  its  row  of  shops,  a  little 
beyond  which  the  Boul.  de  Tivoli  diverges  to  the  N.  (left).  In  an 
open  site  at  the  end  of  this  street  rises  the  Vieille  Mosquie  (PL 
F,  3),  built  at  the  end  of  the  18th  cent,  (now  being  restored),  with 
a  minaret  resembling  that  of  the  El-Hawari  mosque  (p.  179). 

The  chief  boast  of  Oran  is  the  *Promenade  de  Letang 
(PL  C,  D,  2),  the  delightful  grounds,  shaded  with  palms,  which 
flank  the  N.  and  W.  sides  of  the  Chateau-Neuf.  They  are  reached 
from  the  Place  d'Armes,  either  to  the  N.W.  by  the  Rue  Philippe, 
or  to  the  N.E.  by  a  road  beginning  between  the  Ccrcle  Militaire 
and  the  Hotel  Continental.   (To  the  E.  of  this  road  lies  the  Lycee, 

182     Route  28.  ORAN.  Belvidlre. 

PI.  D,  3,  a  road  to  which  crosses  the  ravine  of  the  Am  Rouina.) 
The  two  N.E.  platforms,  above  the  Fort  Ste.  Therese  (PI.  D,  2), 
command  a  glorious  view,  especially  towards  evening,  of  the  bold 
coast  as  far  as  the  Pointe  Canastel  (p.  184)  and  of  the  double-peaked 
Jebel  Kahar  (p.  184).  The  terraoe  on  the  N.W.  side,  near  the  Nouvel 
Aquarium  (music,  see  p.  177),  affords  a  good  view  of  the  harbour, 
of  Jebel  Murjajo  with  the  Plateau  du  Marabout  and  Fort  Santa  Cruz 
(see  below),  and  of  the  bay  of  Mers  el-Kebir  (p.  183). 

The  Chateau-Neuf  (PL  C,  D,  2;  now  military  headquarters  and 
barracks)  was  the  Bordj  el-Ahmar  (red  castle)  of  Moorish  times, 
the  chief  fort  of  the  town  next  to  the  Kasba,  the  Rosalcazar  of  the 
Spanish  period,  seat  of  the  governor,  and  in  1792  1831  the  resid- 
ence of  the  Bey  of  the  province  of  Oran.  Admittance  on  application 
at  the  guard-house.  The  inconsiderable  buildings  date  partly  from 
the  Spanish  occupation;  on  the  outer  walls  and  the  entrance  gate- 
way are  an  Arabic  and  several  Spanish  inscriptions. 

c.  Environs. 

(1).  The  old  Fort  Santa  Cruz  (PI.  A,  2;  1221  ft.;  now  an 
observatory),  on  the  Pic  d'Aidour,  the  E.  spur  of  the  Jebel  Mur- 
jajo, is  reached  by  the  Rue  de  Berlin  (p.  179)  and  the  Porte  de 
Santa  Cruz  or  du  Santon  (l1^  hr.).  A  very  rough,  shadeless  path 
ascends  to  it,  beginning  on  a  stony  slope  to  the  right  above  the 
drilling-ground,  crossing  the  road  to  Fort  St.  Gregoire,  and  passing 
the  chapel  of  the  Vierge  de  Santa  Cruz  (PI.  A,  1;  1024  ft.;  view). 
It  may  be  reached  also  by  a  bridle-path  through  the  Ravin  des 
Planteurs  (PI.  A,  B,  2,  3),  the  gorge  at  the  beginning  of  the  Bois 
des  Planteurs.  The  fort  was  built  in  1700,  nearly  destroyed  by  the 
barbarescos  in  1708  and  1792,  and  restored  in  1856.  It  has  always 
been  connected  with  the  Chateau-Neuf  (see  above)  by  an  under- 
ground passage,  3  M.  long.  The  platform  commands  a  fine  view  of 
Oran  and  the  bay  of  Mers  el-Kebir  (custodian  30-50  c). 

The  Belvedere  is  a  more  interesting  point.  We  follow  the  road 
from  the  Porte  du  Santon  (see  above),  passing  the  drilling-ground, 
and  crossing  the  (8  min.)  Ravin  des  Planteurs.  Now  called  the 
Chemin  des  Planteurs  (PI.  B,  A,  3),  the  road  ascends  in  windings 
through  the  Bois  des  Planteurs,  a  pleasant  pine-grove  on  the  S. 
slope  of  Jebel  Murjajo,  where  jackals  are  sometimes  seen.  To  the 
right,  halfway  up,  a  path  (finger-post)  diverges  to  the  (10  min.) 
*Belv6dere  (PI.  A,  3;  rfmts.),  a  kind  of  temple  where  we  enjoy 
a  superb  view  of  Oran.  We  may  now  either  go  on  to  the  Plateau 
du  Marabout,  or  else  return  to  the  town  by  the  very  attractive  S. 
branch  of  the  Chemin  des  Planteurs  (PI.  A,  B,  4),  which  descends 
to  the  valley  of  Raz  el-Am  (p.  177)  and  leads  along  its  left  bank 
to  the  Porte  du  Ravin  (PI.  B,  C,  3). 

Men  d-Kibvr.  ORAN.  28.  Route.     183 

The  road  to  the  Plateau  du  Marabout  (about  1360  ft. ;  carr. 
in  about  l8/4  hr.,  6-8  fr.,  according  to  bargain)  ascends  through 
the  Bois  des  Planteurs  (p.  182).  From  the  end  of  the  road  a 
walk  of  10  min.  to  the  N.E.  along  the  crest  of  the  hill,  through 
meagre  brushwood,  and  offering  a  glimpse  of  the  bay  of  Mers  el 
Kebir  to  the  left,  brings  us  to  the  Marabout  Sidi  Abd  el-K&der 
el-Djildni,  the  chapel  of  a  Persian  saint  much  revered  throughout 
Barbary  as  the  founder  of  the  Kadria  brotherhood  (p.  361).  From 
this  point,  especially  towards  evening,  we  obtain  a  splendid  *View 
of  Oran,  of  Jebel  Kahar  and  Jebel  Orouze  (p.  184)  to  the  N.E.,  of 
the  salt-lake  and  the  bay  of  Arzew  (p.  199).  To  the  S.  we  see  part 
of  the  Sebkha  d'Oran  (p.  185),  backed  by  Jebel  Tessala  (p.  186). 

From  the  plateau  we  may  either  descend,  a  few  minutes'  walk 
beyond  the  Marabout,  to  the  left  to  Ste.  Clotilde  (see  below),  or  we 
may  go  straight  on,  across  the  saddle  between  the  Jebel  Murjajo 
and  the  Pic  d'Aidour,  to  the  (40  rain.)  Chapelle  de  la  Vierge  and 
the  Fort  Santa  Cruz  (p.  182). 

(2).  The  excursion  to  Mers  el-Kebir  (motor-omnibus  and  carr., 
see  p.  176;  tramway  to  Ai'n-et-Turk  projected)  is  specially  attrac- 
tive in  the  morning.  We  leave  Oran  near  the  Douane  (PI.  B,  2) 
and  above  Fort  Lamoune  (PI.  B,  1)  skirt  the  bold  E.  slope  of  the 
Pic  d'Aidour  (p.  182).  On  the  wooded  N.  slope  of  the  hill  we 
reach  (2  M.)  the  Bains  de  la  Reine,  which  have  been  in  use  since 
the  time  of  the  Ziyanides  (p.  188),  but  owe  their  name  to  a  visit 
paid  them  by  Juana  the  Insane  (p.  76).  The  plain  bath-hotel  lies 
on  the  road  above;  the  saline  spring  (130°Fahr.)  and  the  bath-house 
lie  behind  the  rocks  lower  down.  The  baths  are  frequented,  chiefly 
in  spring,  both  by  Europeans  and  natives. 

The  road  next  passes  below  (21/2  M.  from  Oran)  the  villa-suburb 
of  Ste.  Clotilde  (197  ft.;  Hot.  Ste.  Clotilde),  with  its  charming 
gardens  in  the  shade  of  the  hill  (path  to  the  Plateau  du  Marabout, 
see  above).  Just  beyond  Ste.  Clotilde,  in  the  ravine  of  Salto  del 
Cavallo,  is  the  spot  where  Takhfin  ben-Ali  (p.  188)  is  said  to  have 
been  slaiu  when  attempting  to  escape. 

33/4  M.  Roseville  (99  ft. ;  not  visible  from  the  road)  has  a  good 
bathing-beach.  4*/2  M.  St.  Andre  de  Mers  el-Kebir  (55  ft.;  Hot. 
National,  on  the  shore),  a  poor  village,  inhabited  almost  entirely  by 
Spaniards  and  Italians,  lies  at  the  S.  base  of  the  fortified  Jebel 
Santon  (1043  ft.),  the  N.  spur  of  Jebel  Murjajo. 

The  open  roads  of  Mers  el-Kebir  (Arabic  Mersa  el-Kebtrt 
the  great  harbour),  famed  in  Spanish  military  annals  as  Mazal- 
quivir,  now  the  naval  harbour  of  Oran,  are  admirably  sheltered 
from  the  "W.  and  N.  winds  by  Jebel  Santon  and  by  a  rocky  head- 
land (lighthouse).  Beyond  the  (5  M.)  little  fishing-village  (Hot.  de 
l'Escadre,  humble)  rises  a  huge  Fort,  the  outer  walls  of  which 
date  partly  from  the  Spanish  period. 

Baedeker's  Mediterranean.  12 

184     Route  88.  OK  AN.         Promenade  des  Falaises. 

To  Ain-et-Turk  and  Bob-Sfer  (a  day's  excursion  from  Oran;  omn. 
and  carr.,  see  p.  176;  provisions  should  be  taken),  an  interesting  drive, 
especially  in  spring,  affording  a  good  idea  of  the  progress  of  agriculture 
in  this  coast-region.  Beyond  the  headland  of  Mers  el-K6bir  the  road  is 
carried  round  the  Jebel  Santon,  high  above  the  sea,  by  means  of  cuttings, 
and  then  descends  to  the  fertile  Plaine  des  Andaloitses,  which  is  now 
inhabited  chiefly  by  S.  Spanish  peasants.  Its  name  recalls  the  landing 
here  of  the  Moors  expelled  from  Andalusia. 

9V2  M.  (from  Oran)  Ain-et-Turk  (65  ft.;  'Turkish  well'),  a  little  vil- 
lage, to  which  sea-bathers  resort  in  summer,  with  a  church  on  the  hill 
(177  ft.),  2«/a  M.  to  the  S.E.  of  Cape  Falcon  (p.  125),  from  which  it  is 
separated  by  a  chain  of  sand-hills  rising  to  a  height  of  397  ft. 

The  road,  now  perfectly  straight,  ascends  to  the  S.W.,  through  vine- 
yards and  corn-fields,  to  (13  M.)  the  large  village  of  Bou-Sfer  (486  ft.), 
on  the  well-watered  N.  slope  of  Jebel  Murjajo,  with  its  thriving  farms 
where  vegetables  are  largely  grown.    To  Bou-Tlelis,  see  p.  185. 

From  Bou-Sfer  a  road,  with  fine  views,  leads  along  the  hill-side,  and 
hen  across  the  saddle  (768  ft.)  between  Jebel  Murjajo  and  Jebel  Santon, 
back  to  (22  M.)  St.  Andre  de  Mers  el-Ke'bir. 

(3).  A  splendid  walk,  especially  by  evening  light,  is  offered  by 
the  *Promenade  des  Falaises  (PI.  G.  Hv  1),  to  the  N.E.  of 
Oran.  Tramway  No.  3  (p.  176)  should  be  taken  to  the  station  outside 
the  Porte  d'Arzew  (PI.  F,  G,  3).  Here  we  go  to  the  left,  skirting 
the  town-walls,  then  to  the  N.E.  across  the  harbour  goods-line 
(p.  175),  through  the  Ravin  Blanc  at  a  distance  from  the  battery 
of  that  name,  and  up  the  fields  to  the  (20  min.)  highly  picturesque 
margin  of  the  plateau,  whence  we  survey  the  whole  coast  from  Mers 
el-Kebir  on  the  W.  to  the  Pointe  de  l'Aiguille  and  Jebel  Orouze 
to  the  N.E.  A  little  farther  on  we  reach  an  avenue  of  palms  which 
leads  in  a  curve  to  the  ('/4  hr.)  tramway-terminus  in  the  suburb  of 
Gambetta  (PI.  H,  2). 

Good  walkers,  starting  very  early,  may  extend  their  excursion  from 
the  Promenade  des  Falaises  to  the  Pointe  Canastel  (784  ft.),  near  which 
ends  the  road  coming  from  Gambetta  (4  M.),  and  thence  along  the  slope 
of  Jebel  Kahar  or  Montague  des  Lions  (2008  ft.),  in  4-4'/2  hrs.,  to  the 
Moorish  village  of  Kristel  (poor  cafes),  finely  situated  amid  rich  orange 
groves.  Or,  in  calm  weather,  we  may  take  a  sailing-boat  (see  p.  176)  from 
Oran  to  Kristel.  We  may  now  walk  or  ride  (donkey  2ljrZ  fr.)  up  the 
steep  hill  to  the  saddle  between  Jebel  Kahar  and  Jebel  Kristel  (1970  ft.): 
then  past  the  Ferme  Tasout  (1105  ft. ;  to  the  left  the  iron  and  lead 
mines  on  Jebel  Borosse,  a  spur  of  Jebel  Orouze;  p.  199)  to  the  S.E., 
partly  through  underwood,  and  down  to  the  (2V2  hrs.)  railway -station 
of  Saint-Cloud  (p.  199).  We  may  there  take  the  train  via  Damesme  to 
Arscw  (p.  199)  and  return  to  Oran  in  the  evening. 

From  Oran  to  Hammam  Bou-Hadjar,  45  M.,  steam-tramway  twice 
daily  (thrice  on  Sun.,  Mon.,  and  Tues.)  in  33/4-43/4  hrs.  (fares  5  fr.  40, 
3  fr.  95  c).  The  line  starts  from  the  N.  end  of  the  Boul.  Mascara  (PI.  C,  4) 
and  proceeds  to  the  S.E.  vil,  (4  M.)  La  Sinia  (p.  185)  to  (7V2  M.)  Valmy 
(p.  185),  some  distance  beyond  which  it  turns  to  the  S.W.  and  runs 
parallel  to  the  S.  shore  of  the  Sebkha  d'Oran  (p.  185).  12  M.  Arbal,  on 
the  N.  spurs  of  Jebel  Tessala  (p.  186);  25  M.  St.  Maur;  39  M.  Ain  el- 
Arba.  45  M.  Hammam  Bou-Hadjar  (574  ft.),  near  which  are  the  baths 
of  that  name  (Hot.  des  Bains,  plain  but  good).  The  hot  mineral  water 
(135-167°  Fahr.),  resembling  that  of  Ems,  rises  among  the  calc-sinter 
terraces  of  the  Fer  a  Cheval.  A  cool  spring  (64°  Fahr.),  strongly  impreg- 
nated with  iron,  is  used  for  drinking. 

Excursion  to  MissergMn,  see  p.  185. 


29.  From  Oran  to  Tlemcen. 

102'/a  M.  Railway  Train,  with  one  1st  and  2nd  cl.  through-carriage,  in 
5i/4-53/4  hrs. ;  fares  18  fr.  55,  13  fr.  35  c,  10  fr.).  Dep.  from  chief  station 
(p.  175).  As  far  as  Ain-Fezza  (p.  186)  tinest  views  to  the  left.  Railway 
Restaurant  (D.  2  fr.)  at  Sidi  Bel-Abbes  only. 

Motor  Trip  (p.  173)  from  Oran  via  Misserghin,  A'in-Temouchent,  and 
Pont-de-1'Isser  to  (82V2  M.)  Tlemcen,  returning  via  Sidi  Bel-Abbes  (128  M.), 
interesting;  good  road. 

Between  Lamur  (p.  181)  and  Victor-Hugo,  suburbs  of  Oran, 
the  train  crosses  theDamesme  and  Perregaux  line  (R.  32).  Beyond 
the  small  salt-lake  Daya  Morselli,  on  the  left,  we  enter  the  Plaine 
<lu  Figuier,  on  the  N.  side  of  the  Sebkha  d'Oran,  one  of  the  largest 
salt-lakes  in  the  Tell  Atlas,  26  M.  long  and  6  M.  broad. 

3  M.  La  Senia  (325  ft.),  a  Spanish  village,  with  productive 
vegetable-gardens  and  vineyards;  also  a  station  on  the  steam- 
tramway  from  Oran  to  Hammani  Bou-Hadjar  (p.  184). 

To  the  S.W.  from  La  Senia  diverges  the  Oran  and  A'in-Temouchent 
Line  (from  Oran  iV/.2  M.,  in  2»/4-3  hrs. ;  fares  8  fr.  60,  6  fr.  15,  4  fr.  60  c).  The 
train  skirts  the  S.  base  of  Jcbel  Murjajo  (p.  182),  near  the  Sebkha  d'Oran. 
12'  ...  M.  Misserghin  (360  ft.;  Hot.  des  Voyageurs,  Hot.  de  la  Pais,  both 
poor;  pop.  4-100),  situated  9l/2  M.  to  the  S.W.  of  Oran  by  the  Tlemcen 
road,  a  spot  much  visited  from  Oran,  possessing  a  large  pepiniere  or 
nursery,  and  several  monastic  foundations;  charming  walk  to  the  (2^2  M.) 
Ravin  de  la  Vierge  through  luxuriant  orange,  lemon,  mandarin,  and 
banana  groves.  —  22'/)  M.  Bou-Tlelis  (295  ft.),  whence  a  road  leads  via  the 
FturSt  M"Sila  and  El-Ancor  to  Bou-Sfer  (p.  181).  29>/2  M.  Lourmel  (300  ft.), 
near  the  W.  end  of  the  salt-lake.  35  M.  Er-Rahel  (450  ft.),  connected  by- 
road (6V4  M.)  with  Ham  mam  Bou-Hadjar  (p.  184).  We  cross  the  Rio 
Salado  (Arabic  Oued  Halah)  to  (40  M.)  Rio  Salado  (279  ft.),  famed  for 
its  wine.  —  47>/2  M.  Ain-Tero ouchent  (847  ft.;  Royal  Hotel;  Hot.  de 
Londres;  Hot.  de  la  Poste;  pop.  7500),  founded  in  1851  on  the  site  of 
the  Roman  Alb/dae,  chiefly  inhabited  by  Spaniards,  lies  amidst  vineyards 
and  orchards  in  the  narrow  valley  of  the  Oued  Senane,  into  which  the  . 
Oued  Temouchent  falls  here.    The  Thurs.  market  is  worth  seeing. 

The  Road  to  Tlemcen,  41  M.  (diligence  at  7  p.  m.  in  9  hrs.,  re- 
turning from  Tlemcen  at  9  p.  m.;  coupe  6  fr.)  leads  to  the  S.W.  from 
Ain-Temouchent  through  a  hill-region,  composed  mainly  of  eruptive  rock, 
and  well-watered,  to  the  thriving  village  of  Ain-Kial  (1477  ft.;  noted 
for  its  cattle),  crosses  the  pass  (1998  ft.;  fine  views)  of  Jebel  Sebaa- 
Chiotikh,  and  then  descends  past  the  onyx-quarries  of  the  hill-village  of 
Tekbalet  to  the  Isser  Valley.  20V2  M.  Pont-de-V Isser  (807  ft.;  Hot.  Po- 
maris,  humble),  a  village  amid  orange-gardens  and  olive-groves,  is  almost 
purely  Mohammedan.  The  road,  now  shadeless,  affording  fine  glimpses 
of  Tlemcen,  ascends  for  a  long  time  in  the  valley  of  the  Oued  el-G?uettara, 
and  reaches  (37'/.,  M.)  Safsaf(2Wd  ft.)  and  (41  M.)  Tlemcen  (2658  ft. ;  p.  187). 

Another  road  (23  M.;  omn.  at  9  a.  m.)  leads  to  the  W.  from  Al'n- 
Temouchent  to  the  little  seaport  of  Beni-Saf,  the  outlet  for  the  iron-ores 
of  the  Comp.  du  Mokta  el-Hadid  (p.  303).  From  Beni-Saf  a  road  (omn. 
at  6.15  a.  m.,  in  9  hrs.;  5  fr.)  leads  via  (5'/2  M.)  Rachgoun  (opposite  the 
island  mentioned  at  p.  125)  into  the  fertile  valley  of  the  Tafna,  the  an- 
cient Siga,  and  to(8:i/4M.)  Takembrit,  the  modern  name  for  the  rnins  of 
the  once  important  Roman  town  of  Siga.  Then,  beyond  the  confluence 
of  the  Isser  with  the  Tafna,  the  road  reaches  (27>/2  M.)  Montagnac 
(785  ft.)  and  (36  M.)  Henna ya  (1346  ft.),  whence  it  ascends  to  (42'/>  M.) 
Tlemcen  (2658  ft.). 

The  Tlemcen  Railway,  beyond  La  Senia,  crosses  the  Plaine 
du  Figuier,  and  beyond  (6  M.)  Vohny  (p.  184)   nears   the   salt- 


1 86     Rente  29.  SIDI  BEL- ABBES. 

works  on  the  Sebkha  d'Oran  (p.  185).  16  M.  Ste.  Barbe-du-TUlat 
(492  ft.)  is  noted  for  its  table  grapes. 

Our  train  here  diverges  to  the  S.  E.  from  the  line  to  Perregaux 
and  Algiers  (R.  33),  and  follows  the  vine-clad  valley  of  the  Oued 
TUlat.  Beyond  (20  M.)  St.  Lucien  we  pass  a  barrage  or  reser- 
voir. 26  M.  Les  Lauriers-Roses  lies  on  the  N.E.  spurs  of  Jebel 
Tessala  (3481  ft.),  the  mountain  which  separates  the  great  and 
fertile  tableland  of  Sidi  Bel-Abbes,  one  of  the  granaries  of  the 
province,  from  the  basin  of  the  Sebkha  d'Oran. 

The  train  crosses  the  Col  des  Ouled-Ali  and  the  Oued  Imbert 
(1578  ft.)  in  the  fertile  valley  of  that  name,  and  reaches  the  top 
of  the  table-land.  38y2  M.  Les  Trembles  (1375  ft.) ;  the  village 
lies  on  a  height  to  the  left,  between  the  Oued  Mekerra  (Sig,  p.  206) 
and  its  affluent  Oued  Sarno.  "We  then  ascend  the  Mekerra  valley 
to  (42!/2  M.)  Prudon  (1477  ft.),  where  many  of  the  wine-growers 
are  Germans,  old  soldiers  of  the  French  foreign  legion. 

48y2  M.  Sidi  Bel-Abb&s  (1542  ft.;  Hot.  d'Orient  &  Contin- 
ental; Hot.  des  Voyageurs;  pop.  29,080),  a  prosperous  agricultural 
town,  was  founded  in  1849  on  the  plan  of  a  Roman  camp,  with 
streets  at  right  angles,  and  is  surrounded  by  suburbs  occupied 
mainly  by  Spanish  immigrants.  This  is  the  headquarters  of  the 
Legion  Etrangere,  composed  mainly  of  adventurers  and  deserters 
from  Germany  and  other  countries,  the  first  regiment  of  whom  is 
located  here  and  the  second  at  Sa'ida  (p.  201).  The  legion  is  for  the 
most  part  stationed  on  the  Sahara  railway  (p.  199),  in  Morocco, 
or  in  the  colonies.  Great  market  on  Thursdays.  Outside  the  S. 
gate,  the  Porte  de  Tlemcen,  are  pleasant  public  grounds  (concerts). 

A.  E.  W.  Maso?i's  novel  'The  Truants'  (London,  1904)  deals  with  the 
Foreign  Legion. 

62!/2  M.  Tabia  (2035  ft.),  the  next  important  station,  is  the 
junction  for  a  line  to  (48  M.)  Crampel  (Ras  el -Ma),  used  chiefly 
for  the  esparto  traffic  (p.  171). 

We  now  near  the  main  chain  of  the  Tell  Atlas  of  Oran.  771/2  M. 
Ain-Tellout,  with  the  spring  of  that  name  and  a  waterfall.  83  M. 
Lamorieie're  (2349  ft.),  in  a  fertile  tract,  on  the  Isser.  Near 
Hadjar-Roum,  to  the  E.  of  the  station,  lay  the  Roman  Altava. 

89x/2  M.  Oued-Chouly,  on  the  brook  of  that  name,  which  bursts 
forth  in  cascades  from  a  ravine  to  join  the  Isser.  Near  this,  at 
Sidi-Hamza,  are  considerable  onyx-quarries.  The  train  now  as- 
cends rapidly  to  (97  M.)  Ain-Fezza  (2855  ft.). 

We  next  enter  the  upper  *Safsaf  Valley,  enclosed  by  the  high 
limestone  slopes  of  Jebel  Hanif  (3928  ft.)  and  Jebel  Chouka 
(3786  ft.),  and  in  a  sharp  bend,  passing  through  several  tunnels, 
sweep  round  the  gorge  of  El-Ourit  (p.  196),  with  its  waterfalls. 
We  skirt  the  foot  of  Sidi  Bou-Medine  (p.  194),  obtaining  a  beauti- 
ful view  of  the  fertile  hill-country  to  the  right,  and  run  through 
olive-groves  to  (lOS1/^  M.)  Tlemcen  (see  p.  187) 

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30.  Tleracen. 

The  Station  lies  to  the  E.,  6  niin.  beyond  the  Porte  de  Sidi  Bou- 
Medine  (PI.  D,  2,  3). 

Hotels.  Hotel  de  France  (PI.  b ;  C,  3),  Rue  de  Fez,  R.  2>/3-4,  B.  l»/4, 
ddj.  3.  D.  4,  pens.  9-12,  omn.  1  fr. ;  Hotel  Charles  (PI.  a;  C,  2),  Place  des 
Vietoires,  R.  3,  B.  3/4,  dej.  or  D.  3,  pens.  7'/2>  omn.  1  fr.,  good,  though  plain, 
with  restaurant.  —  Cafes  in  the  Place  de  la  Mairie,  Place  des  Vietoires,  etc. 

Carriages  (mostly  with  three  horses,  poor  but  not  dear;  fares  accord- 
ing to  bargain)   in   the  Place   des  Vietoires  and  Esplanade  du  Mechouar. 

Post  &  Telegraph  Office  (PI.  B,  2),  Boulevard  National. 

One  Day  and  a  Half.  1st.  Forenoon,  *Great  Mosque  (p.  189),  Museum 
(p.  190),  *Sidi  el- Haloid  Mosque  (p.  191),  Agddir  (p.  196);  afternoon,  ''Man- 
sura  (p.  193).  —  2nd.  *Sidi  Bou-Me'dine  (p.  194).  Mosques  open  daily  8-11 
a.m.;  at  other  times  a  permit  of  the  sub-prefect  (see  PI.  B,  2)  is  required 
(comp.  also  p.  174). 

Tlemcen  (2658  ft.),  the  old  capital  of  the  central  Maghreb 
(Maghreb  el-Oust),  was  in  the  middle  ages,  along  with  Fez,  one  of 
the  great  trading  stations  between  the  W.  Sahara  and  the  Mediter- 
ranean, and  had  a  factory  of  the  Genoese  and  the  Venetians.  It  is 
now,  after  Oran,  the  most  important  town  in  the  province,  with 
37,300  inhab.  (including  25,500  Mohammedans,  chiefly  Berbers 
and  Moors,  and  5000  Jews) ;  it  possesses  the  only  Medersa  (p.  228) 
in  the  province  of  Oran,  founded  in  1904,  and  is  the  chief  military 
post  on  the  W.  frontier  of  Algeria.  The  town  is  very  charmingly 
situated  on  a  flat  hill  at  the  base  of  a  ridge  crowned  with  the  Kubba 
Lalla-Setti  (3363  ft.).,  a  spur  of  the  Jebel  Terni  or  Massif  de 
Tlemcen.  Beyond  the  extensive  hilly  region  to  the  N.,  sloping 
steeply  down  to  the  valleys  of  the  Isser  and  the  Tafna  (p.  185),  we 
descry  the  bold  mountains  of  the  Traras  group  (p.  198)  and  of 
Jebel  Sebaa-Chioukh  (p.  185).  The  nearer  environs  of  the  town, 
on  the  upper  margin  of  the  plateau,  are  exuberantly  fertile.  Luxur- 
iant fruit-bearing  hedged  are  interspersed  with  groves  of  gigan- 
tic olive,  carob,  and  pistachio  trees,  from  whose  shade  peep  forth 
the  white  domes  of  numerous  tombs  of  saints  (p.  172). 

Tlemcen  still  contains  historic  memorials  of  its  mediaeval  prime 
and  a  number  of  Moorish  works  of  art,  mostly  of  the  Abdelwadite 
and  Merinide  periods  (p.  188).  These  last,  like  the  buildings  of 
Fez  and  Kairwan  (p.  372),  are  among  the  most  interesting  in 
Barbary.  Their  great  charm  consists  in  the  fact  that  their  native 
characteristics  have  been  preserved  in  a  picturesque  environment 
where  customs  and  dress  differ  but  slightly  from  those  of  the  an- 
cient East. 

Pomaria,  the  earliest  settlement  in  this  region,  was  once,  like  Altava 
(p.  186)  and  Numerus  Syrurum  (p.  197),  a  Roman  camp  for  the  defence 
of  the  most  important  military  road  in  Mauretania  Cajsariensis  (p.  244), 
but  in  Roman  times,  notwithstanding  its  favourable  position,  it  was  out- 
stripped by  Siga  (p.  185).  On  its  site,  by  the  time  of  Sidi  Okba  (p.  322). 
there  had   already   sprung   up   the  Berber  settlement   of  Agddir,   which, 

188     Route  so.  TLEMCEN.  History. 

under  Idris  I.  (p.  95)  in  790,  became  the  fortified  capital  of  the  E.  pro- 
vince of  Morocco  for  defence  against  the  Kharijite  kingdom  in  Tiaret 
(p.  208).  For  seven  centuries  from  that  time  onwards  it  was  involved 
in  all  the  party  struggles  for  the  possession  of  Barbary.  During  the 
conflicts  of  Omaiyades  (p.  69)  and  Fatimites  (p.  323),  the  governors  of  Agadir, 
descendants  of  Solaiinan  ben-Abdallah,  brother  of  Idris  I.,  maintained 
their  position  as  vassals  of  one  or  other  of  these  dynasties,  but  in  973 
the  town  was  sacked  by  Bologgin  ez-Ziri  (p.  323)  in  the  course  of  a  war 
against  the  Omaiyades. 

In  1081  the  Almoravide  Yusuf  ibn  Teshufin  (p.  95)  appeared  before 
the  gates  of  Agadir,  and  on  the  site  of  his  camp  (Berber  'tagrart')  founded 
the  new  town  of  Tagrart,  afterwards  the  Telensin  or  Tlimsdn  of  the 
Moors,  and  united  W.  Algeria  with  Morocco.  In  1145  the  vicinity  of 
Tagrart  witnessed  the  decisive  battle  between  Takhfin  ben-Ali  (p.  183) 
and  Abd  el-Mumen  (p.  95)  which  sealed  the  fate  of  the  Almoravide 
kingdom.  Since  then  Tagrart  appears  in  history  as  the  seat  of  Almohade 
governors  of  the  family  of  Abd  el- Wad,  settled  near  Tlemcen,  a  branch 
of  the  powerful  Berber  tribe  of  the  Zenata,  and  also  as  a  military  camp, 
while  the  lower  classes  only  inhabited  Agadir. 

The  fall  of  the  Almohades  (p.  95)  gave  rise  to  the  kingdom  of  Tlemcen, 
which  was  soon  extended  to  the  W.  to  the  Muluya  (p.  124)  and  to  the  E. 
to  Bougie  (p.  262).  The  first  independent  monarch  was  Yarraorasen  ben- 
Zeiyan  (1239-82),  of  the  Abdelwadites,  who,  with  the  aid  of  Moorish 
artists  from  Andalusia,  transformed  Tlemcen,  his  capital,  into  a  rival  of 
Fez  as  one  of  the  most  brilliant  art-centres  in  Barbary. 

Embellished  in  legend  and  in  poetry,  and  most  famous  among  epi- 
sodes in  the  annals  of  the  Maghreb  were  the  two  sieges  of  Tlemcen  by 
the  Merinides  (p.  95).  The  first  siege  by  Abu  Yakub  and  his  grandson 
Abii-Tsabit  Omar  (1299-1307)  commenced  with  the  foundation  of  the  forti- 
fied town  of  El-Mahalla  el-3Iansura,  which,  saving  the  mosque,  was  razed 
to  the  ground  by  the  Abdelwadites  after  the  withdrawal  of  the  Moroccan 
army,  but  was  rebuilt  by  Abu'l-Hasen  Ali  (1335-7)  on  the  occasion  of 
the  second,  and  this  time  successful,  siege  of  Tlemcen. 

To  the  brief  sway  of  the  Merinides  (1337-59)  Tlemcen  is  indebted 
for  almost  all  the  important  buildings  outside  of  its  walls.  The  chief 
residence  of  Abu'l-Hasen  Ali  (d.  1348),  next  to  Fez,  was  Mansura,  where 
he  erected  a  new  'palace  of  victory'  as  his  kasba;  but  the  place  was 
abandoned  under  Abu  Inan  Fares  (1348-58),  and  from  that  time  down  to 
the  French  period  it  merely  served  as  a  stone-quarry. 

During  the  brilliant  reign  of  Abu  Haniinu  Musa  II.  (1359-89),  the 
first  of  the  Ziyanides  (1359-1517),  the  younger  Abdelwadite  dynasty,  his 
court  vied  with  that  of  Granada  as  a  resort  of  artists,  poets,  and  scholars; 
but  from  that  time  onwards  Tlemcen  shared  the  general  decadence  of 
Barbary.  It  was  not  only  the  chief  scene  of  all  the  conflicts  between 
the  Merinides  and  Hafsides  (p.  323),  but  was  grievously  torn  by  internal 
dissensions  also,  so  that  it  soon  lost  all  importance.  After  the  overthrow 
of  the  Ziyanides  by  Horuk  Barbarossa  (p.  221),  and  after  a  short  occu- 
pation by  the  Spaniards  (1518),  Tlemcen  became  a  poor  provincial  town 
in  the  beylic  of  Oran.  The  present  town-walls  (1855-6)  and  a  whole  new 
quarter  are  creations  of  the  French  regime,  under  which,  in  1842,  Tlemcen 
was  incorporated  with  their  new  colony  of  Algeria. 

Comp.  Marqais's  book  on  Tlemcen  mentioned  at  p.  175  and  A.  Bel's 
'Tlemcen  et  ses  Environs'  (Oran,  1909). 

From  the  Porte  de  Sidi  Bou-Medine  (PI.  D,  2,  3),  the  chief  gate 
of  the  town,  the  Eue  de  Sidi  Bel- Abbes  leads  in  2  min.  to  the  Espla- 
nade du  Mechouar  (PL  C,  3),  planted  with  fine  plane-trees.  On 
the  left  rises  the  — 

Mechouar  (Arabic  rneshwdr,  the  king's  castle),  the  residence 
of  the  Abdelwadites  and  Ziyanides,  erected  by  Yarmorasen  about 

Chreat  Mosque.  TLEMCEN.  30.  Route.      189 

1255,  a  great  quadrangular  pile,  forming  like  the  Alhambra  a 
complete  quarter  of  the  town.  The  building  was  largely  destroyed 
during  a  revolt  against  Hassan,  Bey  of  Mascara,  in  1670,  and  in 
1842  was  replaced  by  French  barracks.  The  only  relics  of  the 
original  edifice  are  the  Castle  Wall,  built  by  Abfi'l-Abbas  Ahmed, 
the  thirteenth  Ziyanide,  with  its  modern  clock-tower  of  1843,  and 
the  Castle  Mosque,  founded  in  1317,  which  was  long  used  as  a 
storehouse.  The  latter,  having  been  converted  into  a  chapel  for 
the  military  hospital,  has  lost  its  original  character  in  the  interior 
(adm.  on  application). 

From  the  E.  end  of  the  Esplanade  the  Rue  du  Theatre  leads  to 
the  Place  des  Yictoires  (PI.  C,  D,  2),  planted  with  trees,  from  the 
parapet  of  which  we  look  down  on  the  E.  Mohammedan  quarter 
(p.  191)  and  the  hills  of  the  Safsaf  valley. 

A  little  to  the  N.W.  is  the  Place  de  la  Mairie  (PI.  0,  2),  which, 
together  with  the  Place  d' Alger  (p.  190)  on  its  W.  side,  forms  the 
business  centre  of  the  town.  On  its  S.  side  rises  the  Mairie  (PI.  C,  2), 
erected  in  1843.  In  the  court  are  two  onyx  columns  from  Man- 
sura,  bearing  two  huge  stone  balls  which  were  thrown  into  the  town 
during  one  of  the  Merinide  sieges. 

The  *Great  Mosque  (PI.  C,  2;  Arabic  Jdma  el-Kebir),  the 
back  of  which  bounds  the  N.  side  of  the  square,  now  the  only  edi- 
fice of  the  Almoravide  period  at  Tlemcen,  is  very  important  in  art- 
history  as  one  of  the  few  Moorish  buildings  of  the  12th  cent,  that 
have  survived  without  alteration.  The  inscription  on  the  frieze  of 
the  drum  of  the  mihrab  dome  records  the  name  of  the  founder,  the 
caliph  Ali  ibn  Yfisuf,  who  with  the  aid  of  Andalusian  artists  erected 
the  court  and  the  house  of  prayer  adjacent  to  the  Kasr  el-Kadim, 
or  royal  castle,  in  1135-8.  The  minaret  was  not  added  till  the 
reign  of  Yarmorasen  (after  1250).  The  kubba  at  the  S.W.  angle, 
adjoining  the  Rue  de  France,  once  perhaps  the  tomb  of  Yarmorasen 
and  several  of  the  Ziyanides,  now  contains  the  vault  of  Mohammed 
ben-Merzug.  On  the  E.  side  of  the  mosque,  near  the  old  vine  in  the 
side-street,  is  a  second  saint's  tomb,  the  kubba  of  Ahmed  Bel- 
Hasen  el-Ghomari  (d.  1466).  The  library,  a  later  addition  next 
to  the  minaret,  has  been  removed  by  the  French. 

The  square  court  of  the  mosque,  which  we  enter  on  the  E.  side, 
is  flanked  on  three  sides  by  triple  or  quadruple  arcades;  the  two 
aisles  of  the  N.  arcade,  which  precede  the  minaret,  are  of  later 
date.  The  irregular  plan  of  the  arcades  and  of  the  main  portal 
leadiug  into  the  nave  of  the  mosque  was  probably  due  to  the  situ- 
ation of  the  castle.  The  onyx  pavement  of  the  court  is  preserved 
in  part  only. 

The  Interior,  consisting  of  a  central  nave  (15  by  lO1^  ft.)  with 
twelve  narrower  aisles,  is  entered  by  five  portals  on  the  S.  side  of 
the  court,  whose  arches  are  of  round  or  pointed  horseshoe  form  or 

190     Route  30.  TLEMOEN.      Sidi  Bel-Hassen  Mosque. 

multifoil,  and  also  by  two  E.  portals.  The  arcades,  whose  arches  are 
mostly  horseshoe-shaped,  but  in  a  few  cases  pointed,  rest  on  short 
pillars.  The  open  roof  is  well  preserved.  The  nave  is  crowned  with 
two  domes,  the  nearer  rising  behind  the  sedda  (p.  180),  while  the 
second,  over  the  mihrab  chapel,  shows  beginnings  of  stalactite  vault- 
ing. The  great  candelabrum  under  the  central  dome  is  modern  and 
is  for  the  most  part  an  imitation  of  the  old  one  said  to  have  been 
presented  by  Yarmorasen  and  now  in  the  Museum  (see  below).  The 
mimbar  and  kursi  (p.  451)  are  of  no  artistic  value,  and  the  maksura 
(p.  71)  has  disappeared.  The  elegant  stucco  ornamentation  of  the 
*Mihrab,  which  even  extends  to  the  exterior,  where  the  stone 
slabs  are  framed  with  multifoil  arches,  recalls  the  mosque  of  Cor- 
dova. The  prayer-niche  is  lighted  by  three  perforated  windows 
of  plaster.    Behind  the  mihrab  is  the  sacristy. 

The  Minaret,  115  ft.  high,  resembling  the  tower  of  Agadir 
(p.  196),  atfords  a  beautiful  view  of  the  town  and  environs. 

On  the  W.  side  of  the  Place  d'Alger  (PI.  C,  2),  where  the  ruins 
of  the  famous  Medersa  Jadida  or  Tdkhfiniya,  a  school  for  the 
learned  erected  by  the  Abdelwadite  Abu  Takhfin  (1322-37),  existed 
down  to  1876,  rises  the  — 

*Sidi  Bel-Hassen  Mosque,  now  the  Museum  (PI.  2,  B  C,  2; 
custodian  in  the  court  of  the  Mairie;  fee  1/2  fr.),  erected  in  1296 
by  the  Abdelwadite  Abu  Said  Otsman.  It  consists  of  nave  and  two 
aisles,  with  a  low  minaret.  Used  by  the  French  successively  as  a 
storehouse  and  a  school,  it  was  carefully  restored  in  1900,  and  is 
now  a  perfect  gem  in  the  interior.  The  stucco  *Decoration  of  the 
walls,  preserved  in  part  only,  with  its  rich  and  graceful  arabesques 
(p.  445),  and  the  geometrical  ornamentation  of  the  round-arched 
plaster  windows,  recall  the  sumptuous  rooms  of  the  Alcazar  at 
Seville  and  the  Alhambra  of  Granada.  The  half- dome  of  the 
**Mihrab,  whose  horseshoe  mural  arch  rests  on  two  small  columns 
of  onyx,  is  borne  by  stalactite  or  honeycomb  vaulting.  The  ancient 
roof  of  cedar  is  well  preserved  in  the  left  aisle  only. 

Below  the  two  friezes  with  Cufic  inscriptions  adjoining  the  Mihrab 
are  fragments,  built  into  the  wall,  of  fayence  tiles  from  the  old  Medersa 
Takhfiniya  and  the  Michouar.  The  beautiful  onyx  basin  once  belonged  to 
the  latrine-court  of  the  Great  Mosque.  Along  the  walls  are  several  Roman 
and  numerous  Mohammedan  tombstones,  some  of  them  belonging  to  kings 
of  Tlemcen.  Near  the  entrance  is  the  so-called  Coudee  Royale,  a  marble 
slab  from  the  Kessaria  (comp.  p.  191),  bearing  an  ell-measure  and  regula- 
tions for  the  trade  of  Christian  merchants  with  the  natives  (1328).  In  the 
second  room  are  the  old  candelabrum  and  remains  of  the  old  maksura  of 
the  Great  Mosque  (comp.  above),  Moorish  and  Turkish  tiles,  etc.  On  the 
first  floor  is  the  Geological  Museum. 

The  dirty  streets  to  the  S.  of  the  Place  de  la  Mairie  and  the 
Place  d'Alger,  which  have  been  laid  out  in  straight  lines  under  the 
French  regime,  belong  to  the  Jewish  Quarter,  where,  however,  a  few 
of  the  old  one-storied  houses  with  a  kind  of  sunken  fiat,  still  survive. 

Sidi  el- Haloui  Mosque.         TLEMCEN.  30.  Route.      191 

A  pleasanter  walk  may  be  taken  through  the  Mohammedan 
Quarters,  especially  that  to  the  E.  of  the  Place  de  la  Mairie, 
where  we  may  witness,  especially  on  market-day  (Mon.),  the  most 
lively  and  picturesque  scenes  of  native  life.  The  busiest  points  are 
the  March6  Convert  (PI.  C,  2)  in  the  Place  du  Kessaria,  where  the 
Italian  merchants  had  their  offices  in  the  middle  ages,  and  also  the 
Rue  de  Mascara  (PI.  C,  D,  2,  1)  and  the  Rue  Kaldoun  (PL  C,  D,  1). 
Adjoining  the  Rue  de  Mascara,  once  the  Snk  el-Berada'in  (saddlers' 
market),  is  an  impasse  called  the  Derb  el-Msoufa,  in  which  is  situ- 
ated the  little  Mosque  of  Sidi  Senoussi  (PI.  D,  2;  his  tomb  is 
near  Sidi  Bou-Medine,  p.  194),  with  a  graceful  minaret  inlaid  with 
tiles  and  a  small  house  of  prayer  on  the  first  floor. 

In  the  street  between  the  Rue  de  Mascara  and  the  Rue  Kaldoun 
are  the  so-called  Bains  des  Teinturiers  (PI.  D,  1 ;  Hammdm  es- 
Sebbdghin),  an  ancient  Moorish  bath-house  (12th  cent.?),  the  plan 
of  which  seems  to  have  been  an  exact  copy  of  the  Roman  bath. 

The  ante-room,  now  much  altered,  was  apparently  the  tepidarium. 
Straight  on  we  come  to  the  apodyterium,  a  domed  room  on  twelve  short 
mediaeval  columns,  with  a  gallery  running  round  it.  To  the  left  of  this 
room  is  the  caldarium  in  three  sections,  with  the  heating  apparatus  on 
the  E.  side.     The  S.  side-room  is  the  frigidarium. 

At  the  end  of  the  Rue  Kaldoun  we  leave  the  town  by  the  Porte 
de  l'Abattoir  (PI.  D,  1;  road  to  Agadir,  see  p.  196),  and  turn  to  the 
left,  skirting  the  town-walls,  above  the  dilapidated  Sidi  Lahsen 
Mosque,  built  by  Abfi'l-Abbas  Ahmed  (p.  189),  which  has  an  elegant 
minaret  and  an  interior  restored  in  the  Turkish  period. 

On  a  slope  near  the  N.E.  angle  of  the  town-walls,  below  the 
railway,  and  formerly  below  the  Bab  Sidi'l-Haloui,  is  the  tomb  of 
the  saint  of  that  name  (d.  1307),  adjoined  by  the — 

*Sidi  el-Haloui  Mosque,  a  creation  of  the  Merinide  Abu 
Inan  Fares  (p.  188).  The  pinnacled  outer  gateway  leads  to  the  now 
freely  restored  chief  portal,  with  its  fine  inlaid  mosaic  tiles,  two 
friezes  with  inscriptions,  and  a  projecting  timber  roof. 

The  ground-plan  of  this  mosque  is  similar  to  that  of  the  slightly 
earlier  mosque  of  Sidi  Bou-Medine  (p.  194).  From  the  court,  en- 
closed by  a  single  arcade,  we  enter  the  house  of  prayer  with  its  nave 
(11  ft.  broad),  double  aisles  (10  ft.),  and  transept.  The  square  mihrab 
chapel  is  covered  by  a  slightly  elevated  tiled  roof  instead  of  a 
dome.  The  old  timber  ceiling  of  the  interior  has  recently  been 
much  restored,  and  remains  of  the  superb  stucco  decoration  have 
lately  been  brought  to  light  from  under  the  whitewash.  The  mihrab 
has  lost  all  its  rich  ornamentation  save  the  stalactite  vaulting.  The 
eight  onyx  *Columns,  brought  from  Mansura,  which  support  the 
pointed  horseshoe  arches  of  the  arcades,  are  remarkable  for  their 
beautiful  capitals  in  the  Moorish  style. 

The  minaret  added  at  the  W.  angle  of  the  court,  with  its  multi- 
foil  arched  niches  in  the  two  lower  stories  and  reticulated  work  on 

192     Route  30.  TLEMCEN.  Sidi  Brahim  Mosque. 

the  upper,  resembles  that  of  the  mosque  of  Sidi  Bou-M6dine.  A 
portal  opposite  with  a  projecting  roof  leads  to  the  domed  Latrines. 

We  now  follow  the  path  to  the  W.,  skirting  the  town-walls,  and 
affording  fine  views,  to  the  Porte  du  Nord  (PI.  B,  1),  through  which 
we  enter  the  Rue  de  Prance.  From  this  street  the  Boulevard  National 
soon  diverges  to  the  right  to  the  large  Place  Cavaignac  (PI.  B, 
1,  2),  the  chief  square  in  the  uniformly  built  French  quarter.  The 
font  in  the  church  of  St.  Michel  (PL  B,  2)  came  from  the  mosque 
of  Mansura. 

On  the  E.  side  of  the  church  runs  the  Rue  Xim6nes,  intersecting 
the  whole  town.  This  street,  or  the  Rue  de  la  Victoire  (PL  C,  B,  2), 
which  begins  at  the  Place  d'Algier,  forms  the  chief  approach  to  the 
S.  W.  Mohammedan  Quarter,  which  was  inhabited  in  the  Turkish 
period  mainly  by  Kuluglis  (p.  171).  At  the  S.  end  of  the  Rue  Xi- 
menes,  on  the  left,  is  the  interesting  Ecole  Professionnelle  Indigene 
de  Tapis  (PL  C,  4;  adm.  daily  8-11  and  2-5,  except  on  Sun.,  Frid., 
and  great  festivals). 

The  busy  Rue  Haedo,  prolonging  the  Rue  de  la  Victoire,  leads 
to  the  S.W.  to  the  Porte  de  Fez  (PL  A,  4).  In  the  Rue  Sidi-Brahim, 
the  first  side-street  on  the  left,  is  the  — 

Sidi  Brahim  Mosque  (PL  B,  3),  formerly  belonging  to  the  Medersa 
Yakubiya.  The  Medersa  was  built  in  1362  by  Abu  Hammu  Mfisa  II. 
(p.  188),  and  named  after  his  father,  but  the  last  vestiges  of  it  were 
removed  in  1846.  This  small  mosque,  with  nave  and  double  aisles, 
received  its  present  decoration  in  the  Turkish  period.  The  mihrab, 
adorned  with  the  Turkish  crescent,  has  mural  tiles  with  gold  lustre 
in  the  Gubbio  style.  The  present  pulpit,  from  which  the  Friday 
prayer  was  recited  for  the  Kuluglis,  was  executed  by  the  Turkish 
artist  Mohammed  Ben-Hasen  Ben-Ferfara  (-1831-2),  and  the  door 
of  the  old  sacristy  was  carved  by  Salim  Bu-Jenan  Ben-Ferfara. 
The  Kubba  of  Sidi  Brahim  (d.  1401),  adjoining  the  mosque,  still 
contains  its  old  geometric  stucco  decoration  and  mosaic  tiles. 

The  Ouldd  el-Imdm  Mosque  (PL  B,  3),  to  the  N.  of  the  Rue 
Haedo,  was  built  about  1310  by  the  Abdelwadite  Abu  Hammu  I. 
as  a  chapel  for  the  Medersa  el-Kadima,  the  oldest  school  of  the 
learned  at  Tlemcen,  but  is  now  in  a  sad  state  of  ruin.  The  minaret 
still  shows  traces  of  fayence  mosaics.  The  fine  mihrab  was  prob- 
ably redecorated  under  the  Ziyanides. 

In  the  Rue  d'Hennaya,  near  the  Fez  Gate,  rises  the  modern 
Medersa  (PL  A,  B,  3),  a  tasteful  new-Moorish  edifice  (visitors 

To  the  W.  of  the  modern  town-walls,  between  the  Porte  de  Fez 
and  the  Porte  d'Oran,  lies  the  Grand  Bassin  (PL  A,  3 ;  Arabic 
Sahrij  el-Kebir  or  ben-Bedda),  a  large  reservoir,  similar  to  the 
reservoirs  of  Kairwan  and  Marakesh,  constructed  of  concrete, 
220  yds.  long,  110  yds.  broad,  and  10  ft.  deep,  now  used  as  a  drill- 

MANSURA.  so.  Route.     193 

ground.  It  is  said  to  have  been  made  by  Abu  Takhfin  (p.  190). 
According  to  a  tradition  the  last  of  the  Ziyanide  dynasty  were 
drowned  here  by  Horuk  Barbarossa  (p.  221)  in  1517. 

To  the  N.W.  of  the  French  town-walls,  between  the  Porte  d'Oran 
and  the  Porte  du  Nord  (p.  192),  rises  the  *Bab  el-Kermadln 
(PI.  A,  1 ;  potters'  gate),  which  already  existed  in  the  time  of  Yar- 
morasen  (p.  188),  so  named  from  the  potsherds  contained  in  its  con- 
crete masonry.  The  gateway,  with  its  four  towers  and  quadrangle, 
resembles  the  propugnaculum  of  late-Roman  town  fortifications. 

The  *Ruins  of  Mansura,  the  old  entrenched  town  of  the 
Merinides  (p.  188),  are  reached  from  the  Porte  de  Fez  (p.  192)  by 
the  road  to  Lalla-Marnia  (p.  197),  to  the  S."W.,  in  20-25  min.  (carr. 
there  and  back  21/2-3  fr.).  The  road  passes  (74  hr.)  the  so-called 
Bdb  el-Khemis,  a  brick  structure  of  unknown  use,  now  much  re- 
stored. A  little  above  it  are  the  ruins  of  a  second  building  of 
uncertain  origin  (possibly  the  ancient  Mosalla). 

In  6  min.  more  we  reach  the  old  *Town  Wall  of  Mansura, 
near  the  former  E.  gate  of  the  town,  within  the  precincts  of  which, 
to  the  left,  above  the  road,  is  ensconced  the  modern  agricultural 
village  of  Mansura  amid  luxuriant  vegetation.  The  walls,  40  ft.  high, 
constructed  of  concrete,  enclose  a  great  irregular  quadrilateral 
space  of  about  4400  yds.  in  length,  and  are  still  largely  preserved 
on  the  N.W.  and  S.W.  sides.  Of  the  towers,  about  80  in  number,  con- 
nected by  a  crenellated  passage,  most  are  rectangular  in  form,  but 
the  four  far-projecting  corner-towers,  like  the  eight  gate-towers, 
are  quadrangular. 

Near  the  old  E.  gate,  above  the  road,  are  a  Bridge  and  remains 
of  a  rudely  paved  Street  of  the  Merinide  period.  Of  the  old  Palace 
of  Victory,  the  Kasba  of  Abu'l-Hasen  Ali  (p.  188) ,  once  sump- 
tuously fitted  up,  there  are  now,  on  the  highest  ground  in  the  town 
precincts,  at  the  S.E.  angle  of  the  present  village,  a  few  scanty  re- 
lics only,  the  chief  of  which  is  the  inner  court,  resembling  the 
myrtle  court  of  the  Alhambra  (p.  83). 

Close  to  the  old  W.  gate,  on  a  plateau  above  tne  road,  rises  the 
:**Matisara  Tower  (130  ft.) ,  the  minaret  of  the  chief  mosque, 
founded  by  Abfi  Yak  fib  (p.  188).  The  back-wall,  the  staircase,  the 
upper  platform,  and  the  muezzin's  turret  have  fallen  in,  but  the 
ruin,  with  its  golden-toned  masonry  glowing  in  the  sunshine,  its 
peaceful  surroundings,  and  the  superb  view  from  its  base,  has  au 
indescribable  charm.    The  ruin  was  restored  in  1877. 

The  portal  of  the  minaret  formed  the  central  entrance  to  the  court 
of  tho  mosque.  Of  the  three  concentric  gateway  arches  the  inmost  horse- 
shoe arch,  resting  on  two  onyx  columns,  has  been  entirely  renewed. 
The  first  story  here,  as  in  no  other  Moorish  minaret,  is  adorned  with  a 
balcony,  borne  by  corner  brackets  and  stalactite  pendentives,  now  without 
columns.  The  second  story,  relieved  by  narrow  window  openings,  has 
the   usual   reticulated   ornamentation,  while   tho   upper  story  is   adorned 

194     Route  30.  SIDI  BOU-MEDINE.  Kubba. 

with  multifoil  arched  niohes.    Remains  of  the  fayence  mosaics  are  still 
visible  at  places. 

The  custodian,  who  has  generally  to  be  asked  for  in  the  village, 
shows  the  ruins  of  the  court  and  of  the  mosque  itself,  which  once  had 
thirteen  arcades.  

The  hill-village  of  Sidi  Bou-Medine  (2841ft.),  picturesque- 
ly situated  amid  olive-groves  on  the  slopes  of  Jebel  Mefroitch, 
20  min.  to  the  E.  of  Tlemcen,  contains,  like  Mansura,  some  of  the 
finest  existing  memorials  of  the  Merinide  period.  It  was  once  named 
Eubbad  el-Ftiki  ('upper  Eubbad'),  and  at  a  very  early  period  be- 
longed to  a  monastery,  the  Ribdt  el-Eubbdd,  but  it  derives  its 
present  name  from  Sidi  AbU- Median,  a  scholar  from  Seville  (about 
1126-97),  who  was  buried  here  by  order  of  the  Almohade  Mohammed 
en-Nasir  (1198-1213).  Around  the  kubba  of  that  great  scholar  and 
saint,  which  for  centuries  attracted  countless  pilgrims,  are  grouped 
the  buildings  of  the  Merinide  sovereigns. 

The  road  to  Sidi  Bou-Medine,  only  the  lower  half  of  which  is 
fit  for  driving,  branches  to  the  right  from  the  Sidi  Bel-Abbes  and 
Ain-Temouchent  road,  2  min.  from  the  Porte  de  Sidi  Bou-Medine, 
and  passes  below  the  Mohammedan  Cemetery  (makbara),  with  its 
wealth  of  cypresses.  By  the  wayside  are  a  number  of  saints'  tombs, 
mostly  in  ruins,  among  which  is  the  kubba  of  Sidi  Senoussi 
(d.  1490),  with  its  green-tiled  roof.  We  pass  also  the  remains  of 
mosque  walls  and  a  ruined  minaret,  which  belonged  to  the  village 
of  Eubbdd  es-Sefli  ('lower  Eubbad')  once  situated  here. 

We  ascend  through  a  defile  shaded  with  fine  old  fig  and  cherry 
trees,  and  soon  seach  the  lower  entrance  of  the  village,  whence  we 
go  straight  on  to  the  mosque,  with  its  conspicuous  minaret,  and 
the  kubba  of  the  saint  (guide  quite  needless).  The  outer  gateway, 
decorated  anew  in  the  later  Turkish  period,  with  its  clumsy  wooden 
penthouse  in  front,  is  the  entrance  to  a  forecourt,  within  which  are 
the  two  sacred  edifices  and  the  Maison  de  VOukil  (now  the  works- 
office),  a  building  of  the  time  of  Mohammed  el-Kebir  (p.  178),  on 
the  site  of  the  ancient  Zaou'ia  or  pilgrims'  hospice. 

The  Kubba  of  Sidi  Bou-Me'dine,  to  which  steps  descend  to  the 
left  under  the  penthouse,  was  restored  by  the  Merinide  Abu'l-Hasen 
Ali  (p.  188),  and  towards  the  end  of  the  18th  cent,  was  injured  by 
a  fire.  It  owes  its  present  decoration,  save  the  four  onyx  columns 
from  Mansura  and  the  sacred  fountain  in  the  vestibule,  to  Mo- 
hammed el-Kebir,  whose  artist,  named  in  the  inscription  on  the 
frieze  of  the  gateway,  was  El-Hashmi  ben-Sarmashik  (1793).  The 
vault,  richly  garnished  with  flags,  ostrich-eggs,  votive  offerings,  etc., 
contains  the  coffins  of  Sidi  Abu-Median  and  the  Tunisian  saint 
Sidi  Abd  es-Selam  side  by  side  (custodian  20-30  c). 

The  *Mosque,  erected  in  1339  by  Abfi'l-Hasen  Ali,  about  the 
same  date  as  the  myrtle-court  palace  of  the  Alhambra  (comp.  p.  80), 

Mosque.  SIDI  BOU-MEDINE.  s°-  Route.     195 

is  one  of  the  most  brilliant  creations  of  the  exuberant  Moorish  art 
of  the  14th  cent.;  and,  thanks  to  the  sanctity  of  its  site,  it  has 
survived  the  wars  of  the  Ziyanide  age  and  resisted  the  decadence  of 
the  Turkish  period  without  serious  damage.  The  custodian  is  usu- 
ally to  be  found  in  the. vestibule  of  the  gateway. 

The  **Chief  Portal,  now  skilfully  restored,  is  a  masterpiece 
uf  artistic  decoration.  The  superb  outer  gateway,  whose  lofty 
horseshoe  arch  opens  into  the  vestibule,  is  lavishly  enriched  with 
fayence  mosaics,  which  show  beautiful  arabesque  patterns  in  the 
rectangular  stonework  of  the  doorway,  and  geometrical  designs 
above  the  frieze  with  the  inscriptions.  The  gateway  is  crowned  by 
a  tiled  roof  resting  on  narrow  brackets. 

Eleven  steps  ascend  to  the  vestibule,  where  the  stucco  decor- 
ation of  the  upper  wall-surfaces  vies  in  beauty  with  the  stalactites 
of  the  dome.  At  the  inner  gateway  the  lower  part  of  the  doors  of 
cedar-wood  has  been  skilfully  encrusted  anew  with  brouze.  The 
door-knockers  resemble  those  of  the  present  Puerta  del  Perd6n  at 
Cordova  (p.  70). 

"We  now  cross  the  simple  Court  of  the  Mosque,  flanked  with 
single  arcades,  to  the  Mosque  itself,  with  its  nave  and  double  aisles. 
The  somewhat  broader  nave  and  the  transept  by  the  wall  of  the 
mihrab  recall  the  ground-plan  of  Sidi  Okba's  Mosque  at  Kairwan 
(p.  374).  The  arcades,  whose  horseshoe  arches,  like  those  in  the 
court,  rest  on  pillars  of  masonry,  and  all  the  wall-surfaces  are  en- 
crusted with  stucco.  The  richly  coffered  stucco  ceiling  of  the  aisles 
is  well  preserved,  but  the  perforated  dome  of  the  mihrab  chapel 
was  tastelessly  restored  in  the  later  Turkish  period.  The  *Mihrab, 
with  its  stalactite  half-dome,  its  friezes  with  Cufic  inscriptions, 
and  the  three  perforated  plaster  windows,  deserves  special  attention. 
The  capitals  of  the  two  onyx  columns  which  support  the  horseshoe 
arch  of  the  niche  are  the  finest  at  Tlemcen.   The  pulpit  is  modern. 

The  *Minaret,  like  the  Kutubia  at  Marakesh,  which  it  resem- 
bles in  its  lowest  story,  still  shows  the  three  copper  balls  on  its 
muezzin-turret.  The  rosette  ornamentation  under  the  platform  is 
peculiar.  The  ascent  is  recommended  for  the  sake  of  the  fine  survey 
we  obtain  of  the  village  and  the  beautiful  view  of  the  hilly  plain 
of  Tlemcen  with  the  minarets  of  Agadir  (p.  196)  and  Mansura. 

A  few  paces  above  the  outer  gateway  of  the  mosque  court  a 
flight  of  steps  on  the  right  ascends  to  the  old  Medersa,  now  a 
national  school.  This  edifice,  erected  by  Abu'l-Hasen  AH  in  1347, 
is  the  only  learned  school  of  the  kind  still  preserved  in  Barbary, 
besides  that  of  Marakesh  ;  but  it  has  been  almost  entirely  restored, 
first  by  Mohammed  el-Kebir  about  1793,  and  lately  by  the  French 
government.   The  building  is  usually  shown  by  the  teacher  (50  c). 

The  portal,  ornamented  with  fayence  mosaics  and  surmounted  by  a 
projecting  roof  like  the  chief  door  of  the  neighbouring  mosque,  opens 

196     Route  30.  AGADIR. 

into  a  court,  adorned  with  a  fountain  and  flanked  with  an  arcade. 
On  each  side  are  six  cells  for  the  students  (tholba,  sing,  thaleb); 
and  there  are  four  others  in  the  small  court  adjoining  the  S.E.  angle. 
The  niches  in  the  walls  for  the  books  and  lamps  of  the  students 
should  be  noticed.  In  the  centre  of  the  S.  wall  of  the  court  is  the 
entrance  to  the  old  room  for  study  and  prayer,  with  a  mihrab  and 
a  wooden  dome  which  was  probably  restored  in  the  time  of  Mo- 
hammed el-Kebir.  The  stucco  enrichment  of  the  walls  is  best  pre- 
served on  the  entrance  side.  The  old  court  of  ablutions  adjoins  the 
N.W.  angle  of  the  main  quadrangle. 

The  platform  of  the  upper  floor  of  the  court,  where  there  are 
twelve  more  cells,  affords  the  best  view  of  the  minaret  of  the  mosque. 

At  a  small  house  near  the  Medersa  we  obtain  the  key  (fee  30  c.)  of 
the  so-called  Petit  Palais  d'el-Eubb&d,  a  ruin  popularly  called  Dar  es- 
Soltdn  (palace  of  the  sultan),  situated  below  the  Kubba  of  Sidi  Bou- 
Medine.  The  building,  which  also  dates  from  the  Merinide  period,  was 
more  probably  a  hospice  for  the  richer  pilgrims.  It  comprises  three  courts 
with  small  side-rooms  or  alcoves,  like  those  of  the  Alhambra,  and  remains 
of  baths  and  latrines.    A  visit  to  it  hardly  repays  if  time  is  limited. 

On  the  way  to  the  'Dar  es-Soltan'  we  pass  the  Latrine  Court  of  the 
mosque  and  the  so-called  Knbba  of  Sidi  el-Eubbdd.  From  (2  min.  farther) 
the  E.  end  of  the  village  we  may  descend,  and  cross  the  railway,  to 
(6  min.)  the  Sidi  Bel-Abbes  road. 

This  road  leads  to  the  E.  through  olive-groves,  and  then,  turning 
to  the  S.,  through  the  Safsaf  Valley  to  (3/4  hr.,  or  from  Tlemcen  1  hr.) 
the  gorge  of  *El-Ourit  (p.  1S6;  carr.  there  and  back  4-5  fr.).  The  bridge 
across  it  affords  a  fine  view  of  the  valley  and  the  lower  waterfalls.  (Rf mts.) 

The  road  to  A'in-Temouchent  (p.  185)  diverges  to  the  left  from 
the  Sidi  Bel-Abbes  road,  at  a  point  10  min.  from  the  Porte  de  Sidi 
Bou-Medine  (p.  188),  and  about  1j2  M.  farther  passes  near  the  gorge 
of  the  Oued  Metchkdna,  which  lies  a  little  to  the  left.  Here,  be- 
neath superb  old  terebinths  (p.  202),  on  the  site  of  the  old  Ceme- 
tery of  Agadir  ('Cimetiere  de  Sidi  Tacoub'),  are  situated  the  pretty 
kubba  of  Sidi  Wahhdb ,  the  oldest  saint  of  this  region,  said  to 
have  been  a  companion  of  the  prophet,  and  the  so-called  Tombeau 
de  la  Sultane,  a  dilapidated  octagonal  domed  building  (12th  cent.  ?), 
which  served  in  1412  as  a  tomb  for  a  Ziyanide  princess. 

The  ruins  of  Agadir  (p.  187)  may  be  reached  in  about  10  min. 
from  the  Porte  de  1' Abattoir  (PI.  D,  1 ;  p.  191)  by  the  old  Safsaf 
road  to  the  N.E.  (p.  185).  Of  the  chief  mosque  founded  here  by 
Idris  I.  (p.  95)  the  only  relic  is  the  elegant  *Minaret,  105  ft.  in 
height,  erected  by  Yarmorasen  at  the  same  time  as  the  tower  of  the 
Great  Mosque  (p.  190).  The  substructures,  19  ft.  high,  composed 
of  Roman  blocks  of  stone  from  the  ancient  Pomaria,  and  with  Ro- 
man inscriptions  built  into  them  outside  and  in  the  staircase,  pro- 
bably belonged  to  an  earlier  minaret. — A  little  to  the  E.,  beyond 
the  ravine,  are  preserved  a  few  fragments  of  the  E.Wall  of  Agadir 

LALLA-MARNIA.  8t.  Route.     197 

built  by  the  Berbers.  A  few  paces  to  the  N.  of  the  road  rises  the 
handsome  Kubba of  Sidi' d-D&oudi  (d.  1011) ;  the  present  building 
is  probably  of  the  Merinide  period. 

31.  Prom  Tlemcen  to  Nernours  via 

64  M.  Railway  to  (36V2  M.)  Lalla-Marnia  (two  trains  daily  in  ca. 
2'/«  hrs. ;  fares  6  fr.  65,  4  fr.  75,  3  fr.  55  c),  going  on  thence  to  (43  M.) 
Zoudj-el-Beghal,  the  terminus  on  the  Moroccan  frontier. 

The  Railway,  admirably  engineered,  skirts  the  N.  side  of 
Tlemcen,  and  then,  near  the  Bab  el-Kermadin  (p.  193),  turns  to 
the  S.E.  to  (3  M.)  Mansura  (p.  193)  and  crosses  the  Col  du  Juif 
(2664  ft.).  Behind  us  there  is  a  fine  view  of  Tlemcen,  while  the 
distant  view  extends  to  the  Plaine  des  Angad  and  Jebel  Beni 
Snassen  (see  below)'.  "We  next  skirt  the  N".  spurs  of  the  Jebel  Terni 
group  (p.  187)  and  pass  through  superb  valleys  and  ravines. 

7l/2N-.  Ain-Douz.  Beyond  (9'/2M.)  Zelboun  we  are  carried 
through  the  vallev  of  the  Oued  Zitoun,  one  of  the  chief  tributaries 
of  the  Tafna  (p.  185). 

18V2  M.  Turenne  (1969  ft.;  H6t.  Fournier  and  Hot.  Leclerc, 
poor),  a  thriving  village  in  a  well-watered  region.  Esparto  is  the 
chief  export. 

28y2  M.  Sidi-Medjaked,  with  a  camp  of  wedded  spahis  (p.  390). 
31  M.  Tralimet. 

36V2  M.  Lalla-Marnia  (1197  ft.;  Hot.  de  France;  Hot.  de  la 
Renaissance),  properly  Lalla-Maghrnia,  on  the  site  of  the  Roman 
castle  of  Numerus  Syrorum,  was  founded  in  1844  on  the  occasion 
of  the  campaign  against  Morocco,  and  named  after  the  tomb  of  a 
female  saint.  It  is  now  the  most  important  frontier-town  of  the 
province  of  Oran;  it  was  made  a  free  mart  in  1895,  and  holds  a 
great  Sunday  *Market,  much  frequented  by  Moroccans.  Lalla- 
Marnia  forms  the  portal  of  the  Plaine  des  Angad  or  Plaine 
d'Oudjda.  This  great  plateau  is  bounded  on  the  N.  by  the  Traras 
Group  (p.  198)  and  the  fertile  Jebel  Beni  Snassen  (4659  ft.),  both 
inhabited  by  Berber  tribes  only,  and  on  the  S.  by  the  main  chain  of 
the  Tell  Atlas.  The  old  caravan  route  to  Fez  by  Taza,  the  key  to 
N.  Morocco,  has  been  the  scene  of  all  the  expeditions  of  the  Arabs 
against  Morocco  ever  since  that  of  Sidi  Okba  in  the  7th  century. 

From  Lalla-Marnia  a  new  road  (motor-omnibus  twice  daily)  leads  to 
the  S.W.,  crossing  the  frontier  of  Morocco  halfway,  to  (ca.  35  M.)  Oudjda 
or  Vjda  (2241  ft.;  Hot.  Figari,  good,  quarters  should  be  engaged  by  tele- 
graph: pop.  ca.  8000),  the  chief  town  of  E.  Morocco,  which  is  said  to  have 
been  rounded  by  the  governors  of  Tlemcen  in  the  10th  cent.,  and  was 
occupied  by  the  French  in  1814,  1859,  and  1907.  The  picturesque  town, 
the  most  fertile  oasis  in  the  Angad  steppe,  lies  amidst  orchards  and  olive- 
groves,  not  far  from  the  Oued  My,  the  battle-field  of  1844  (p.  221).  We 
enter  the  town,  passing  the  kubba  of  Oudjda,  by  the  N.  gate  (Bab  el- 
Khemis).    Straight  on  is  the  French  Consulate  in  a  pretty  garden,  while 

198     Route  ai.  NEMOURS. 

to  the  left  are  the  Custom  House  and  Post  Office.  In  the  S.  quarter  of 
the  town  rises  the  Kasba  or  Bar  el-Makhzen,  the  seat  of  the  Moroccan 
Arnel  or  governor.  At  the  N.  angle  of  the  Kasba  is  the  Chief  Mosque, 
dedicated  to  Sidi  Okba,  to  the  N.E.  of  which  lies  the  Silk  (p.  335).  Behind 
the  mosque  is  the  new  Ecole  Franco-Arabe.  Outside  the  E.  gate,  the 
Bab  Sidi  Abd  el-Wahhab,  is  the  camping-ground  of  the  caravans;  and  out- 
side the  S.  gate  (Bab  Oulad  Amran),  on  a  slight  eminence  10  min.  from 
the  town,  are  the  quarters  of  the  French  troops  of  occupation.  The  Thurs- 
day market  is  important.  Famous  horse-races  in  October,  in  connection 
with  those  of  Lalla-Marnia. 

For  a  visit  to  Oudjda  travellers  may  use  also  the  railway  as  far  as 
Zoudj-el-Beghal  (conip.  p.  197)  on  the  Moroccan  frontier,  whence  Oudjda 
is  about  8  M.  distant. 

The  Road  to  Nemoues  (diligence)  leads  to  the  N.  from  Lalla- 
Marniathrough  a  hilly  region,  crosses  the  Oued  Mouilah,  a  trib- 
utary of  the  Tafna,  near  the  Hammam  Sidi-Cheikh,  a  small  bath 
with  saline  springs  (91°Fahr.),  and  then  winds  up,  past  the  Kubba 
Sidi-Abdallah  (on  the  left),  towards  the  Traras  Mts.,  which  are 
famed  for  the  beauty  of  their  outlines.  In  the  Jebel  Masser,  near 
the  top  of  the  pass,  the  Col  de  Bab-Taza  (2664  ft.),  is  a  cadmium 
mine,  worked  like  the  neighbouring  mines  of  Jebel  Maaziz  by  a 
Belgian  company. — We  now  descend  to  the  N.E.  in  many  windings, 
passing  not  far  from  the  onyx-quarries  near  the  Kubba  Sidi- 
Brahim,  into  the  valley  of  the  Oued  Zebair. 

53'/2  M.  (from  Tlemcen)  N<§droma  (1312  ft.;  inn;  pop.  4900), 
superbly  situated  in  a  fertile  basin,  is  an  antiquated  little  Berber 
town,  with  fine  mediaeval  mosques.  The  *Market  (Mon.  and  Thurs.) 
is  worth  seeing  for  the  sake  of  the  picturesque  costumes  of  the 
peasants  who  flock  to  it  from  the  mountains  around.  Home-indus- 
tries are  much  in  vogue  in  the  environs. 

The  Jebel  Fillaoussen  (3727  ft.),  the  highest  of  the  Traras  group,  to 
the  E.  of  Ncdroma,  commands  an  extensive  view,  embracing  in  very 
clear  weather  the  Sierra  Nevada  in  the  far  N. 

The  road  soon  leaves  the  Oued  Zebal'r  and  turns  to  the  N.W. 
to  the  lower  course  of  the  brook,  which  takes  the  name  of  Oued 
Tle'ta  farther  on,  and  from  the  influx  of  the  Oued  Ta'ima  to  the 
sea  that  of  Oued  el-Mersa. 

In  the  upper  valley  of  the  Ta'ima,  on  the  slope  of  Jebel  Kerkour 
(1884  ft.),  are  the  Kubba  Sidi-Brahim,  where  a  small  French  force  under 
Col.  de  Montagnac  was  almost  entirely  cut  to  pieces  in  1845,  and  the 
Kubba  Sidi-Tahar,  where  Abd  el-Kader  (p.  221)  surrendered  in  1847. 
The  former  event  is  recalled  by  a  monument  in  the  Vallie  des  Jardins, 
8/4  M.  to  the  S.  of  Nemours. 

64  M.  (from  Tlemcen)  Nemours  (Hot.  de  France;  pop.  3900), 
a  pleasant  little  town,  noted  for  its  mild  and  healthy  climate,  was 
founded  in  1844  on  the  site  of  the  Roman  Ad  Fratres,  a  name  de- 
rived from  two  rocks  near  the  beach.  The  banana  culture  thrives 
in  the  environs.  On  the  Plateau  de  Taount  (407  ft.),  to  the  N.E. 
of  the  town,  are  the  ruins  of  Djemda  el-Ghazaoudt  ('marauders' 
community'),  once  a  Berber  village,  but  afterwards  a  notorious  den 
of  pirates  (p.  221). — Nemours  is  a  steamboat  station  (comp.  R.  18). 


32.   From  Oran  to  Beni-Ounif  de 

Figuig  (Colomb-Bechar)  via  Damesme  and 

3%  M.  State  Railway.  Direct  communication  with  dining-car  (dej.  3, 
D.  3'/2  fr-)  an(l  sleeping-car  (12  fr.  extra)  three  times  a  week  only  (Tues., 
Thurs.,  and  Sat.;  returning  Sun.,  Wed.,  and  Frid.);  express  via  (129V2  M.) 
Saii'a  to  (305'/2  M.)  Ain-Sefra  in  16  hrs. ;  thence  by  ordinary  train  to 
Beni-Ounif  in  5'/.»hrs. ;  trains  start  from  the  Gare  d'Arzew  at  Oran  (p.  175). 
As  far  as  (55'/2  M.)  Perrigaux  we  may  travel  by  the  Oran  and  Algiers 
train  on  the  main-line  (R.  33),  noting  that  the  stations  there  are  550  yds. 
apart  (omn.  25  c).  Fares  to  Ain-Sefra  39  fr.  35,  29  fr.  50  c.  (sleeping-car, 
1st  el.  only,  12  fr.  extra;  2nd  el.  similar  to  Engl.  3rd);  to  Beni-Ounif 
50  fr.  95,  38  fr.  20  c.  (return-ticket,  valid  16  days,  71  fr.  30  or  53  fr.  50  c). 
— A  good  supply  of  copper  coins  will  be  found  very  useful. 

The  journey  from  Oran  to  the  Sahara  is  most  interesting,  as  it  car- 
ries the  traveller  from  the  seaboard  through  a  cultivated  region,  across 
the  Tell  Atlas  to  the  Hauts-Plateaux,  and  then  over  the  Sahara  Atlas  to 
the  margin  of  the  desert.  The  only  good  intermediate  resting-place  is 
Ain-Sefra,  A  stay  of  several  days  at  Beni-Ounif  will  be  found  pleasant, 
especially  in  spring.  The  oasis  of  Tiout  is  now  eclipsed  by  that  of 
Figuig,  one  of  the  most  beautiful  in  the  Sahara.  The  line  goe8  on  from 
Beni-Ounif  to  Colomb-Bechar,  its  present  terminus. 

Oran,  see  p.  175.  Our  train  crosses  the  Algiers  main-line  (R.  33), 
passes  the  suburb  of  Victor-Hugo  and  the  Daya  Morselli  (p.  185), 
and  runs  to  the  E.  through  vineyards,  fields,  and  dwarf-palm  under- 
wood in  succession,  and  then  past  the  S.  base  of  Jebel  Kahar  (p.  184) 
to  (1272  M.)  Fleurus. 

17'/2  M-  St.  Cloud  (502  It.;  hotel)  lies  pleasantly  on  the  spurs 
of  Jebel  Kristel,  674  M.  to  the  S.E.  of  Kristel  (p."  184).  21  M. 
Renan-Kleber  (433  ft.).  The  village  of  Kleber  (505  ft.;  Hot. 
Voinson)  lies  2  M.  to  the  N.W.,  at  the  foot  of  Jebel  Orouze  (2070  ft. ; 
semaphore),  with  its  large  quarries  of  white,  yellow,  and  red  marble 
('rosso  antico'). 

26  31.  Damesme,  on  tin-  Bay  of  Arzew,  the  ancient  Laturus 
Stmts.  The  village  lies  above  the  station,  to  the  8. 

A  Branch  Lint:  (3  M.,  in  12-15  min.)  connects  Damesme  with  Arzew 
or  Arzeu  (7  ft. ;  Hot.  de  la  Nievre;  H6t.  des  Bains;  Brit,  vice-consul,  A. 
Gautray ;  pop.  6000),  a  small  seaport  at  the  foot  of  Jebel  Sicioun  (532  ft.), 
whence  a  goods-line  runs  to  the  S.  to  the  (9  M.)  salt-works  on  the  Lac 
Salin  d'Arzew,  or  El-Mellaha.  The  harbour,  naturally  one  of  the  best  and 
most  sheltered  in  Algeria,  but  as  yet  little  used,  has  been  improved  since 
1906.  From  here  chiefly  alt'a  (p.  1711  is  exported  to  Great  Britain  and 

Prom  Damesme  the  train  runs  to  thi  S.E.,  close  to  the  shore. 
88  M.    St.  Leu     L77  ft. ;    Eot.  de  L'Europe).     To  the  S.E.  of  the 
village  of  St.  Leu,  and  1  -M.  from  the  station,  is  the  Berber 
of  Bettiuua,  near  which  are  the  scanty  ruins  of  Partus  Magnus, 
the  only  Roman  settlement  on  the  bay  of  Arzew. 

3472  M.  Port-aux-Poules  (Etablissement  Thermal),  with  sul- 
phur-baths, a  sea-bathing  place  in  summer.  The  train  skirts  the 
narrow  strip  of  sand-hills  and  passes  the  mouth  of  the  Macta. 

Baedeker's  Mediterranean.  13 

200     Route  32.  MASCARA.  From  Oran 

37  M.  La  Macta,  a  village  at  the  N.  end  of  the  Marais  de  la 
Macta,  or  swamps  of  the  river-plain  of  the  Sig  (p.  206)  and  the 
Habra,  very  malarious  in  summer,  is  connected  by  a  branch-line 
with  (7>/2  M.)  La  Stidia,  a  village  founded  by  German  peasants 
in  1844,  and  with  (IS1/,,  M.)  Mostaganem  (p.  207). 

The  train  now  runs  inland,  past  the  E.  margin  of  the  morasses, 
to  (48'/2  M.)  Debrousseville,  in  the  broad  Plaine  de  V Habra.  The 
villnge  belongs  to  the  Domaine  de  V Habra  et  de  la  Macta,  the 
largest  estate  in  Algeria,  watered  by  a  network  of  cuttings  (276  M. 
in  length)  from  the  reservoir  of  the  Oued  Fergoug  (see  below). 
Since  the  failure  of  two  private  companies  the  estate  has  been 
owned  by  the  Credit  Foncier  de  France.  Of  its  70,000  acres 
44,000  are  pasture-land,  and  the  rest  is  devoted  to  grain  and  fruit. 
Its  headquarters  are  at  La  Ferme-Blanche,  near  the  railway. 

At  (55^2  M.)  Perregaux  we  cross  the  Oran-Algiers  line  (p.  206). 

Ascending  the  valley  of  the  Habra,  here  called  Oued  el- Ham- 
mam,  ('bath-river'),  we  now  penetrate  the  Beui  Chougrane  Mts., 
the  N.  marginal  chain  of  the  Tell  Atlas.  On  the  left,  just  before 
(61x/2  M.)  Barrage,  lies  the  ^Barrage  de  Perrfyaux  or  de  VOued 
Fergoug,  the  largest  reservoir  in  Algeria,  which  irrigates  some 
90,000  acres  of  land.  The  embankment  is  550  yds.  long,  130  ft. 
high,  and  from  130  ft.  thick  at  the  bottom  to  12x/2  ft.  at  the  top. 
The  reservoir  once  contained  33  million  tons  of  water,  but  the 
quantity  is  constantly  being  diminished  by  the  deposits  of  the  stream. 

6772  M.  Dublineau  (443  ft.).  78  M.  Bou-Hanifia  is  the  station 
for  the  small  baths  of  Hammam  Bou-Hanifia,  on  the  right  bank 
of  the  Habra,  2l/2  M.  to  the  S.W.  (Bath  Hotel).  The  eight  saline 
springs  (136°  Fahr.)  are  the  Aquae  Sirenses  of  antiquity. 

86  M.  Tizi  or  Thizi  (1490  ft.;  Rail.  Restaur.)  in  the  Plaine, 
d'Eghris,  a  lofty  and  fertile  tract  between  the  N.  lateral  chain  and 
the  main  range  of  the  Tell  Atlas. 

Branch  Line  (772  M.,  in  ca.  »/8  hr.)  from  Tizi  to  Mascara  (1903  ft. ; 
Hot.  Bourelly,  Rue  de  Dalmatie,  R.  2>/2>  B.  1,  dej.  2V2,  omn.  1/2  "«,  quite 
good;  Hot.  du  Luxembourg,  Rue  Victor -Hugo;  Cafe  de  la  Brasserie, 
Place  Gambetta;  pop.  22,930),  beautifully  situated  on  a  chain  of  hills  on 
the  N.  margin  of  (he  Eghris  plain.  This  was  the  capital  of  the  beylic 
of  Oran  in  1701-92.  and  in  1832-41  was  the  residence  and  chief  stronghold 
of  Abd  el-Kader  (p.  221).  The  chief  quarter  of  the  town,  with  the  Place 
Gambetta  as  its  centre,  has  a  Mosque  (18th  cent.)  in  the  Place  Nationale, 
and  a  Beylic  (now  military  offices),  built  by  Mohammed  el-Kebir  (p.  178), 
in  the  street  of  that  name.  This  quarter  is  separated  by  the  ravine  of 
the  Oued  Toudman,  now  a  public  park,  from  the  spacious  Place  de 
l'Argoub  (market  on  Thurs.  and  Prid.)  and  from  the  barracks  quarter. 
Outside  the  Porte  d'Oran,  the  W.  gate,  we  have  a  delightful  view.  Out- 
side the  Bab-Ali,  the  N.  gate,  lies  the  Mohammedan  quarter  of  that 
name  (where  burnouses  are  woven).    Mascara  is  famed  for  its  wine. 

At  (9372  M.)  Thiersville  (1601  ft.)  the  train  crosses  a  range 
of  hills  to  the  stony  table-land  of  Guerdjoum  (much  overgrown 
with  dwarf-palms).    Beyond  (102V2  M.)  Oued-Taria  (1618  ft.)  it 

to  Beni-Ounif.  SAIDA.  32.  Route.      201 

crosses  the  brook  of  that  name,  the  chief  feeder  of  the  Habra,  and 
at  (110l/j  M.)  Charrier  (1792  ft.),  in  the  fertile  valley  of  the  Oued 
Sa'ida,  reaches  the  main  chain  of  the  Tell  Atlas.  122  M.  LesEaux- 
Chaudes,  Arabic  Hammdm  Ouled-Khaled,  with  saline  springs 
(113°  Fahr.) ;  126y2  M.  Nazereg  (2625  ft.). 

129V-2  M.  Sa'ida  (2746  ft.;  Hot.  Lugan  or  Riu,  in  the  market- 
place, 10  min.  from  the  station,  R.  2,  D.  3,  pens.  7,  omn.  lfaii.; 
Hot.  Vergnon;  Hot.  de  la  Paix;  pop.  8100),  the  southmost  town  in 
the  Tell  Atlas  of  Oran,  founded  in  1854,  lies  in  an  uninteresting 
region.  In  front  of  the  Mairie  rises  an  imposing  Monument  (1910) 
to  the  soldiers  of  the  Foreign  Legion  who  fell  in  S.  Oran.  From 
the  Place  du  Marche  Arabe  (market  on  Mon.),  where  the  Mosque  is 
situated,  the  Rue  Thiers  and  the  Rue  Nationale  lead  to  the  S.W.  to 
the  high-lying  barracks  of  the  Foreign  Legion  (p.  186).  Above  the 
market-place  lies  the  Native  Quarter. 

The  train  next  passes  (on  the  left)  the  scanty  ruins  of  the  last 
Fortress  built  by  Abd  el-Kader  affording  a  view  of  Sa'ida  as  we  look 
back,  and  ascends  between  barren  hills  to  the  table-land  on  the  S. 
margin  of  the  Tell  Atlas.  136l/2  M.  Ain-el-Hadjar  (3360  ft.;  'rock- 
spring'),  a  village  of  1500  inhab.  in  a  fertile  well-watered  district, 
with  a  military  prison. 

On  the  bleak  tableland,  between  the  region  of  the  Hassasna 
on  the  N.E.  and  the  Maalif  Plain  on  the  S.W.,  we  pass  several 
small  stations.  157  M.  Kralfallah  (3638  ft.),  with  great  stacks 
of  esparto  grass,  was  the  scene  of  the  massacre  of  the  Spaniards  at 
the  hands  of  Bou-Amama  (p.  222)  in  1881. 

The  train  now  descends  to  the  Hauts- Plateaux  (p.  169),  where 
an  occasional  caravan  or  a  few  grazing  camels  only  are  seen,  while 
the  vegetation  is  limited  to  saline  plants  and  patches  of  esparto 
grass  (p.  171).  166  M.  El-Btida  (3497  ft.),  the  first  fortified 
station.  171  M.  Modzbah  (3471  ft.),  with  its  great  stacks  of  esparto 
grass  and  the  goods-station  of  a  branch-line  to  (22  M.)  Marhoum, 
used  solely  for  the  esparto  traffic. 

192  M.  Le  Kreider  (3241  ft.;  Hot.  de  Paris,  R.  2,  dej.  V/2, 
D.  2  fr.),  on  the  N.  bank  of  the  Chott  ech-Chergui  (p.  169).  com- 
manded by  a  small  fort  on  the  hill  above  it,  was  founded  in  1881 
as  a  military  base  of  defence  against  the  partisans  of  Bou-Amama 
The  barracks,  in  the  neo-Moorish  style,  are  surrounded  with  plant- 
ations which  are  watered  by  means  of  a  wind-pump. 

We  at  length  reach  the  salt-marshes,  pass  between  low  sand- 
hills, and  are  carried  through  the  masses  of  mud  by  means  of  a  short 
embankment  to  (201  M.)  Bou-Ktoub  or  Bou-Guetoub  (3264  ft.), 
the  starting-point  of  a  road  to  Geryville  (66  M.;  diligence).  We 
then  mount  gradually  to  the  N.  spurs  of  the  Sahara  Atlas  (p.  170). 
Stations  uninteresting. 


202     Route  32  TIOUT.  From,  Oran 

242  M.  Meehdria  (3806  ft.;  Hot.  des  Voyageurs;  pop.  700), 
at  the  foot  of  the  Jebel  Antar  range,  contains  barracks  for  convicts 
of  the  foreign  legion  and  a  small  mosque.  —  The  train  again  traverses 
the  Hauts-Plateaux.  To  the  left  rises  the  distant  Jebel  el-Malha. 
Near  (2621/,,  M.)  Na&ma  (3825  ft.)  is  the  salt-lake  of  that  name, 
not  visible  from  the  train. 

384  M.  Mekalis  (4311  ft.),  the  highest  point  on  the  line,  with 
a  few  fruit-trees.  The  train  now  crosses  the  watershed  between  the 
Hauts-Plateaux  and  the  Sahara,  and  descends  into  the  Faidjct  el- 
Betoum,  a  broad  valley  so  named  after  its  terebinths  (Pistaeia 
Terebintlms  L.;  Arabic  b'tom  or  betoum).  The  valley  is  flanked 
on  the  E.  by  Jebel  Aissa  (7336  ft.),  and  on  the  W.  by  Jebel  Mor- 
ghad  (7008  ft.),  the  two  highest  of  the  Montagues  des  Ksour,  as 
the  Sahara  Atlas  is  usually  called  here.  Beyond  (299  M.)  Tirkount 
appear  in  the  foreground  Jebel  Melcter  (6762  ft.),  with  a  Poste 
Optique  or  signal-station,  used  at  the  time  of  the  conflicts  with 
Bou-Amama,  and  the  long  chain  of  sand-hills  near  Ain-Sefra. 

305y2  M.  Ain-Sefra  (3577  ft. ;  Hot.  de  France  or  Plasse,  R.  3, 
dej.  3,  D.  3x/v  f i'. ;  Hot.  des  Voyageurs,  both  in  the  chief  square, 
very  plain;  Cafe  Bieuvenu),  not  founded  until  1881,  with  a  strong 
garrison  aud  about  1400  inhab.,  is  grandly  situated  in  a  broad 
valley  between  Jebel  Aissa  and  Jebel  Mektcr.  The  village,  lying  on 
the  left  bank  of  the  Oued  Ain-Sefra  ('yellow  spring'),  was  devast- 
ated by  an  inundation  in  1904.  A  market  (Mon.)  is  held  here  for 
the  Berbers  of  the  environs,  who  still  speak  Tamazirt  (p.  94).  An 
iron  bridge  crosses  to  the  Barracks,  a  neo-Moorish  building. 
Through  the  Berber  Village  (ksar,  p.  281)  behind  the  barracks  we 
may  climb  in  3/4  hr.  to  the  top  of  the  reddish-brown  *Sand  Hills, 
formed  by  disintegration  of  the  rock,  which  give  the  landscape  its 
very  peculiar  character,  and  whose  shifting  sands  threaten  to  over- 
whelm Ain-Sefra  in  spite  of  the  sheltering  plantations. 

The  famous  oasis  of  Tiout,  lO'/a  M.  to  the  E.  of  A'in-Sefra  and  3  M. 
to  the  N.  of  the  railway-station  of  Tiout  (p.  203),  is  a  favourite  goal  of  tour- 
ists. A  horse  or  mule  should  be  ordered  in  good  time,  cheapest  at  the  'Sub- 
division' (2  fr. ;  attendant  lVa-2  fr.);  the  traveller  may  shorten  the  long  ride 
by  returning  from  Tiout  by  train.  The  track  leads  through  the  broad, 
shadeless  valley,  some  way  from  the  brook  Ain-Sefra;  we  have  a  fine 
retrospect  of  A'in-Sefra  and  its  sand-hills.  We  pass  several  red-sand- 
stone rocks.  About  halfway  the  rail,  station  of  Tiout  and  the  oasis 
beyond  it  come  in  sight. 

In  this  little  oasis  (34-15  ft.),  one  of  the  highest  palm-oases  in  the 
Atlas,  lies  an  interesting  Berber  Village  (pop.  400).  The  low-lying  gardens, 
protected  by  high  mud-walls,  yield  fruit  and  veget  .bles  under  the  shade 
of  the  well-kept  date-palms.  Their  irrigation  is  provided  by  a  small 
Reservoir  to  the  N.  of  the  village,  a  charming  spot,  where  we  may  rest 
under  the  palms  on  the  bank  of  the  brook.  A  few  minutes'  walk  from 
this  point,  to  the  N.E.  of  the  village,  rises  a  reddish  rock,  on  which, 
about  65  ft.  above  the  valley,  protected  by  a  grating,  are  traced  figures 
of  animals  and  hunters  (archers),  a  prehistoric  curiosity,  called  the  Hadjra 
Mektouba,  with  later  Libyan-Berber  and  Arabic  inscriptions. 

to  Beni-Ounif.  BENI-OUNIF  &»  Route.     203 

About  8  M.  to  theW.  of  AYn-Sefra,  on  the  road  to  A in-Sflssi fa  (4176  ft.) 
and  the  Moroccan  oasis  of  Ich  (3721  ft.),  is  the  copper-mine  of  Hasi- 
ben-Hi  Jjir. 

Beyond  AYn-Sefra  the  train  (with  the  engine  now  at  the  other 
end)  follows  the  valley  of  that  name  and  rounds  the  Jebel  Mekter 
group  in  a  long  curve  to  the  E.  Beyond  (312:/2  M.)  Tiout  (oasis, 
p.  202.  visible  on  the  left)  it  descends  to  the  S.,  lastly  through  masses 
of  dchris  and  rock-cuttings,  to  (321  M.)  Ain-cl-Hadjadj .  We  then 
pass  through  a  defile  between  Jebel  Mekter  and  Jebel  Djara.  To 
the  left,  framed  by  rocks,  lies  a  low  reddish-brown  sand-hill. 

Farther  on,  to  the  left,  between  Jebel  Djara  and  Jebel  Bou- 
Leghfad  (5545  ft.),  opens  the  broad  mountain-valley  of  the  Rou'iba, 
which  at  (328  M.)  Rou'iba  joins  the  AYn-Sefra  to  form  the  Oued 
en-Namous.  The  train  turns  to  the  S.W.,  at  the  S.  base  of  Jebel 
Mekter,  a  little  to  the  right  of  the  palm-oasis  of  Moghrar-Tahtdni 
(2710  ft.;  'lower  Moghrar'),  famed  for  its  prehistoric  rock-draw- 
ings. 340  M.  Moghrar-Foulcdni  ('upper  Moghrar'),  beyond  which 
we  pass  its  *Falm  Oasis,  overlooked  by  a  kubba  on  a  low  hill. 

We  next  pass  through  the  Gorges  de  Moghrar,  a  sandstone 
ravine  full  of  rocky  debris,  into  El-Fatdja,  a  valley  at  the  S.  base 
of  the  Mir  el-Jebel  (6790  ft.)  and  Jebel  Mezi  (6988  ft.).  359  M 
Djenien-bou-Resg  (3254  ft.)  has  a  Redoute,  or  fortified  camp  (on 
the  left),  in  the  style  of  a  Roman  camp,  a  small  palm-oasis,  and  a 
pretty  military  club  in  the  Moorish  style,  shaded  with  palms. 

The  train  enters  the  valley  of  the  Oued  Dermel,  one  of  the 
sources  of  the  Oued  Zousfana.  In  the  distance  we  sight  Jebel  Bent 
Smir  and  Jebel  el-Ma'iz  (p.  204).  An  iron  bridge  carries  the  train 
across  the  Dermel,  usually  dry,  to  the  ruins  of  (379  M.)  Duveyrier, 
at  the  mouth  of  the  Oued  Douis,  which  has  been  deserted  since  an 
inundation  in  1904.  We  then  descend  between  low  ranges  of  hills, 
Jebel  Tamednata  (2953  ft.)  on  the  left,  on  the  margin  of  the  desert, 
and  Djermdn-Tahtdni  and  Jebel  el-JIdimer  on  the  right,  to  the 
Zousfana  (beyond  rises  the  old  fort  of  Campo),  where  the  palms 
of  Beni-Ounif  become  visible. 

396  M.  Beni-Ounif  de  Figuig  (2707  ft.;  Hot.  du  Sahara, 
B.  l1^,  dej.  3,  D.  3lj2,  pens.  12  fr.,  plain  but  good;  advisable  to 
secure  rooms  beforehand  by  telegraph;  1300  inhab.),  founded  in 
1903,  as  being  then  the  terminus  of  the  railway,  adjacent  to  a  ksar, 
or  Berber  village  (at  ouinifi),  and  a  Camp  Militaire,  is  now  a  free 
mart,  rapidly  growing  in  importance.  Its  total  trade  with  Morocco 
and  the  Tuat  oases  amounts  to  about  4  million  francs.  The  few  and 
quiet  streets,  planted  with  palms,  present  a  marked  contrast  to  those 
of  Biskra,  which  is  now  overran  with  tourists.  The  white  domed 
building  near  the  railway-station  serves  at  once  as  a  church,  a 
town-hall,  and  a  law-court.    Behind  it  is  a  fondouk  (p.  281). 

The  only  sights  are  the  Zaou'ia  Sidi  Slimdii  ben-Bou-Smaha, 

204     Route  32.  FIGUIG. 

the  chief  sanctuary  of  the  Ouled  Sidi-Cheikh,  a  Berber  tribe  of  S. 
Oran,  and  the  Ksar  (p.  281),  a  poor  village  inhabited  by  Harratin 
(p.  94),  at  the  back  of  the  barracks  quarter,  where  the  mode  of 
irrigating  a  palm-oasis  may  be  observed. 

Beni-Ounif,  situated  in  a  rocky  wilderness,  commanded  on  the 
N.  and  W.  by  jagged  and  fissured  mountains,  Jebel  Beni  Smir 
(6857  ft.),  Jebel  el-Maiz  (6037  ft.),  and  Jebel  Grouz  (5328  ft.),  and 
separated  from  Figuig  by  a  chain  of  low  barren  hills,  possesses  to 
the  full  the  fascination  of  a  Sahara  landscape  (p.  172).  The  most 
striking  view,  especially  towards  evening,  of  Beni-Ounif,  the  palm- 
oasis,  and  the  village  of  Figuig,  as  well  as  of  the  spurs  of  the 
Sahara  Atlas,  is  obtained  from  Jebel  Melius  (3986  ft.),  a  spur  of 
Jebel  Grouz,  2  hrs.  to  the  N.  of  the  little  town.  For  this  ascent,  and 
for  all  the  longer  excursions,  travellers  must  procure  an  escort 
of  Cavaliers  du  Maghzen  (p.  390),  who  usually  provide  horses  for 
the  journey  (horse  for  half-a-day  2V2-3,  whole  day  5  fr. ;  fee  to  each 
'cavalier'  2fr.).  Application  for  the  escort  has  to  be  made  at  the 
Bureau  Arabe  (p.  174)  in  the  Camp  Militaire. 

*Figuig,  to  the  N.  of  Beni-Ounif,  first  visited  by  a  European, 
Gerh.  Rohlfs,  in  1862,  is  the  largest  and  most  fertile  oasis  in  the 
Sahara  Atlas  of  Oran  (containing  about  400,000  date-palms). 
According  to  the  treaty  of  1845  it  belongs  to  Morocco,  but  only 
nominally  since  its  bombardment  by  French  troops  in  1903.  From 
the  earliest  times  the  oasis  has  been  in  high  repute.  It  embraces 
seven  villages  (ksiir),  in  three  groups,  the  Feghiha  castra  tria  of 
antiquity.  In  the  early  16th  cent.  Leo  Africanus  extols  the  artistic 
skill  of  the  inhabitants;  their  industries,  however,  are  now  limited 
to  the  weaving  of  burnouses  and  carpets  (similar  to  the  knot-worked 
carpets  of  Fez)  and  to  the  manufacture  of  small  articles  in  leather. 
The  place  is  inhabited  by  Berbers,  besides  a  large  number  of  Jews, 
the  Harratin,  and  a  few  negro  slaves.  Tamazirt  (p.  94)  is  their  chief 
language,  but  Arabic  also  is  spoken  at  places. 

The  S.  margin  of  the  oasis,  and  its  boundary  towards  Beni-Ounif, 
is  formed  by  a  range  of  hills  running  from  Jebel  Melias  (see  above), 
W.  to  E.,  to  Jebel  el-Hdimer  (p.  203),  and  crossed  by  four  passes, 
the  Col  ides  Moudjdhdine,  the  Col  de  la  Juive  (Arabic  Teidet  el- 
Ih&dia),  the  Col  de  Zendga,  and  the  Col  de  Taghla  or  Tarla. 
The  shortest  route  is  via  the  Col  de  Zenaga,  commonly  called  El- 
IDieneg  ('the  pass').  By  this  route  the  whole  excursion,  there  and 
back,  takes  5-6  hrs.;  but,  time  permitting,  it  is  preferable  to  go 
by  the  Col  de  Taghla,  watered  by  the  Zousfana,  and  bounded  on  the 
E.  by  the  sombre  rocks  of  Jebel  Sidi -Youssef  (3484  ft.),  and  to 
return  by  the  Col  de  Zenaga  or  the  Col  de  la  Juive,  a  full  day's 
expedition.  The  ascent  of  one  of  the  hills  adjoining  these  passes 
(stout  boots  advisable)  iu  the  company  of  an  escort  is  to  be  recom- 
mended on  account  of  the  fine  view. 

FIGU1G.  *»•  Route.     205 

The  route  over  a  stony  plain  to  the  (*/2  hr.)  Zendga  Pass 
crosses  the  Oued  Melias,  the  bed  of  which  is  generally  dry,  near 
the  frontier  of  Morocco,  indicated  by  heaps  of  stones.  The  vege- 
tation here  is  limited  to  a  few  thorn-bushes  —  jujubes  (Zizyphus 
vulgaris;  Arabic  sedra;  French  jujubier)  and  the  prickly  Anabasis 
arietoldea  (Arabic  ajerem),  the  'chou-fleur  du  Sahara'  of  the  sol- 
diers, which  is  much  used  in  this  part  of  the  Sahara  as  fuel.  At 
the  entrance  to  the  pass,  about  200  yds.  in  breadth,  we  may  observe 
to  the  left,  on  the  stony  slope  of  Jebel  Zendga  (3435  ft.),  several 
graffiti,  or  rudely  engraved  sketches  on  the  rock  (comp.  p.  202), 
hut  not  very  distinguishable  under  the  black  patina.  Beyond  the 
first  palms  of  the  oasis,  at  the  exit  of  the  pass,  rise  the  KuLba, 
Sidi-Fedel,  surrounded  with  numerous  votive  stones  (kerkours, 
rg-yems),  and  the  Haoiiita  Sidi-Tifour,  an  open  walled  rectangle. 
We  have  here  a  good  survey  of  the  lower  part  of  the  oasis,  with 
the  village  of  Zenaga  (p.  20(i)  and  numerous  bordjs  (round  watch- 
towers),  backed  by  the  Jebel  Grouz  range,  while  on  the  edge  of  the 
plateau  of  the  six  upper  villages  gleams  the  conspicuous  Kubba 
Sidi  ben-Aissa  I'Aredj. 

Our  route  now  leads  to  the  N.E.  across  the  barren,  dazzling 
white  Plaine  de  Bagdbdd  (2818  ft.).  We  may  first  visit  El-Ham- 
mdmin,  the  two  E.  villages,  Hammdm-Tahtdni ,  on  the  slope  of 
the  high  plateau,  and  Hammrim-Fovkdni  (2950  ft.),  where  Bou- 
Amama  was  encamped  in  1900-2  (p.  222);  but  it  is  more  usual  to 
go  direct  to  the  four  W.  villages,  at  first  through  small  fields  of 
barley  and  vegetable -gardens,  and  then  between  the  high  mud- 
walls  of  the  palm-gardens. 

We  ascend  through  a  picturesque  defile  on  the  rocky  and  fissured 
slope  of  the  upper  plateau,  whence  the  water  flows  down  in  open 
cuttings  (see  p.  94)  to  the  village  of  El-Ma'iz.  We  note  here  the 
quaint  architecture  and  the  lanes  arched  over  with  palm -wood 
beams,  under  which  the  natives  take  their  siesta  on  stone  benches 
in  the  hot  season.  Some  of  the  little  houses  of  the  Mellah,  or 
Jewish  quarter,  are  owned  by  Morocco  leather-workers. 

Through  the  contiguous  village  of  Ouled- Slimdn  we  pass  to 
EL-OuDAoniR  (Berber  dt  a'addi),  the  largest  village  in  Figuig  next 
to  Zenaga.  Since  1902  this  has  been  the  seat  of  a  Moroccan  Amel, 
or  governor,  who  with  his  few  soldiers  occupies  the  dilapidated 
Ddr  el-Be'ida  ('white  house')  on  the  barren  H'sen,  as  the  upper 
plateau  is  called  (2940-3000  ft.).  The  mud-built  houses  of  the 
village,  mostly  consisting  of  two  or  more  stories,  are  overlooked  by 
the  new  square  minaret  of  the  Chief  Mosque,  where  the  governor 
attends  the  Friday  prayers.  A  second  mosque  has  a  very  old  and 
graceful  octagonal  minaret.  The  Prison  (visitors  admitted),  the 
tents  of  the  Amouriat,  the  girls  of  the  nomad  tribe  of  the  Amour, 
whose  habits  resemble  those  of  the  Ouled  Nail  (p.  215),  and  the 

206     Route  88.  PERREGAUX.  From  Oran 

Mellah,  where  the  escort  prepare  tea  in  their  own  peculiar  man- 
ner, also  may  be  visited  with  interest. 

To  the  W.  of  El-Ofidaghir  is  the  basin  of  the  Ain-Tzadert ,  a 
spring  which  supplies  Zenaga  also  and  has  often  given  rise  to  bitter 
quarrels  between  the  two  villages.  From  the  massive  Bordj  be- 
longing to  the  villagers  of  El-Ofidaghir,  adjoining  the  basin,  we 
obtain  a  splendid  *Panorama  of  the  oasis  and  the  girdle  of  moun- 
tains around  it.  At  our  feet  lies  El-Abid  fdt  enne'i),  with  its  many 
towers,  the  westmost  village,  now  dilapidated  and  partly  deserted. 

On  our  way  back,  passing  the  underground  Ain-Meslout,  with 
two  vaulted  baths  (hammam),  we  come  suddenly  to  the  precipitous 
brink  of  the  plateau  (here  about  100  ft.  high),  where  we  enjoy  a 
beautiful  view  of  the  forest  of  palms  around  Zenaga. 

The  village  of  Zenaga  (Berber  iznd'in),  V/t  M.  to  the  S.  of  El- 
Ofldaghir,  and  4'/4  M.  to  the  N.  of  Beni-Ounif,  with  its  one-storied 
mud-built  houses,  its  massive  towers,  its  mellah,  and  many  vaulted 
lanes,  has  for  its  centre  the  chief  mosque  and  the  square  in  front 
of  it.  A  smaller  mosque  lies  outside  the  village.  The  large  basin 
is  fed  by  underground  conduits  (p.  94)  from  the  Ain-Tzadert. 

33.  Prom  Oran  to  Algiers. 

2G2Vo  M.  Railway.  Day-train,  with  1st  and  2nd  cl.  saloon  carriages 
and  'wagon-restaurant'  (dej.  4,  D.  4'/2  fr.),  in  HV2  hrs.  (fares  35  fr.  5,  26  fr. 
5c,  19  fr.);  night-express  in  9:il4  hrs.  ('lit-salon'  12  fr.  more  than  1st  cl. 
fare:  sleeping-carriage  12  fr.  extra).  Scenery  as  far  as  Affreville  uninter- 
esting. The  best  places  for  breaking  the  journey  are  Miliaria,  Hammam 
Rhira,  and  Blida.  At  Perrigaux  this  line  is  crossed  by  the  line  from 
Oran  to  Damesme  and  Beni-Ounif  de  Figuig  (R.  32). 

From  Oran  to  (16  M.)  Ste.  Barbe-du-Tlelat,  see  pp.  185,  186. 
Our  train  now  crosses  the  Tldlat  (p.  186)  and  the  flat  saddle  between 
the  Tell  Atlas  and  (left)  the  chain  of  Jtbel  Djira  (1083  ft.).  On 
the  S.  slope  of  these  hills  lies  the  Foret  de  Mouley  -  Ismael,  an 
expanse  of  11,000  acres  of  underwood,  where  Sultan  Mulai  Ismail 
of  Morocco  (p.  96)  was  signally  defeated  by  the  Bey  of  Mascara 
(p.  200)  in  1707. 

32  M.  St.  Denis-du-Sig  (177  ft.;  Hot.  du  Louvre;  pop.  11,900) 
lies  in  the  fruitful  plain  of  the  Sig  (called  Mekerra  in  its  upper 
course,  p.  186).  The  environs  are  watered  by  the  great  Barrage  du 
Sig.  Cattle-market  on  Sundays  ('marche  arabe').  — 38  M.  Bou- 
Henni  {Habra;  66  ft.),  at  the  foot  of  the  Beni  Chougrane  Mts. 
(p.  200),  not  far  from  the  marshes  of  the  Macta  (p.  200).  Melcns 
are  much  cultivated  here.  —  The  train  crosses  the  Habra  (p.  200). 

47^2  M.  Perregaux  (148  ft. ;  H6t.  des  Colonies,  Rue  de  Mosta- 
ganem,  R.  2>/2,  B.  1/g_fr.,  quite  good;  Hot.  des  Voyageurs,  near  the 
station  for  Beni-Ounif;  pop.  10,100,  largely  Spanish),  is  a  pleasant 

to  Algiers.  MOSTAGANEM.  33.  Route.     207 

town  with  a  pretty  Jardin  Public  and  a  detachment  of  the  Foreign 
Legion  (p.  180).    Wednesday  market. 

Railway  to  Oran  via  Damesme  (Arzew),  and  to  Beni-Oinrif,  see  R.  32. 

To  the  left  stretches  the  Plaine  de  I'Habra  (p.  200) ;  in  the 
distance  rise  the  hills  near  La  Stidia  (p.  200)  and  Mostaganem 
(see  below).  Beyoud  (551/,,  M.)  Nouvion-Oued-Malah  (420  ft.)  the 
train  crosses  the  hill-region  between  the  main  chain  of  the  Tell 
Atlas  and  Jebel  Bd-Hacel  (see  below),  and  at  (6572  M.)  L'Hillil 
(410  ft.)  enters  the  Plaine  de  la  Mina,  adjoining  the  plain  of  the 
Chelif  (p.  208),  one  of  the  hottest  regions  of  Algeria  in  summer. 

A  Road  (12'/>  M.;  omn.  in  winter  at  1.30,  in  summer  at  8.30)  leads  to 
the  S.  from  L'Hillil  to  the  interesting  and  purely  Mohammedan  hill-town  of 
Kala-a  (pop.  4800;  Sat.  market),  once  famous  for  its  carpet  industry. 

We  cross  the  Mina,  2:/2  M.  below  the  Barrage  de  la  Mina, 
which  waters  some  25,000  acres  of  land. 

77Va  M.  Relizane  (289  ft.;  Rail.  Restaur.;  Hot.  de  la  Paix; 
Hot.  de  Paris,  R.  2,  B.  »/S)  dej.  2,  D.  272,  pens.  7  fr.;  pop.  9000, 
half  Mohammedan)  is  a  small  town  amidst  rich  orchards.  Our  line 
is  crossed  here  by  the  Mostaganem  and  Tiaret  line. 

From  Relizane  to  Mostaganem,  47>/2  M.,  railway  in  23/4-3  hrs.  (fare 
6  fr.  10  or  4  fr.  55  c).  The  train  crosses  the  Mina  before  (7V2M.)  Bel-Hacel, 
and  then  in  a  long  bend  to  the  N.E.  skirts  Jebel  Bel-Hacel  (1694  ft.).  It 
next  turns  sharply  to  the  S.W.  to  (18  M.)  Mekalia,  crosses  the  hills  of 
the  Foret  de  Laktoube  (1552  ft.),  affording  fine  views  of  the  Chelif  valley 
and  of  the  Dahra  range  (p.  208),  and  then  descends  to  (27'/a  M.)  Oued-el- 
Kheir.  From  (34'/a  M.)  Ain-Tedelcs  (657  ft.;  Hot.  Bellocq;  pop.  2900, 
chiefly  Mohammedan),  surrounded  with  olive-groves  and  orchards,  a  road 
leads  to  (4'/2  M.)  Pont  du  Oie'lif  (66  ft.)  which,  situated  near  the  ancient 
Roman  town  of  Qinza,  is  named  from  the  bridge  built  by  Spanish  prisoners 
from  Mazagran  (see  below)  and  rebuilt  in  1850.  Beyond  (45  M.)  Pelissier 
we  pass  through  the  charming  Valise  des  Jardins. 

47'/.2  M.  Mostaganem  (341  ft. ;  Grand-Hotel,  near  the  Place  de  la 
Republique;  Hot.  du  Louvre;  Hot.  de  la  Gare;  pop.  22,000,  incl.  10,900 
Mohammedans  and  1100  Jews),  a  seaport  on  the  E.  shore  of  the  Bay  of 
Arzew  (p.  199),  situated  on  an  old  coast-terrace  rising  abruptly  from  the 
sea  (perhaps  the  site  of  the  Roman  Murvstuga),  owes  its  foundation, 
under  the  name  of  Bordj  el-Mehal,  to  the  Almoravide  Yusuf  ibn  Teshu- 
fin  (p.  95).  It  is  the  oldest  garrison  of  the  Tirailleurs  Indigenes,  a 
native  regiment  formed  in  1847,  and  well  known  as  Turcos  in  the  Franco- 
German  war  (1870-1).  The  main  quarter  of  the  town,  with  the  station, 
the  fine  Jardin  Public,  the  Place  de  la  Republique,  a  fine  point  of  view, 
the  Market,  and  the  Chief  Mosque,  founded  by  the  Merinide  Abu'l-Hasen 
Ali  (p.  188)  in  1342,  lies  on  the  left  bank  of  the  Ain-Sefra,  fully  «/»  M. 
above  the  harbour  quarter.  On  the  lofty  right  bank  of  the  ravine  are  a 
second  European  quarter  and  (outside  the  Porte  desMedjes)  the  interesting 
Mohammedan  suburb  of  Tidjit.  The  Harbour,  now  choked  with  sand  and 
inadequately  protected  from  N.  and  N.W.  winds  by  two  piers,  lies  between 
two  small  tongues  of  land,  La  Salamandre  on  the  S.W.,  and  Earouba 
(266  ft.),  with  its  sacred  grove,  on  the  N.E.  —  The  railway  from  Mosta- 
ganem to  La  Stidia  and  La  Macta  (p.  200)  passes  (2  M.)  Mazagran  (459  ft.; 
H6t.  Pujol),  old-Berber  Tamazaran,  where  the  Spaniards  sustained  a 
severe  defeat  in  1558,  and  where  a  small  French  force  in  1840  repelled  the 
attacks  of  15,000  adherents  of  Abd  el-Kader  (p.  221;  monument). 

From  Rfuzane  to  Tiaret,  75  M.,  railway  in  4s/4  hrs.  (fare  9  fr.  65 
or  7  fr.  25  0.).    Scenery  unattractive.    Beyond  (5>/a  M.)  Oued-Khelloug  the 

208     Route  33.  ORLEANS VILLE.  From  Oran 

train  follows  the  course  of  the  Mina  (p.  207),  which  separates  the  Beni 
Chovgrane  (p.  200)  from  the  Ouarsenis  Mts.  (p.  209).  12  M.  Sidi- Mohammed- 
Benaouda  (417  ft.),  noted  for  the  strange  cult  of  the  local  saint  of  that 
name,  in  whose  zaoui'a  sacred  lions  were  once  kept;  the  loftily  situated 
kubba,  a  great  resort  of  pilgrims,  is  guarded  by  negroes  who  are  said  to 
be  descendants  of  a  servant  of  the  saint  (popular  festivals  in  Aug.  and 
Oct.).  —  27  M.  Uzes-le-Dnc  or  Fortassa  (840  ft.).  —  54  M.  Mdchdra-Sfa- 
Prevost-Paradol.  Near  Mechera-Sfa,  on  the  Mina,  are  two  cemeteries, 
with  several  dolmens,  of  the  4th  cent.,  the  sole  relics  of  an  ancient  Berber 
town.  —  69  M.  Takdempt,  with  a  ruined  arsenal  of  Abd  el-Kader. 

75  M.  Tiaret  (3577  ft.;  Hot.  d'Orient  or  Lecat;  Hot.  des  Colonies, 
E.  Vk-Z,  dej.  or  D.  Vlrfi,  pens.  4-6  fr.;  pop.  7200;  Mon.  market)  lies  on 
a  mountain-pass  not  far  from  the  fertile  Plateaux  du  Sersou,  on  the  S. 
margin  of  the  Tell  Atlas,  a  cold  but  healthy  site,  once  occupied  by  Tin- 
gartia,  the  capital  of  W.  Algeria  in  the  Byzantine  period.  New  Tiaret, 
the  capital  ot  the  Kharijite  sect  of  the  Ibadites  (p.  323),  probably  lay 
below  the  present  town,  in  the  direction  of  Takdempt.  —  About  halfway 
on  the  road  from  Tiaret  to  (35  M.)  Frenda,  among  the  hills  to  the  S.  of 
Tiaret,  are  the  *Djedar,  step-pyramids  in  the  style  of  the  'Tombeau  de 
la  Chretienne'  (p.  238),  but  on  square  foundations,  tombs  apparently  of 
forgotten  Christian  Berber  princes  of  the  6-7th  cent.,  composed  partly  of 
materials  from  5th  cent,  buildings.  Three  of  these,  all  in  a  very  ruinous 
condition,  are  on  Jebel  Hadjar;  ten,  including  the  largest  (52  by  49  yds.), 
lie  on  the  Colline  de  Ternaten,  3XI4  M.  farther  to  the  S. 

The  Algiers  Railway,  running  to  the  N.E.,  at  some  distance 
from  the  Sebkha  de  Relizane  or  de  Sidi  Dou  Chiane,  enters  the 
desolate  lower  plain  of  the  Chelif  (p.  215),  the  ancient  Chylimath 
(Arabic  Kelmitu).  98  M.  St.  Aime  or  Djidioma  (243  ft.),  with 
a  petroleum-refinery  for  the  oil-springs  of  Ain-Zeft  (Taghia),  lies 
on  the  Dahra,  the  coast-hills  to  the  N.  of  the  Chelif.  The  train 
crosses  the  Oued  Djidioma. 

104  M.  Inkermann  or  Oued-Riou  (263  ft. ;  Hot.  des  Voyageurs; 
Hot.  d'Inkermann;  pop.  5200,  of  whom  4200  are  Mohammedans), 
with  large  quarries  and  a  Wednesday  market. 

The  little  Berber  town  of  Mazovma,  18  M.  to  the  N.  of  Inkermann, 
on  a  branch  of  the  road  to  Renault,  superbly  situated,  the  capital  of  the 
W.  Algerian  beylic  before  Mascara  (p.  200),  is  one  of  the  quaintest  places 
in  the  Algerian  Tell  Atlas.  Home  industries  (burnouses,  haiks,  etc.)  are 
much  in  vogue.    Interesting  Thursday  market. 

The  train  crosses  the  Oued  Riou.  HO1^  M.  Le  Merdja,  the 
last  station  in  the  province  of  Oran. 

HT-lz  M.  Charon  or  Bou-Kader,  a  little  town  of  5200  inhab., 
almost  all  Mohammedans,  lies  in  the  province  of  Algiers  (Thurs. 
market).  On  a  low  hill,  2  M.  to  the  N.,  are  Roman  ruins,  called 
El-Aouna  by  the  natives.  At  Touchaid,  3  M.  to  the  S.W.,  is  a 
cavern  in  the  rock,  330  ft.  long,  consisting  of  a  number  of  low 
passages,  and  containing  huge  layers  of  bats'  guano.  The  Trou  du 
Diable,  4  M.  to  the  S.  of  Charon,  is  another  object  of  interest. 

We  cross  the  Oued  Sly,  with  its  barrage,  to  (122  M.)  Malakoff 
or  Oued- Sly,  and  then  pass  through  a  wood  of  Aleppo  pines  and 

13iy2M.  Orldansville  (410  ft.;  H6t.  du  Palais,  pens.  5  fr.; 
Hot.  des  Voyageurs;  pop.  4900,  of  whom  2300  are  Mohammedans), 

to  Algiers.  TENES.  S8.  Route.     209 

founded  in  1843  on  the  site  of  the  Koman  Castellum  Tingitanum, 
is  a  smiling  oasis,  irrigated  by  a  conduit  from  the  Chelif,  but  one 
of  the  hottest  places  in  Algeria  (maximum  12b1 /2"  Fahr.).  The  chief 
sight  is  the  early-Christian  Basilica  in  the  Place  de  la  Mosaique, 
discovered  in  1843,  and  recently  further  excavated.  It  was  built 
in  324,  and  is  the  oldest  Christian  church  in  Algeria.  The  found- 
ation walls  are  alone  preserved.  It  consisted  of  a  nave  and  double 
aisles,  without  a  transept,  with  two  entrances  from  the  outer  aisles 
and  a  rounded  W.  apse,  to  which  was  added  in  475  a  second  choir- 
recess  at  the  E.  end,  containing  the  tomb  of  Bishop  Reparatus.  Con- 
siderable fragments  of  the  mosaic  pavement  also  have  been  pre- 
served. The  town  has  also  a  Mosqtie  (1894)  and  a  Carpet  Making 
School.  The  Saturday  market  is  important.  From  the  N.  ramparts 
we  have  a  fine  view  of  the  Chelif  ravine  and  the  Dahra  Mts. 

A  Road  (railway  in  course  of  construction)  leads  from  Orleansville  to 
Tines  (33  M.;  diligence  in  6  hrs.,  at  2,  from  Tenes  at  6  p.m.).  It  crosses 
the  Chilif  and  beyond  the  suburb  of  La  Ferme,  hidden  among  trees, 
leads  through  a  eucalyptus  avenue,  and  then  to  the  N.W.  across  a  plain 
to  (8'/jM.l  Warnier  (394  ft.),  at  the  mouth  of  the  Oued  Ouahran  Valley. 
Then  "to  the  N.,  through  the  Dahra  Mts.,  inhabited  almost  solely  by 
Berbers,  to  (17  M.)  Les  Trois-Palmiers  (525  ft.),  with  its  gypsum  quarries, 
and  across  the  (19'/«  M.)  Col  de  Kirba  (1476  ft.)  to  the  valley  of  the  Oued 
Attala  and  (30  M.)  Montenotte,  with  its  orchards  and  iron-mines.  32'/aM. 
Vieux-Te'nes,  picturesquely  situated  above  the  gorge  of  the  Allala,  said 
to  have  been  founded  by  S.  Spanish  Moors  in  875,  was  notorious  aa 
a  den  of  pirates  in  the  Turkish  period.  33  M.  Tenes  (161  ft. ;  Hot.  des 
Arts;  Hot.  de  TUnivers,  etc.;  pop.  5000,  Berbers  3300),  founded  in  1843, 
is  perched  like  Mostaganem  on  the  edge  of  a  plateau  rising  above  its 
little  frequented  harbour,  which  is  fairly  sheltered  on  the  E.  only  by  the 
huge  rocky  Cape  T&nes  (2093  ft.;  lighthouse  visible  for  40  M.).  Of  Car- 
the  earliest  settlement  here,  originally  founded  by  Phoenicians,  a 
few  Roman  cisterns  only  have  been  preserved.  At  the  W.  end  of  Tenes 
there  are  also  some  rock-tombs  belonging  to  an  early-Christian  cemetery. 

A  second  Road  (36  M.;  'courrier'  on  Mon.,  Wed.,  and  Frid.  at  6  a.  m., 

in  8  hrs.)  leads  from  Orleansville  to  the  S.E.,  through  the  Ouarsenis  Mts., 

I  M.)  Bouca'id,  with  the  zinc  and  galena  mines  of  the  Belgian  Vieille- 

Montagne  Co.,  to  (36  M.)  Beni-Hindel  (3825  ft.)  at  the  S.  base  of  the  triple- 

prakort  Ouarsenis  (6512  ft.).    To  Teniet  el-Hadd,  see  p.  211,  210. 

Leaving  Orleansville,  the  train  runs  to  the  N.E.,  near  the  Che- 
lif, to  (135  M.)  Ponttba.  Fine  view,  to  the  left,  of  the  hill-region 
on  the  E.  margin  of  the  lower  plain  of  the  Chelif.  140  M.  Le  Bar- 
rage, near  the  largest  reservoir  of  the  Chelif.  The  train  sweeps 
round  to  the  S.,  away  from  the  river,  and  traverses  a  fertile  and 
well  shaded  plain  to  (146  M.)  Oued-Fodda  (522  ft.),  a  small  town 
of  5300  inhab.,  near  the  left  bank  of  the  Oued  Fodda,  through 
whose  valley  peeps  the  three-peaked  Ouarsenis  (see  above). 

In  the  Ploine  des  Ailafs,  as  the  very  monotonous  central  plain 
of  the  Chelif  is  called,  we  next  come  to  (14S  M.)  Temoidga-Vauban, 
at  the  foot  of  the  bare  Jebel  Temoulga  (1749  ft.;  with  iron-mines), 
to  (162  M.)  Oued-Rou'ina,  and  (166  M.)  Kherba,  the  station  for 
a  village  3  M.  to  the  N.,  on  the  margin  of  the  Dahra  Mts.  —  To  the 
right,  in  the  foreground,  rises  the  range  of  Jebel  Doui  (3409  ft.), 

210     Route  33.  TENIET  EL-HAAD.  From  Oran 

whose  spurs  bound  the  central  Chelif  plain.  To  the  left,  for  a  short 
time,  we  have  a  *View  of  Jebel  Bou  Maad  (4643  ft.),  generally 
snow-clad  in  winter,  and  of  Jebel  Zaccar  Gharbi  (p.  212).  171  M. 
Duperre  (820  ft.),  at  the  foot  of  Jebel  Doui,  near  the  ancient  Roman 
Oppldum  Novum. 

The  train  crosses  the  Chelif  above  the  influx  of  the  Oued  Ebda. 
To  the  left,  in  the  river-bed,  is  the  pier  of  a  bridge  on  the  old 
Roman  military  road.  We  now  pass  through  a  defile  between  barren 
hills;  to  the  right  we  have  a  glimpse  of  the  broad  upper  plain  of 
the  Chelif.  178V2  M.  Littre  or  Les  Arib  (853  ft.),  in  the  Plaine 
des  Aribs,  at  the  foot  of  the  Dahra.  184  M.  L'avarande  (945  ft.), 
on  the  spurs  of  the  Zaccar  range. 

18672M.  Affreville  (1020  ft.;  Rail.  Restaurant,  with  rooms, 
good;  Hot.  de  l'Univers,  in  the  village,  next  to  the  diligence-office, 
R.  2,  B.  Va,  D.  2  fi\;  Hot,  du  Haut-Chelif;  Hot.  de  Vaucluse,  near 
the  station,  well  spoken  of;  pop.  2000),  at  the  foot  of  Jebel  Zaccar 
Gharbi,  is  one  of  the  stations  (Miliana-Margueritte  being  the  other, 
see  p.  211)  for  Miliana  (6J/4  M. ;  diligence  3  times  daily,  1  fr. ;  carr 
10-12  fr.),  and  the  starting-point  for  Teniet  el-Haad. 

The  Excursion  to  the  Cedar  Forest  of  Teniet  el-Haad  takes  a 
day-and-a-half  (motor-omnibus,  5  or  6  fr.,  in  ca.  3  his. ;  diligence,  leaving 
at  11  a.m.,  returning  at  9.40  a.m.,  in  8  hrs.;  carriage  50  fr.  or  more, 
hardly  recommended).  To  the  E.  of  Affreville,  beyond  the  market  (Thurs.) 
and  the  Oued  Sou/fay,  our  rather  featureless  road  diverges  to  the  S. 
from  the  Dolfusville  road ;  it  leads  among  eucalyptus  trees  to  the  (23/4M.) 
Chelif,  and  then,  beyond  (7'/2  M.)  Le  Putts  (971  "ft.),  ascends  by  the  Oued 
Massin  through  an  almost  uninhabited  part  of  the  Tell  Atlas,  between 
hills  thinly  clad  with  pines.  10'/2  M.  Pont-du-Caid  (1329  ft.);  16'/2  M.  de  VOiud- Massin;  22  M.  Marbot  (2287  ft.).  Beyond  the 
39th  kilometre-stone  (2 J' /a  M.)  we  observe  on  the  right  the  curiously 
shaped  sandstone  rock  of  Jebel  Hadjra  Toiiila.  We  then  cross  a  pass 
(2920  ft.),  whence  We  have  a  pleasing  view  of  the  valley  of  the  Massin 
behind  us,  to  (27'/2  M.)  Dutertre  on  the  Oued  Rouina. 

36  M.  Teniet  el-Haad  (3806  ft.;  Hot.  du  Commerce,  R.  2,  dej.  2, 
D.  2]/2  fr.,  tolerable;  Hot.  de  la  Colonie,  humble;  pop.  2100),  the  starting- 
point  of  caravan-routes  to  Tiaret  (p.  208)  and  to  Chellala  and  Laghouat 
(p.  215),  situated  on  one  of  the  most  important  passes  of  the  Tell  Atlas, 
owes  its  name  ('Sunday  Pass')  to  its  Sunday  market,  attended  chiefly  by 
the  inhabitants  of  the  Plateaux  du  Sersou  (p.  208).  On  the  E.  side  of 
the  little  town  lies  the  poor  'Village-Negre'  (comp.  p.  181). 

The  *  Cedar  Forest  of  Teniet  cl-Hadd,  on  the  slopes  of  Jebel  el-Meddad 
(5863  ft.;  'cedar-mountain'),  to  the  W.  of  the  town,  is  still  the  finest  in 
Algeria,  although  largely  cut  down  of  late  and  bereft  of  its  primaeval 
character.  The  Atlas  cedar  (Cedrus  Atlantica  Manetti),  with  its  silvery 
and  very  short  needles,  and  of  gnarled  and  often  fan-like  growth,  is 
smaller  and  less  showy  than  the  Himalaya  cedar  (Cedrus  Deodora  Rox- 
burg)  and  the  cedar  of  Lebanon  (Cedrus  Libani),  but  in  a  few  cases 
attains  a  circumference  of  30  ft.  The  cedars  are  mingled,  particularly 
in  the  lower  parts  of  the  forest,  with  evergreen  or  holm  oaks  and  cork- 
trees (Quercus  ilex,  cenis,  and  suber).  The  excursion  to  the  forest,  as 
far  as  the  Rond-Point  and  back,  takes  4V2-5  hrs.,  or  including  Kef  Siga 
6-7  hrs.  (Mule,  obtained  from  the  natives,  or  horse,  from  the  Bureau  des 
Messageries,  5  f r. ;  carr.  from  the  latter,  20-25  fr.,  hardly  advisable  as  the 
road  is  bad.)  The  road  to  the  (83/4  M.)  Rond-Point  leaves  the  highroad 
to  the  S.  of  the  town,   but  riders  and  walkers  take  a  short-cut  from  the 

to  Algiers.  Ml  LIANA.  33.  Route.     211 

W.  side  of  the  town,  thus  saving  about  l'/4  M.  In  about  40  min.  we 
come  to  the  raravluie,  on  the  right  side  of  the  carriage-road,  an  um- 
brella-shaped cedar  on  a  rocky  height  on  the  N.  slope  or  the  Kef  Sachi 
(5184  ft.),  and  in  25  min.  more  to  the  forester's  hut  (gourbi  forestier)  of 
Pri-Maigrat.  The  finest  parts  of  the  forest  are  near  the  forester's  house 
at  the  Bond-Point  des  Gedres  (4889  ft. ;  rfmts.  if  required),  on  the  N 
margin  of  the  Jebel  el-Meddad,  where  the  Sultane,  one  of  the  grandest 
of  the  cedars  is  pointed  out.  From  the  Roud-Point  a  steep  zigzag  path 
ascends  to  a  saddle  with  a  pasture  in  a  clearing  (on  the  right),  where 
we  dismount,  and  whence  we  climb  over  the  rocks  to  the  top  of  the 
Kef  Siga  (5624  ft.),  the  N.W.  peak  of  the  'cedar-mountain'.  The  *View 
embraces  the  whole  of  the  Ouarseuis  group  (p.  209);  to  the  E.  rise  the 
mountains  of  Boghar;  to  the  N.  the  Zaccar  range  with  Miliana.  To  the 
S.  we  survey  the  Hauts-Plateaux,  with  the  bare  hills  of  Chellala,  as  far 
as  the  distant  Jebel  Amour  (p.  170)  in  the  Sahara  Atlas. 

From  the  Bond-Point  we  may  ride  on  to  the  W.  to  (5-6  hrs.)  Beni- 
Hindcl  (p.  209). 

The  train  crosses  the  Oued  Boutan.  It  then  runs  to  the  N.E., 
soon  with  a  retrospect  of  the  Ouarsenis  Mts.,  and  ascends  the  lux- 
uriantly fertile  valley  of  the  Oued  Sou/fay,  between  the  Zaccar  range 
and  Jebel  Gontas  (2858  ft.),  to  (193V2  M.)  Miliana- Margueritte  or 
Adelia  (about  1700  ft.),  the  station  for  Miliana,  5^2  M.  to  the  W. 
(reached  by  steam-tramway,  in  connection  with  the  trains,  in  3/4  hr.), 
and  for  Margueritte  (p.  212;  diligence). 

Miliaria.  —  Hotels.  *  Hotel  du  Commerce  &  d'Isly,  Rue  de  Con- 
stantine,  near  Place  Carnot;  Hot.  Valentin,  Place  Carnot,  next  the  diligence- 
oftiee,  with  dependanee  (Hot.  d' Europe)  iu  Rue  Fontenoy,  R.  2  fr.,  B.  40  c, 
dej.  or  D.  2,  pens.  6  fr.,  unpretending,  attentive  landlord.  —  Diligence 
to  Affreville  (in  the  morning  in  connection  with  the  motor-omnibus  to 
Teniet  cl-Haad),  see  p.  210. 

Miliana  (2428  ft, ;  pop.  8400,  incl.  5300  Mohammedans),  which 
is  said  to  have  been  founded  by  Bologgin  ez-Ziri  (comp.  p.  221) 
on  the  site  of  the  Roman  Zucchabar,  lies  most  romantically  on  a 
terrace  on  the  S.  slope  of  Jebel  Zaccar  Gharbi,  amidst  luxuriant 
gardens,  and  is  particularly  charming  in  April  when  the  fruit- 
trees  are  in  blossom. 

The  chief  gate,  the  N.  gate  of  the  modern  town-walls,  is  the 
Porte  da  Zaccar,  near  the  tramway-terminus,  a  few  paces  from  the 
small  public  Jardin  Magenta. 

Passing  the  covered  Marche  Arabe  the  Rue  St. Paul,  a  beauti- 
ful avenue  of  planes,  leads  in  3  min.  to  the  Place  Carnot,  in  the 
centre  of  which  rises  an  ivy-clad  Minaret  (now  a  clock-tower),  a 
of  the  chief  mosque,  which  was  destroyed  during  the  war  with 
Al.^1  el-Kader  (p.  221). 

NTear  the  S.W.  angle  of  the  Place  Carnot  passes  the  Rue  St.  Jean, 
also  planted  with  plane-trees,  leading  to  the  S.  to  the  Esplanade  de 
la  Casbah  (nicknamed  Poinie  aux  Blagueurs),  which  affords  a  de- 
lightful view  of  the  CheJif  plain  and  the  Ouarsenis  Mts.  The  orchards 
around  and  the  cascades  of  the  Oued  Boutan  (see  above)  are  better 
seen  from  the  rampart  promenade  on  the  E.  side  of  the  town. 

212     Route  33.  HAMMAM  RHIRA.  From  Oran 

The  *  Jebel  Zaccar  Gharbi  (5181  ft. ;  'Western  Zaccar')  is  ascended 
by  a  good  mule-path  in  2'l2-3  hrs.  (mule  4-5  fr.).  The  view  of  the  wooded 
Dahra  Mts.,  of  the  Chenoua  (p.  242),  of  part  of  the  Mitidja,  and  of  the 
S.  Tell  Atlas,  is  one  of  the  finest  in  Algeria. 

A  delightful  *Excursion,  by  carriage  or  on  foot,  especially  in  spring, 
may  be  taken  to  (6V4  M.)  Margueritte,  the  road  to  it  being  part  of  that 
from  Affreville  to  Blida  and  Algiers  (comp.  p.  214).  The  road  branches 
to  the  left,  a  few  minutes  to  the  N.E.  of  the  Porte  du  Zaccar,  from  the 
Adelia  road,  and  soon  passes  close  below  the  iron  and  copper  mines 
of  the  Sociiti  des  Mines  du  Zaccar,  which  are  connected  by  a  line  of 
rails  with  the  road  tramway.  Farther  on,  ascending  gradually  through 
orchards,  a  perfect  sea  of  blossom  in  spring,  we  reach  the  gorge  of  the 
Oued  Righas  or  Rirhas,  between  Jebel  Zaccar  Gharbi  and  Jebel  Zaccar 
Chergui  (5027  ft.;  'Eastern  Zaccar'),  which  also  is  famed  for  its  view. 

Margueritte  (2395  ft.;  Hot.  du  Zaccar,  poor)  lies  picturesquely  on  the 
S.E.  slope  of  the  hill,  3  M.  above  the  rail,  station  of  Miliana-Margueritte 
(p.  211),  with  a  fine  view  of  the  valley  of  the  Oued  Souffay,  and  yields 
one  of  the  best  red  wines  in  Algeria.  —  Farther  on  the  road  skirts  the 
E.  slope  of  the  Zaccar  Chergui,  rounds  the  gorge  of  the  Oued  Tizi-Ouchir, 
and  then  descends  in  windings  across  the  Col  des  Oliviers  (1834  ft.;  beyond 
this  a  rough  road  to  the  left  diverges  to  Hainniam-Rhira,  see  below),  aside 
from  the  village  of  Vesoul-Benian  (1653  ft. ;  4'/2  M.  to  the  N.  of  the  rail, 
station,  see  below),  to  (9  M.)  the  Pont  de  VOued  el-Hammam  (see  below). 

Just  beyond  Miliana-Margueritte  the  Railway  passes  through 
a  tunnel  (2525  yds.)  into  the  bleak  valley  of  the  Oued  Zeboudj. 
20072  M.  Vesoul-Benian,  station  for  the  village  (see  above). 

205  M.  Bou-Medfa  (797  ft.),  about  1  M.  to  the  W.  of  the 
village  of  that  name,  is  the  station  for  the  baths  of  Hammam 
Rhira.  (Hotel-omnibus  meeting  every  train,  up  in  1,  down  in 
3/4hr.;  trunk  7rl»/,£r.) 

The  road  ascends  to  the  W.  from  the  station  in  the  valley  of  the  Oued 
el-Hammam,  which  at  Bou-Medfa  joins  the  Oued  Zeboudj  to  form  the 
Oued  Djer  (p.  213).  2  M.  Pont  de  VOued  el-Hammam  (883  ft.),  at  the 
junction  of  our  road  with  that  leading  from  Affreville  and  Miliana  to 
Bourkika  (p.  243),  Blida,  and  Algiers.  We  follow  the  latter  into  the 
side-valley  of  the  Oued  Djir,  whence  we  ascend  to  the  S.W.  in  windings 
to  -the  (7  M.)  village  of  Hammam  Rhira  (1542  ft.;   Hot.  d'Orient,   poor). 

7V2  M.  Hammam  Rhira  (1706  ft.;  *Grand-H6t.  des  Bains,  of  the 
first  class,  with  beautiful  grounds  shaded  with  palms,  and  baths  including 
two  hot  swimming-baths,  B.  4-8,  B.  l»/2,  dej.  'dlj2,  D.  5,  pens.  10-18  fr., 
open  15th  Dec.  -15th  May  only;  Hot.  Bellevue,  dependance  of  the  former 
and  below  it,  also  with  baths,  plainer,  pens.  7-9  fr.,  open  May-Dec),  the 
Aquae  Calidae  of  antiquity,  Arabic  Hammam  Sidi-SKmdn  (Solomon's 
Bath),  is  the  most  fashionable  watering-place  in  Algeria.  It  lies  on  a 
barren  terrace  descending  abruptly  to  the  S.E.  to  the  Oued  el-Hammam, 
affording  a  fine  view  of  Jebel  Zaccar  Chergui  to  the  W.,  and  of  Jebel 
Gontas  (p.  211),  Jebel  Louhe  (4751  ft.),  and  Jebel  Mouzai'a  (p.  213)  to 
the  S.  The  hot  springs  (113-166°  Fahr.),  which  are  strongly  impregnated 
with  carbonate  and  hydrated  sulphate  of  lime,  are  used  as  a  cure  for 
rheumatism,  gout,  etc.,  while  the  water  of  a  cold  chalybeate  spring  is 
drunk  by  anaemic  and  dyspeptic  patients.  The  chief  season  for  foreign 
visitors  is  from  the  middle  of  Feb.  to  the  middle  of  April;  in  summer 
the  military  hospital,  which  contains  three  restored  ancient  piscinae,  and 
the  Mohammedan  and  Jewish  baths  below  the  Hot.  Bellevue  are  much 
frequented  by  Algerians.  The  Alice  des  Ruines  in  the  public  grounds 
contains  a  few  relics  from  the  ancient  Aquae  CalidaB.  We  may  walk  thence 
to  the  W.,   between  vineyards  which  yield  excellent  red  wine,   in  '/*  hi 

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to  Algiers.  BLIDA.  33.  Route.     213 

to  the  Foret  de  Chaiba,  a  pine-forest  of  2000  acres,  in  which  the  'petit 
tour'  of  2'/s  or  the  'grand  tour'  of  5  M.  may  be  taken.  The  Samsam 
(2800  ft.)  commands  a  fine  view  of  the  Mitidja  and  the  Sahel  (p.  221). 
Pleasaut  drives  (carr.  15-40  fr.  per  day;  driver  and  horses  to  be  fed  by 
the  hirer)  via  (12:/2M.)  Margiieritte  to  (18'/2M.)  Miliaria  (comp.  p.  212);  via, 
Bourkika  and  Marengo  to  (23  M.)  Tipaza  or  to  Cherchell  (see  pp.  243,  244). 

From  Bou-Medfa  the  train  descends  to  the  N.E.,  skirting  the 
Oued  Djer,  and  through  a  defile,  overgrown  with  underwood,  at  the 
foot  of  the  Nador  des  Soumata  (2507  ft.),  to  (214  M.)  Oued-Djer, 
and  then  to  the  E.  into  the  broad  plain  of  the  Mitidja  (p.  221).  To 
the  left  in  the  distance  rises  the  Chenoua  (p.  242),  and  on  the  Sahel 
range  (p.  221)  may  be  seen  the  'Tombeau  de  la  Chretienne'  (p.  238). 

219'/2  M.  El-Affroun,  a  village  on  the  Affreville  and  Algiers 
road,  is  like  Castiglione  (p.  238)  a  starting-point  for  Tipaza  and 
Cherchell  (steam-tramway,  see  p.  243).  To  the  right  rise  the  hills 
of  Blida,  with  the  deep  incision  of  the  Chiffa  ravine  (p.  215). 

222^2  M.  Mouza'iaville  (368  ft.;  pop.  5000)  lies  near  the  spurs 
of  the  wooded  Jebel  Mouza'ia,  inhabited  by  the  Berber  tribe  of 
that  name.  225»/2  M.  Chiffa  (364  ft.),  near  the  left  bank  of  the 
CJiiffa  (see  p.  238),  and  nearly  4  M.  from  the  entrance  to  the  ravine 
(by  the  Rocher  Blanc,  p.  215).  —  We  cross  the  stony  bed  of  the 
Chiffa,  opposite  the  influx  of  the  Oued  el-Kebir  (see  below),  and 
then  ascend  through  fields,  vineyards,  and  cactus-hedges  to  — 

230  M.  Blida.  —  The  Station  (689  ft.)  lies  about  »/4  M.  below  the 
town,  to  the  N.W.,  18-20  min.  from  the  chief  hotels.  Omnibus  to  the  Place 
d'Armes,  with  luggage,  10  (at  night  20)  c. ;  cab  50  c. 

Hotels.  Hut.  d' Orient  (PI.  a;  C,  3),  Rue  d' Alger  and  Place  d'Armes, 
R.  3-5,  B.  IV2,  dej.  3'/2,  D-  4,  pens.  12,  omn.  1lifr.,  good;  Hot.  Ge'ronde 
(PI.  b;  B,  2),  Rue  Lamy,  plainer;  Hot.  de  la  Mitidja  (PI.  c;  B,  2),  Rue 
Flatters,  corner  of  Rue  Pelissier,  R.  2,  dej.  or  D.  2  fr.,  plain  but  good; 
//■"'.  de  la  Gare,  near  the  station,  dej.  l>/2,  D.  2  fr.,  humble. —  Cafe 
d' Orient,  in  the  hotel,  and  Brasserie  Lyonnaise,  both  in  the  Place  d'Armes. 

Post  &  Telegraph  Office  (PI.  5;  C,  3),  Place  d'Armes. 

Cabs  (stand  in  the  Rue  de  l'Hopital,  behind  the  Place  d'Armes).  In 
town  V21  to  Sid-el-Kcbir  3-5,  Chiffa  Ravine  8-12  fr.  (according  to  bargain). 

Sights.  Forenoon,  Jardin  Bizot,  Bois  Sucre,  cemetery  of  S id-el- Kebir, 
and  Stud  Farm  ('la  Remonte');  afternoon,  trip  to  the  Chiffa  Ravine, 
either  from  Sidi-Madani  or  Camp-des-Chenes  (p.  215).  If  desired  Algiers 
may  be  reached  by  train  the  same  evening.  The  attractive  mountain 
tours  (Les  Glacieres,  etc.)  are  feasible  in  summer  only. 

Blida  (886  ft.;  pop.  18,400,  inch  10,700  Mohammedans),  one 
of  the  pleasantest  provincial  towns  in  Algeria,  with  a  strong  gar- 
rison, is  charmingly  situated  at  the  N.  base  of  the  Tell  Atlas,  on 
the  right  bank  of  the  Oued  el-Kebir.  To  this  so-called  'great  river', 
as  well  as  to  the  considerable  rainfall  in  winter,  the  town  is  indebted 
for  the  splendid  timber  in  its  public  grounds  and  the  luxuriant 
vegetation  of  its  orchards,  notably  the  orange-groves  between  the 
N.  suburbs  of  Joinville  and  Montpensier.  The  town  is  said  to 
have  been  founded  by  Andalusian  Moors  iu  1535;  in  1825  it  was 
destroyed  by  an  earthquake;  it  has  been  rebuilt  since  1838,  but  in 
1867  was  again  much  damaged  by  an  earthquake. 

214     Route  33  BLIDA.  From  Oran 

From  the  station  we  proceed  via  the  Avenue  de  la  Gare  to  the 
Bab  el-Sebt  (PL  A,  B,  2),  5  min.  to  the  N.E.  of  the  Bois  Sacre  (see 
below),  and  within  the  town-walls  we  follow  the  Rue  Lamy,  called 
also  Boulevard  Trunielet,  to  the  — 

Place  d'Armes  (PI.  C,  3),  which,  with  the  adjoining  Rue  d' Alger 
(PL  C,  3,  2),  is  the  centre  of  traffic.  This  pleasant  square  is  planted 
with  plane-trees  and  has  a  fountain  in  the  centre  shaded  by  a  great 
date-palm  (a  band  plays  here  in  winter).  Adjacent  is  the  Place 
Lavigerie  with  the  Catholic  church  of  St.  Charles  (PI.  C,  4). 

The  streets  to  the  N.  of  the  Place  d'Armes,  with  the  two  small 
Mosques  (PI.  3  &  4;  C,  3,  2),  and  the  lanes  near  the  Place  du 
Marche-Indigene  (PI.  C,  D,  3 ;  interesting  Friday  market)  are  in- 
habited mainly  by  Mohammedans  and  Jews.  From  the  Place  d' Al- 
ger, at  the  end  of  the  Rue  d'Alger,  the  Rue  Zaoui'a  leads  to  the  left 
to  the  large  Stud  Farm  (Depot  de  Remonte;  PI.  C,  1),  where  fine 
horses  of  the  Arab  and  Barb  breeds  may  be  seen. 

From  the  Place  d'Armes  the  Rue  and  Porte  Bizot  lead  to  the 
S.W.  to  the  *Jardin  Bizot  (PI.  B,  4),  containing  fine  araucarias, 
palms,  and  magnolias.  On  the  N.  side  of  the  Avenue  du  Champ-dc- 
Manceuvres,  5  min.  to  the  "W.  of  the  Porte  Bizot,  lies  the  famous 
Bois  Sacre  (PI.  A,  3, 4),  where  two  picturesque  tombs  of  saints  are 
shaded  by  superb  groups  of  Aleppo  pines,  araucarias,  and  olive-trees. 

The  Avenue  du  Charnp-do-Manoeuvres  joins,  near  the  drill-ground, 
the  highroad  to  Boukirka  (and  Affreville;  comp.  p.  212),  from  which,  just 
before  Chiffa  (p.  213),  5  M.  to  the  W.  of  Blida,  the  road  to  the  Chi/fa  Ravine 
and  liledea  (p.  215)  diverges  to  the  left.  This  route  to  the  Rocher  Blavc 
(p.  215)  is  uninteresting  and  in  summer  extremely  dusty  (cabs,  see  p.  213). 

From  Porte  Bizot  we  may  turn  to  the  E.  and  walk  round  the 
town-walls  through  an  avenue  of  carob-trees  to  the  Bab  el-Rabah 
(PL  D,  4),  the  S.E.  town-gate,  which  is  reached  also  from  the  Place 
d'Armes  by  the  busy  Rue  Tirman.  To  the  S.  of  this  gate  the 
Avenue  des  Moulins,  a  broad  avenue  of  planes,  leads  along  a  con- 
duit with  several  mills  into  the  pretty  valley  of  the  Oued  el-Kebir. 
After  10  min.  we  diverge  to  the  right  by  a  shadeless  road,  passing 
pleasant  orange-groves  and  crossing  the  stream  twice,  and  then, 
just  beyond  (:/2  hr.)  a  mill,  ascend  a  path  to  the  left  to  the  poor 
village  of  Sid-el-Kebir.  Above  the  village  are  the  Zaouia  and  the 
picturesque  Cemetery  of  Sid-el-Kebir,  with  the  tombs  of  Ahmed 
el-Kebir  (d.  1560),  the  founder  of  Blida,  and  his  two  sons,  to  which 
on  great  Mohammedan  festivals  pilgrims  flock  from  far  and  near. 
A  second  footpath  to  the  N.  descends  hence  into  the  valley. 

The  highest  mountains  of  Blida,  the  Jebel  Mouzaia  (p.  213)  and 
the  *Pic  des  Beni-Salah  or  Jebel  Sidi  Abd  el-Kdder  (5345  ft.), 
are  famed  for  their  cedar-forests,  where  the  natives,  however,  have 
made  sad  havoc,  and  for  the  grand  panorama  they  command.  The 
distant  view  embraces  the  Tell  Atlas  from  the  Ouarsenis  (p.  209) 
to  Jebel  Dira  (p.  250),  the  Dahra  (p.  208),  and  the  whole  of  the 

to  Algiers  BOGHARI.  83.  Route.     215 

Mitidja  with  the  Sahel  and  the  Jurjura  chain  (p.  258).  The  ascent 
of  the  Jebel  Sidi  Abd  el-Kader  via  Ain-Talazit  takes  4  hrs. — 
Hardly  less  repaying  is  the  ascent  of  the  Kef  Chrea  (5085  ft.) ,  to 
the  S.E.  of  Blida,  to  which  a  bridle-path  (mule  4-5  fr.)  leads  from 
the  Avenue  des  Moulins  (p.  214),  via  the  village  of  Les  Glacitres 
(3957  ft.;  Hot.  d' Altitude,  dej.  3  fr.,  good)  in  4  hrs. 

From  Blida  to  Berrouaghia,  52  M.,  railway  in  4  hrs.  (fares  9  fr.  10, 
6  fr.  70,  5  fr.  5  c).  The  train  diverges  to  the  S.W.  from  the  Oran  and 
Algiers  line,  crosses  the  Oued  el-Kebir  and  the  Chiff'a  (p.  213),  and  beyond 
the  Rocher  Blanc  (466  ft. ;  inn)  enters  the  Gorges  de  la  Chiffa,  a  grand 
defile,  flanked  with  the  slopes  of  the  Pic  des  Beni-Salah  and  Jebel  Mou- 
zal'a,  here  over  3000  ft.  high.  At  (7</2  M.)  Sidi-Madani  (597  ft.)  begins 
the  finest  part  of  the  ravine;  the  grandest  scenery  is  around  the  Hot. 
du  Ruisseau-des-S inges  (738  ft.;  ddj.  l3/4-3,  D.  3  fr.),  at  the  mouth  of  the 
side-valley  of  the  Oued  Tamesguida,  and  at  the  waterfalls  beyond  the 
inn.  The  numerous  apes  (p.  171)  that  dwell  in  the  rocks  here  sometimes 
descend  to  the  bottom  of  the  valley.  — 12  M.  C'amp-des- Chines  (1253  ft.; 
inn),  beyond  the  lateral  valley  of  the  Oued  Merdja.  Following  the 
valley  of  the  Oued  Mouza'ia  the  train  leads  round  the  S.  slope  of  Jebel 
Mouzal'a  to  (19l/2  M.)  3Iouzaia-les- Mines  (1640  ft.),  with  its  deserted  copper 
and  iron  mines,  and  then,  in  numerous  windings,  ascends  the  W.  slope 
of  Jebel  Nador  (3675  ft.;  fine  views)  to  (28  M.)  Lodi  (3042  ft.).  — 31  M. 
Medea  (3019ft.;  Hot.  d'Orient;  Hot.  du  Commerce;  pop.  3800,  incl. 
1900  Mohammedans  and  1200  Jews),  a  small  town,  perhaps  on  the  site 
of  the  Roman  Lambdia  (Tirinadisf),  was  founded  by  Bologgin  ez-Ziri 
(eonip.  p.  221),  and  was  the  capital  of  a  beylic  in  the  Turkish  period  under 
the  name  of  Titteri.  Great  native  markets  (Thurs.  and  Frid.).  The  en- 
virons yield  excellent  white  wine,  but  it  is  often  adulterated.  —  The  train 
next  ascends  to  the  S.E.,  in  numerous  windings,  to  (44>/2  M.)  Ben-Ohicao 
(3790  ft.),  the  highest  station  on  the  line.  —  52'/2  M.  Berrouaghia  (2958  ft. ; 
Hot.  do  France;  Hot.  des  Voyageurs),  a  small  town  of  2300  inhab.,  is  the 
present  terminus  of  the  line,  which  is  being  continued  to  Djelfa. 

A  diligence  runs  dailv  in  5>/2  hrs.  (at  1p.m.,  returning  at  9.35  a.m.) 
to  (27>/2M.)  Boghari  (2077  ft.;  Hot.  Celestin,  R.  2,  dej.  or  D.  2>/,,  fr.), 
a  small  trading  town  of  some  importance  on  the  upper  Chelif  (p.  208), 
with  a  Monday  market  and  a  picturesque  Ksar  on  a  hill  (evening  dances 
by  girls  of  the  Ouled  Nail  tribe;  see  below). 

Bogh-.iri  is  the  starting-point  of  the  important  caravan-route  to  the 
Sahara  oases  of  Laghouat  and  Gharda'ia.  Diligence  every  other  day  at 
3  a.m.  via.  Ain-Oussara  and  Djelfa  (night-station)  to  Laghouat  in  58  hrs. 
(also  motor -omnibus  sometimes);  most  of  the  stopping -places  have 
very  fair  inns  or  caravanserais  (R.  usually  2,  dej.  or  D.  2'/2fr.).  13  M. 
Boughzotd  or  Bou-Guezoul  (2100  ft.);  82»/»  M.  ALn-Oussara  (2330  ft.); 
57  M.  Guelt  es-Stel  (all  three  in  the  Hauts-Plateaux,  p.  169);  85  M.  Znvila 
(good  drinking-water);  96  M.  Djelfa  (3803  ft.:  Hot.  de  France,  quite 
good;  Hot.  du  Roulage;  pop.  2200),  in  the  midst  of  the  Sahara  Atlas. 
This  little  town,  situated  in  the  valley  of  the  Oued  Djelfa  or  Melah, 
where  dolmens  abound,  and  at  the  junction  of  our  road  with  the  caravan- 
route  to  Bou-Saada  (p.  270),  is  the  capital  of  the  nomad  tribe  of  the  Ouled 
Nail,  whose  daughters  usually  lead  an  evil  life  in  the  S.  Algerian  towns 
before  marriage.  (Their  valuable  trinkets  are  noticeable.)  118  M.  Ain- 
el-Ibel  (3412  ft.);  137  M.  Sidi-Maklouf  (3019  ft.).  — 177'/2  M.  Laghouat 
(2461  ft.;  Hot.  Storace,  good;  Hot.  Mendane;  pop.  5700,  incl.  5000  Moham- 
medans and  400  Jews).  This  picturesque  little  town,  on  the  S.  slope  of 
the  Sahara  Atlas,  with  its  military  headquarters  and  brisk  trade,  lies  on 
the  Oued  Mzi  (called  Oued  Djedi  lower  down;  p.  284).  amidst  the  fruit- 
trees  of  a  palm-oasis.  It  has  a  pretty  Jardin  Public.  The  native  quarters 
present  a  curious  and  lively  scene. 

The  journey  from   Laghouat  to  (ISO'/a  M.)   Ghardala    by   the  rough 

Baedeker's  Mediterranean.  14 

216     Route  83.  GHARDAIA. 

Sahara  road  is  very  fatiguing.  (Diligence  every  second  day,  in  winter  at 
4  a.m.,  in  summer  at  5  p.m.,  in  30  hrs. ;  fare  30  or  25  fr. ;  motor-omni- 
bus projected.)  The  chief  stages  are:  220'/2  M.  (from  Boghari)  TUyhemt 
or  Tilrempt  (quarters),  in  an  oasis  of  terebinths  (p.  202);  205  M.  Berrian 
(1936  ft.),  a  little  town  of  3800  inhab.,  the  northmost  settlement  of  the 
Mozabites  (17th  cent.),  lying  on  the  chalky  limestone  plateau  of  the  C'hebka, 
with  a  palm-oasis  on  the  Oued  Bir. 

308  M.  (from  Boghari;  130'/2  from  Laghouat)  Ghardaia  (1805  ft.; 
Hot.  du  Sud;  pop.  8200,  incl.  5400  Mozabites),  a  free  market,  is  one  of 
the  most  picturesque  and  interesting  places  in  the  Sahara.  Situated  on 
the  Oued  Mzab,  in  a  beautiful  oasis,  with  64,000  palms,  the  town  is  en- 
closed by  a  lofty  wall  defended  with  towers,  and  is  dominated  by  the 
great  minaret  of  the  chief  mosque.  It  holds  high  market  on  Fridays,  and 
has  two  places  of  amusement  (for  Arabian  music  and  dances).  Ghardaia 
is  the  headquarters  of  the  Mzab,  a  small  republic  of  towns  which  was 
founded  in  the  11th  cent,  by  fugitive  Berber  Ibadites  (p.  208)  after  the 
destruction  of  Tiaret,  was  presided  over  by  a  priestly  caste  (tholbas),  and 
in  1852  became  a  protectorate  of  the  French  who  annexed  it  in  1882.  The 
Mozabites  or  Msabites,  who  hold  aloof  from  the  other  Mohammedans,  are 
often  met  with  as  artisans  and  small  traders  in  the  towns  of  the  Tell  Atlas 
and  in  the  oases  of  the  E.  Sahara,  but  in  their  old  age  they  always  return 
to  their  original  home.  Their  manners  and  customs  are  still  somewhat 
mediaeval;  their  mosques  with  minarets  in  the  form  of  blunted  pyramids, 
their  curious  cemeteries  and  tombs  with  votive  offerings,  and  their  schools 
will  be  found  interesting.  Their  language  is  a  Berber  dialect  akin  to 
those  of  the  Kabylcs  (p.  252)  and  the  Tuareg,  but  Arabic  and  French  also 
are  generally  spoken. 

Among  places  worth  seeing  near  Ghardaia  are  (3/4  M.)  Me'lilca,  with 
its  black  inhabitants  and  large  cemeteries,  and  (l'/4  M.)  Beni-Isguen,  a 
wealthy  place  of  5400  inhab.,  the  sacred  town  of  the  Mozabite  league, 
from  which  Arabs  and  Jews  are  excluded,  with  a  massive  town -wall, 
clean  streets  (smoking  forbidden),  and  a  loftily  situated  castle.  The  oldest 
town  of  the  league  is  El-Ateiif,  founded  in  1012,  with  2000  inhab.,  5'/2  M. 
to  the  E.  of  Ghardaia,  on  the  caravan-route  to  (55'/a  M.)  the  Mozabite 
colony  of  Guerrara.  Other  caravan-routes  lead  from  Ghardaia  to  the 
S.W.  via.  (166  M.)  El-Gol4a  (1280  ft.),  with  its  small  oasis,  to  In  Salalt 
and  the  Tuat  Oases,  and  to  the  S.E.  to  (112  M.)  Ouargla  (p.  285). 

Beyond  Blicla  the  train,  running  to  the  N.E.,  through  orange- 
groves  and  fields  of  vegetables,  again  descends  to  the  Mitidja. 
234  M.  Beni-Mered  (459  ft.),  with  fertile  gardens. 

239  M.  Boufarik  (164  ft.;  Hot.  Benoit,  Boul.  National;  Hot. 
Nemoz,  Place  Mazagran,  D.  2  fr. ,  quite  good;  Hot.  de  la  Gare, 
humble;  oinn.  to  the  Place  Mazagran;  pop.  6000),  once  a  fever- 
stricken  village  of  peasants,  is  now  the  centre  of  trade  for  the  prod- 
uce of  the  Mitidja.  Around  it  are  admirably  irrigated  vineyards  and 
orchards  (oranges,  mandarins,  etc.),  sheltered  from  the  prevailing 
winds  by  planes,  thujas  (arbor  vitse),  or  cypresses.  Near  it  are  fact- 
ories of  perfume  and  immense  wine-cellars.  To  the  W.  of  the  town 
is  the  large  Marche  Arabe  (cattle-market;  Monday),  12  min.  from 
the  Place  Mazagran,  or  reached  by  a  road  direct  from  the  station. 

On  the  right,  farther  on,  we  observe  the  hill-ranges  of  Rovigo 
and  L'Arba  (pp.  248,  247)  and  the  Jebel  Bou-Zegza  (p.  249). 
Beyond  (245V2  M.)  Blrtouta-Chebli  we  near  the  low  spurs  of  the 
Sahel  (p.  221).  252,/2  M.  Gue-de-Constantine,  in  the  plain  of  the 
brook  Harrach  (p.  247),  where  the  eucalyptus  abounds. 


ALGIERS.  W.  Route.     217 

254'/2  M.  Maison-Carre'e  (p.  247),  junction  of  the  lines  to  Tizi- 
Ouzou  (K.  38),  Bougie  (R.  37),  Constantino  (R.  43),  and  Biskra 
■  I!.  44),  and  also  of  the  tramways  to  Ai'n-Taya  and  Rovigo  (p.  219). 

The  train  turns  to  the  N.W.  and  reaches  the  shore.  High  up  on 
the  left  lies  Kouba  (p.  233).    2571/;;  M.  Hussein-Dey,  see  p.  233. 

Skirting  the  Jardin  d'Essal,  on  the  left  (p.  232),  we  now  sight 
Algiers.  Beyond  the  S.E.  suburbs  of  Le  Hamma,  Bdcourt,  and 
Mnstapka-Inferieur  (p.  232),  we  come  to  the  minor  station  of 
:?f;ol '._,  Bt.)  Agha  and  then  to  the  (262»/a  M.)  main  station  of  Algiers. 

34.   Algiers. 

Arrival  by  Sea.  The  French  steamboat  lines  (RR.  20,  22)  have  their 
own  piurs.  The  fare  for  landing  by  boat  from  other  steamers  is  30  c. 
trunk  20  c;  small  articles  free).  The  tariff  of  the  porters  (portefaix- 
commissionnaires,  largely  natives,  mostly  exorbitant)  to  the  lower  part 
of  the  old  town  is  25  c.  for  a  trunk  of  25  kilos  (55  lbs.),  50  c.  up  to 
50  kilos,  and  1  fr.  up  to  100  kilos ;  for  porterage  to  the  custom-house  (Douane ; 
where  baggage  is  not  cleared  on  Sun.  or  festivals)  25-50  c,  according  to 
bargain.  The  numbered  porters  of  the  steamboat  companies  had  better  be 
employed;  or  the  matter  may  be  entrusted  to  the  hotel-agents.  The  ser- 
\  ices  of  guides,   interpreters,  and  the  like  should  be  declined. 

Railway  Stations.  1.  Chief  Station  (Garej  PLC,  3),  Quai  Sud, 
below  the  Rampes  Magenta  (p.  223)  and  Boul.  Carnot,  5-15  min.  from  the 
hotels  in  the  town,  ;,/.,-l  hr.  from  those  at  Mustapha-Supcrieur:  station  for 
all  the  hotel-omnibuses  (no  tramway  ;  cabs,  see  p.  218). — 2.  Gave  de  I' Agha 
(PI.  C,  5,  6;  also  goods-station),  Rue  Sadi-Carnot,  at  Agha-Iuferieur  (p.  232;, 
a  subordinate  station  for  the  S.  quarters  of  the  town.  —  Town-offices  of  the 
railways,  Boul.  Carnot  2  and  at  the  Agence  Lubin  (p.  219). 

Hotels  (coinp.  p.  174;  in  Feb.  and  March  rooms  should  be  ordered  in 
advance).  In  the  Villa  Quarter  (Mustapha-Superieur  and  Quartier  dTsly; 
mostly  closed  in  summer),  suitable  for  some  stay,  clientele  largely  EiiLlis:; 
and  American:  *Hor.  Continental  (PI.  c;  A,  6),  Chemin  du  Telemly  and 
Boul.  Bon-Accueil  (entered  also  from  the  Station  Sanitaire,  p.  228),  on  a 
high  site,  with  fine  views  and  garden,  R.  5-20,  B.  l'/2i  dej.  4-5,  D.  6-8, 
pens,  from  13,  omu.  3  f r. ;  *H6t.  St.  George  (IT.  a;  A,  8),  Rue  Michelet, 
with  beautiful  grounds,  R.  5-15,  B.  l'/ai  ''  '•  I  -  I'/a >  D.  6-7,  pens.  13-25, 
omn.  3  fr. ;  Alexandra  (Hot.  Kirsch;  PI.  b,  A  8),  same  street,  with  garden 
and  small  terrace,  R.  4-18,  B.  2,  dej.  VI-,-ilj2,  D.  5-6,  pens.  12-25,  omu. 
3  fr.,  good  cuisine;  these  three  are  of  the  first  class.  —  Hot.  Oriental 
(PI.  f ;  A,  6),  Boul.  Bon-Accueil  (entrance  from  Station  Sanitaire),  witli 
garden,  R.  5-10,  B.  l'/4,  dej.  3,  D.  1,  pens,  from  9  fr.,  good  cuisine;  Grand- 
Hotel  (PI.  g;  A,  7),  above  Rue  Michelet,  with  fine  grounds,  pens.  9-12  fr. ; 
H6t.  Beau-sejour  (PI.  e;  A,  6),  Rue  Michelet,  below  the  Museum  Ter- 
race (p.  228),  R.  3-8,  B.  1,  dej.  or  D.  3,  pens.  8-10,  omn.  21/.,  fr.,  open 
throughout  the  year;  Pens.  Villa  Olivage,  beyond  the  Bois  de  Boulogne 
(p.  230),    good;    Pens.  Victoria,    Rue  Michelet,    near  the  Colonne   Voirol. 

In  the  Town,  nearer  the  sights,  more  convenient  for  excursions: 
*Hot.  Excelsior  (PI.  h;  C,  4,  5),  Boul.  Laferriere,  S  min.  from  the  Garc 
de  l'Agha,  well  fitted  up,  with  restaurant,  R.  1-30.  B.  l«/4,  dej.  SV2!  D.  5, 
hoard  8,  omn.  (also  from  the  Agha  station)  1  f r. ;  'Hot.  in:  i,  Oasis  (PI.  k; 
C,  3),  Rue  du  Lanrier  2  and  Boul.  de  la  Republique  9,  with  tine  views, 
restaurant,  and  American  bar,  R.  3-18,  B.  l'/2,  pens,  from  10,  omn.  l'/j  fr.; 
H6t.  de  la  Reoence  (PI.  1;  C,  2),  Place  du  Gouvernement  3,  R.  4-10,  B.  l'/>, 
dej.  3',.   D.  l'/a,  pens.  12-20,  omn.  l'/s  fr.;  Or. -Hot.  Arago  &  or  Palmier 


218     Monte  84. 



(PI.  m;  C,  3),  Rue  Arago  6,  quiet;  H6t.  de  Nice  (PI.  n;  C,  8),  Rue  Gari- 
baldi 2  and  Place  de  la  Republique  (Square  Bresson). 

H6tels  G-arnis.  Hot.  des  Etrakgers  (PI.  i;  C,  3),  Rue  Dumont- 
d'TJrville  1,  near  the  Place  de  la  Republique,  R.  3V2-7V2>  B.  l>/2;  H6t. 
d'Europe  &  Terminus  (PI.  o;  C,  3),  Rue  Garibaldi,  corner  of  Boul.  Carnot 
(R.  3-7,  B.  1  fr.),  Royal  Hotel  (PI.  p;  C,  3),  Boul.  de  la  Republique  10 
(R.  from  2V2  fr.),  both  with  fine  views;  H6t.  Regina,  Boul.  Bugeaud. 

Caf6s.  Cafe  Continental  (Brasserie  Maxeville),  Cafe"  d' Alger  (Brass, 
de  Tantonville),  both  Place  de  la  Republique;  Cafe"  de  Bordeaux,  Boul. 
de  la  Republique  1,  corner  of  Place  du  Gouvernement;  Cafe  d'Apollon, 
Place  du  Gouvernement  4.  —  Confectioner.  Maison Fille,  Rue  Bab-Azoun  2. 

Restaurants.  At  the  Hotel  Excelsior  (p.  217) ;  London  House,  at  the 
Hot.  de  l'Oasis,  Boul.  de  la  Republique  9,  dej.  3,  D.  4  fr. ;  *Taverne  Gruber, 
same  boulevard,  No.  7,  a  favourite  resort  (music  in  the  afternoon  and 
evening) ;  Jaumon,  Rue  Dumont-d'Urville,  dej.  2,  D.  2'/a  fr.,  plain  but  good. 
—  For  Luncheon  (fish,  sea-crayfish,  sholl-fish,  etc.):  *Restaur.  Cassar  and 
Restaur,  de  la  Pecherie,  Rampe  de  la  Pecherie. —  Beer  at  the  *Brasserie 
Terminus,  Boul.  Carnot  1  (in  Hot.  de  l'Europe),  D.  3  fr. ;  also,  Rue  de  la 
Liberte  6,  Brass,  de  VEtoile  (music  in  the  afternoon  and  evening)  No.  11, 
Brass.  Stcisse;  No.  8,  Brass,  du  Phenix;  No.  1,  Brass.  Lorraine. 

Cabs  (voitures  de  "place). 
'Double  cotcrses'  (there  and  back):  — 

a)  within  the  First  Zone,   extending  as  far    as   the  per  It r. 
European  cemetery  of  St.  Eugene  (beyond  PI.  B,  1) 
to  the  N.  and  as  the  beginning  of  the  Champ   de 

Manoeuvres  (PI.  0,  7)  to  the  S 

Each  1/4  nr 

b)  within  the  Second  Zone,  including  the  W.  margin 
of  the  town  (Prison  Civile,  Telemly,  Palais  d'Ete 
at  Mustapha,  etc.)  and  extending  as  far  as  Deux- 
Moulins  beyond  St.  Eugene  (comp.  Map,  at  p.  233) 
to  the  N.  and  the  Cimetiire  Musulman  (PI.  D,  9)  at 
Selcourt  to  the  S.  To  the  Jardin  d'Essai  (and  back) 
Each  1/4  hr 

Within  the  Third  Zone  comprising  the  regions   beyond 
those  just  named: 

Half-day  (6  hrs.),  within  a  radius  of  15  kilometres 

(»»/»  M.) 

Whole  day  (12  hrs.),  within  a  radius  of  25  kilometres 

During  the  night-hours  (12-6  a.m.)  a  fare  and  a  half  is  charged.  —  For 
waiting,  '/a  fr-  extra  for  each  i/i  hr.  —  Hand-luggage  up  to  20  kilos  (44  lbs.) 
free;  each  piece  exceeding  that  50  c. 

Motor  Cabs  (Automobiles  de  place;  stand,  Rue  Garibaldi).  Drive 
under  900  mfetres  (984  yds.)  1  fr.  50  c. ;  for  each  addit.  300  m.  20  c. ;  small 
articles  free ;  trunk  50  c. 

Carriages  (cabs  and  'voitures  de  grande  remise' ;  fares  raised  on  Sun. 
and  holidays).  Vitos  &  Co.,  Rue  Michelet  105,  Mustapha-Superieur;  Sanino, 
Rue  de  Strasbourg  3,  and  Rue  Michelet  117;  Comp.  Ginirale  des  Voi- 
tures, Rue  de  Strasbourg  7.  —  Saddle  Horses  let  by  Vitoz  and  Sanino. — 

Motor  Cars  for  excursions:  Metrot,  Marce",  both  Rue  d'Isly  39; 
Anglo-American  Garage,   Chemin  du  Telemly;    E.  Paul,  Rue  d'Isly  73. 

Tramways  (1st  and  2nd  cl.).  1  (without  name-board).  From  Hopital 
du  Dey  (PI.  A,  B,  1)  to  Rue  Bab  el-Oued  (PI.  0,  1,  2),  Place  du  Gou- 
vernement (PI.  C,  2),  Rue  Bab-Azoun  (PI.  C,  2,  3),  Rue  d'Isly  (PI.  C,  3,  4), 
Rue  Michelet,  and  Station  Sanitaire  (PI.  A,  6),  every  5  min.  (but  5-6  a.m. 
and  10-12  p.m.  every  10  min.  only);  fare  5-20  c.  —  2  (red  name-board). 
From  Place  du  Gouvernement  to  Rue  d'Isly,  Rue  Michelet,  and  Colonne 




yote*.  ALGIERS.  **  Route.     219 

Voirol  (comp.  PI.  A,  8),  every  '/a  hr.  (from  6  a.m.,  last  car  at  8.5  p.m.), 
in  40min.;  fare  30  or  20  c.  —  3  (blue).  From  Place  du  Gouvernement  to 
Rue  d'lsly,  Rue  Michelet,  and  Bold.  Bru  (PI.  A-C,  8,  9),  every  1/2  hr. 
(last  car  7.50),  in  '/2  hr. ;  30  or  20  c.  —  4  (green).  From  Place  du  Gouverne- 
ment to  Boul.  Carnot  (PI.  C,  3),  Rue  de  Constantine  (PI.  C,  4),  Rue  Sadi- 
Carnot  (PI.  B,  5,  6),  Rue  de  Lyon  (PI.  B-E,  7-9),  Le  Ruisseau,  and  Kouba; 
as  far  as  Marabout  (Cimetiere  Musulman  de  Belcourt)  every  5min.;  to 
Les  Platanes  (Jardin  d'Essai)  every  10  min.;  to  Kouba  every  40  min.;  fart 
35  or  30  c. —  5  (red).  From  Place  d  u  Gouvernement  to  Boul.  Carnot,  Rue 
Sadi-Carnot,  Jardin  d'Essai  (Oasis  des  Palmiers,  in  27  min.),  Nouvel  Am- 
liert.  Maison-Carre'e  (in  1  hr.);  as  far  as  Nouvel  Ambert  every  10  min.,  to 
Maison-Carree  every  20  min. ;  fare  60  or  45  c.  —  6.  From  Place  du  Gouverne- 
ment to  Rue  de  la  Lyre  (PI.  C,  2,  3),  Rue  Rovigo  (PI.  C,  3),  Prison  Civile 
(PI.  B,  C,  2;  20  or  15  c),  El-Biar  (comp.  PI.  A,  4;  40  or  35  c),  and  Chateau- 
Neuf  (in  50  min.;  50  or  40  c);  as  far  as  Prison  Civile  every  1/i  hr.,  to  El- 
Biar  every  '/s  hr.,  to  Chateau-Neuf  once  every  hr.  (Sun.  every  '/2  hr.).  — 
7.  From  Place  du  Gouvernement  to  Boul.  de  France  (PI.  D,  2)^  Esplanade 
(PI.  C,  1),  Bab  el-Oued  (PI.  B,  1),  St.  Eugene  (comp.  PI.  B,  1),  and  Deux 
.Woulins,  every  9  min.;  30  or  20  c. 

Steam  Tramways  from  the  Place  du  Gouvernement:  to  (Ji/jM.) 
Maison-Carre'e  (p.  217).  and  thence  either  to  (4'/2  M.)  Fort-de-VEau 
(p.  24S)  and  (12'/2  M.)  Atn-Taija  (p.  218),  or  to  (10>/2  M.)  VArba  (p.  247) 
and  (15'/2M.)  Rovigo  (p.  248);  to  (22  M.)  Mazafran  (p.  238),  and  thence 
either  to  (6'/4  M.)  Kolia  (p.  238),  or  to  (6V2  M.)  Castiglione  (p.  238). 

Post  &  Telegraph  Office  (PI.  22,  C4;  p.  226),  Rue  de  Constantine 
133;  branches  at  Rue  de  Strasbourg  2,  in  the  Palais  Consulaire  (p.  223),  at 
Rue  Michelet  64  (Mustapha-Inferieur),  near  the  Palais  d'Ete  (p.  230),  etc. 

Steamboat  Agents.  Cunard,  North  German  Lloyd  (R.  15  b), 
Hamburg -American,  German  Levant  (RR.  15b,  22),  and  Hungarian 
Adria  (R.  22),  R.  Heckmann,  Rue  Colbert  1;  Comp.  Genirale  Trans- 
atlantique  (RR.  20,  22),  Boul.  Carnot  6  and  Quai  de  la  Marine;  Soc.  de 
Transports  Maritimcs  (R.  20),  Boul.  de  la  Republique  2  and  Quai  de  la 
Marine;  Comp.  de  Navigation  Mirte  (R.  20),  Boul.  Carnot  2  anJ  Quai  do 
la  Marine;  White  Star  Line,  Austro- American  Line,  J.  Crispo,  Boul.  de 
la  Republique  3;  Nederland  Royal  Mail,  J.  Bergerot.  Boul.  Carnot;  Com- 
pailia  Mallorquina  de  Yapores  (R.  20),  J.  J.  Sitges  Freres,  Quai  Nord  40. 

Tourist  Agents.  R.  Heckmann  (Universal  Tourist  Office),  Boul.  de 
la  Republique  11;  Agence  Lubin,  Rue  de  la  Liberty  7;  Agence  Duchemin, 
same  street,  No.  4.  —  Information  obtainable  also  from  the  Comite  d'Hiver- 
nage,  Rue  Combe  2,  8-11  and  2-6  (Sun.  S-ll).  —  Club  Alpin  Francais  (sec- 
tion de  l'Atlas),  Palais  Consulaire  (p.  223). 

Consuls.  British  Consul-General,  B.  S.  Cave,  Boul.  Carnot  6;  vice- 
consuls,  L.  G.  C.  Graham,  L.  Graeme  Scott. — U.  S.  Consul,  A.  W.  Robert, 
Rue  d'lsly  64. 

Physicians.  Dr.  Dangerfltld,  Kent  House,  Colonne  Voirol ;  Dr.  Gubb, 
Mustapha.  Chemin  des  Glycines:  Dr.  Nisscn,  Mustapha-Superieur,  Villa 
Bey,  Rue  Michelet.  —  Chemists.  Grandmont  (Obrecht),  RueBab-Azoun  28; 
Licht,  Rue  Michelet  85;  Brenta,  Rue  Bab-Azoun  3. 

Baths.  Baiiis  du  Palmier,  Rue  Arago  6  (Gr.-H6t.  Arago  &  du  Palmier) ; 
Bains  du  Hamma,  Rue  du  Hamma  1  (near  the  Theatre  Municipal);  Baiiis 
Michelet,  Rue  de  Richelieu  25.  —  Moorish  Baths  (comp.  p.  175):  Bains  de 
I'Alhambra,  Rue  Marengo  4.  —  Sea  Baths  (June-Oct. ;  plainly  fitted  up; 
costume  50  c):  Bains  du  Jardin  d'Essai  (p.  233);  Bains  Nelson,  Avenue 

Banks   (comp.  p.  174).     Credit  Lyonnais,  Boul.  de  la  Republique  6; 
Algerienne,  Rue  Dumont-d'TJrville;   Banque  de  V Algfrie,   Cre'dit 
r  et  Agricole  d'Algtrie,   Credit  Agricole  et  Commerciel  Algirien 
(J.  Thibaud),  all  three  in  the  Boul.  de  la  Republique  (Nos.  5,  8,  &  4). 

220     Route  34.  ALGIERS.  Practical  Notes. 

Booksellers.  Jourdan,  Place  du  Gouvernement  and  Rue  Oleopatrel; 
C'haix,  Rue  d'lsly  llbis;  Relin,  Rue  d'lsly  11;  Ruff,  Rue  Bab-Azoun  10; 
Carbonnel,  Ledoux,  both  Boul.  de  la  Republique  (Nos.  2  &  7). — News- 
papers (5  c).  La  Depeche  Alejiriennc  (morning) ;  Les  Nouvelles,  Le  Cri 
d' 'Alger  (evening).     For  strangers,  The  North  African  News  (Sat.;  25  c.). 

Shops  (caution  almost  as  necessary  as  at  Tunis;  conip.  p.  331).  Photo- 
graphs and  Views.  Geiser,  Place  de  Chartres  2;  A.  Wottenweider,  Rue  du 
Divan  1;  If  yam,  Station  Sanitaire  (PI.  A,  6).  —  Oriental  Articles  (partly 
made  in  France  and  Germany;  also  Indian,  Japanese,  and  Turkish  wares). 
Ratto  (goldsmith),  Rue  Socg6mah  12;  Pohoomult  Freres,  RucBab-Azonn  11  j 
Ratto-Magana,  Rue  de  l'Etat  Major  5;  Miss  Jockyl,  English  Club  Build- 
ings, Mustapha-Superieur. —  Emisroidery.  Mine.  Hemery,  Rue  Michelet  851, 
Mustapha-Superieur.  —  Copper  and  Brass  Work.  Zagha  (from  Damascus), 
Rue  Bruce  27;  Nassau,  Place  Malakoff. 

Theatres.  Theatre  Municipal  (PI.  26;  C,  3),  Place  de  la  Republique, 
for  operas,  operettas,  and  dramas,  closed  in  summer.;  Kursaal  (PI.  C,  1), 
Esplanade  de  Bab-el-Oued  (tickets  sold  in  advance  at  4  Boul.  de  la  Re- 
publique.—  Casino  Music  Hall,  Rue  d'lsly  9  (fauteuil  2V2  fr.). — Fiies 
Mauresques  at  the  Kasba,  arranged  by  the  Cornite  d'Hivernage  (p.  219), 
with  native  musicians  and  dancers  (adm.  5  fr.). 

Band  plays  in  winter,  Sun.  and  Tliurs.,  4-5,  in  the  Place  du  Gou- 
vernement;  in  summer  (May-Oct.),  on  Mon.,  Wed.,  and  Sat.,  from  8  to 
10.30,  in  the  Place  de  la  Republique  (Square  Bresson),  and  on  Sun.,  Tues., 
and  Thurs.,  from  8  to  10.30,  in  the  Place  du  Gouvernement. 

Golf  Club,  with  good  nine  hole  course,  near  the  Pens;  Villa  Olivage 
(p.  217).  —  Skating  Rink  at  the  corner  of  Boul.  Carnot  an*d  Rue  Waisse 
(PI.  C,  4). 

Churches.  English  (Oh.  of  the  Holy  Ghost;  p.  230),  Rue  Michelet 
(PI.  A,  7),  to  the  N.'of  the  Alexandra  Hotel  (p.  217);  Sun.  services  at  8 
and  11.30  or  9.15  a.  m. ;  chaplain,  Rev.  A.  P.  Oronyn,  M.  A.  —  Presbyterian 
(St.  Andrew's;  PI.  7,  AG)  also  Rue  Michelet,  Sun.  service  at  10.30  a.m.; 
minister,  Rev.  T.  E.  Jubb,  M.  A. 

Sights,  with  days  and  hours  of  admission:  — 

Archevechi  (p.  224),  all  day;  fee  l/2-l  fr. 

Bibliotheque  Nationale  (p.  225),  week-days  1-6;  closed  Aug.  and  Sept. 

Conseil  General  (p.  224),  apply  to  secretary;  week-days  8-11  and  1-5. 

Ja/rdin  d'Essai  (p.  232),  all  day  (Zoologie  50  c). 

Iiasba  Barracks  (p.  227),  apply  to  Etat-Major,  Rue  do  la  Marine  11. 

Medersa  (p.  228),  except  during  lectures;  closed  Sun.,  Frid.,  and  on 
great  Mohammedan  festivals. 

Mosquee  de  la  Pecherie  (p.  223),  at  any  time  except  during  prayers. 

Mosque,  Great  (p.  224),  as  above. 

Mosque  ofSidi  Abderrahmdn  (p.  228),  Sun.,  Mon.,  Tues.,  8-12  and  2-3; 
closed  on  the  chief  Mohammedan  holidays. 

Musee  Municipal  des  Beaux-Arts  (p.  226),  daily,  except  Friday. 

Museum  (p.  229),  daily,  except  Mon.,  1-4  (1st  April  to  15th  July  2-5; 
closed  16th  July  to  30th  Sept.). 

Palais  d'Ete  du  Gouverneur  (p.  230),  in  bis  absence;  fee  1I2-1  fr. 

Palais  d'Hiver  du  Gouverneur  (p.  225),  as  above. 

Synagogue  (p.  227),  all  Frid.,  Sat.  after  12,  at  other  times  apply  to 
keeper,  30-50  c. 

As  to  visiting  the  Mosques,  see  p.  174.  —  Men  are  not  admitted  to  the 
Mohammedan  Cemeteries  (p.  xxvi)  on  Frid.  a.nd  holidays  12-6. 

Two  Days.  1st.  Forenoon,  Place  de  la  Re'jndtlique,  Boul.  de  la  Re"pub- 
lique.  Place  du  Gouvernement,  Great  Mosque,  Archevechi  (pp.  222-224), 
'■ 'Kasba  Quarter  (pp.  226,  227),  *Mosque  of  Sidi-Abderrahmdn  (p.  228), 
and  *Jardin  Marengo  (p.  224).  Afternoon,  Mustapha-Superieur  with  the 
*Museum  (pp.  228-230).  —  2nd.  Forenoon,  Mohammedan  Cemetery  at  Bel- 
court  (p.  232),  *Jardin  d'Essai  (p.  232).  Afternoon,  Notre-Dame  d'Afrique 
(p.  236)  or  Bouaareah  (p.  235). 

Uintory.  A  LG  I  ERS  >;  '■  L'<'"u  ■      22 1 

Algiers,  French  Alger,  Ital.  Algeri,  the  capital  of  the  French 
colony  of  Algeria,  with  154,000  inhab.  (incl.  35,200  foreigners, 
mostly  Italians  and  Spaniards,  33,200  Mohammedans,  and  12,500 
Jews),  seat  of  the  archbishop  of  Algeria,  a  fortress,  and  a  naval 
harbour,  lies  in  36°47'  N.  lat.  and  3  2'  E.  long.,  on  the  W.  side 
of  the  nearly  semicircular  *Baie  d' Alger,  which  is  bounded  on 
the  W.  by  the  Puinte  Pescade  (p.  237),  and  on  the  E.  by  Cape 
Matifou  (p.  248).  It  is  the  most  important  coaling-station  on  the 
whole  coast,  and  shares  with  Oran  the  chief  trade  of  Algeria.  The 
town  r\i. mis  along  the  slopes  of  the  Sahel  of  Algiers,  a  range  of 
hills  about  44  M.  long,  culminating  in  Mt.  Bouzareah  (p.  235),  con- 
tinued beyond  the  mouth  of  the  Oued  el-Harrach  by  low  sand-hills, 
and  separated  from  the  Tell  Atlas  by  the  Mitidja  (p.  169).  With 
regard  to  climate,  see  pp.  170,  172. 

On  the  site  of  the  Roman  Icosium,  an  unimportant  place  on  the  road 
to  Tipasa  and  Cajsarea  (Cherehel!,  p.  244),  Bologgin  ez-Ziri  (p.  323), 
about  910  (about  the  same  date  as  the  foundation  of  Miliana  and  Medea) 
founded  the  new  colony  of  Al-Jesdir  Bent  Mezghanna,  so  called  from 
the  adjacent  coast-islands  (jczira,  pi.  jezaiir)  and  from  the  Berber  tribe 
of  the  Beni  Mezghanna  who  dwelt  in  this  region.  It  is  recorded  that  in 
the  11th  cent,  the  inhabitants  of  the  new  settlement  used  the  old  Roman 
baths,  of  which  there  is  now  no  trace,  for  their  amusements  and  an  old 
Christian  basilica  for  their  worship.  From  that  time  the  history  of  Al- 
Jezalr  is  a  blank  down  to  the  end  of  the  loth  cent.,  when  it  began 
to  Berve  the  Moorish  exiles  from  Spain  (afterwards  called  Tagarins  here) 
as  a  base  of  their  retaliatory  expeditions  against  Spain.  In  1509  or  1510 
the  Spaniards,  in  the  course  of  their  victorious  career,  occupied  the 
largest  of  the  coast-islands,  where  they  erected  the  fortress  of  El-Penon, 
and  conquered  the  Mitidja  which  had  recently  been  colonized  by  the 
Arabian  tribe  of  the  Tsaliba.  The  little  town,  called  Argel  by  the 
Spaniards,  was  inhabited  by  Mohammedans,  who  in  1516  summoned  to 
their  aid,  from  Djidjelli.  Horttk  (Arudj)  Barbarossa,  a  Turkish  pirate 
of  Christian  descent.  Horuk  complied  with  the  request  and  established 
himself  at  Al-Jezai'r,  where,  after  repelling  a  Spanish  expedition  under 
Diego  de  Vera  (151f),  he  erected  the  Jenina  as  his  residence  and  the  Kasha 
as  his  citadel. 

Having  fallen  in  a  battle  with  the  Spaniards  near  I  lemcen  p.  187), 
Horuk  was  succeeded  by  his  brother  Ehtireddhi  Barbarossa  (1518-30),  who 
became  the  real  founder  of  the  new  barbaresco  or  piratical  state.  As  a 
vassal  of  the  sultan  of  Turkey  he  extended  his  sway  over  the  greater 
part  of  Algeria.  He  defeated  Hugo  de  Moncada,  the  Spanish  viceroy,  in 
1519,  and  in  1580,  after  having  stormed  the  fortress  of  Peiion,  he  con- 
structed the  Jetee  de  Kheireddin  with  its  materials  and  witli  others  from 
niaB  (p.  2-18)  and  Tipasa.  thus  creating  the  first  harbour  of  Algiers. 
Thenceforwards  for  three  centuries  the  'Algerian  pirates'  were  the  terror 
. if  the  seas,  to  whom,  for  protection  of  their  trade,  England,  Holland, 
the  Hanseatic  towns,  and  other  maritime  countries  ignominiously  consented 
to  pay  tribute.  Fourteen  times  the  European  powers,  from  the  time  of 
the  fruitless  campaign  of  Charles  V.  in  1541  to  the  British  expedition  of 
1824,  had  besieged  and  bombarded  Algiers  in  vain.  The  beys  (or.  after 
1600,  (leys)  had  succeeded  in  maintaining  their  position,  and  in  1627  had 
even  carried  their  piratical  expeditions  as  far  as  Iceland.  It  was  not 
till  1830  that  these  barbarous  piracies  were  put  a  stop  to  by  the  French, 
and   that  the  way  was  thus  paved  for  conquest  of  the  whole  of  Algeria. 

The  most  stirring  events  in  the  recent  history  of  Algeria  were  the 
conquest  of  Constautiue  (1837),  the  protracted  struggles  against  Abd  >l 
Kdder  (1839-47J,  the  defeat  of  his  Moroccan  allies  on  the  Oued  Isly  (1844), 

222     Route  H4.  ALGIERS.  Situation. 

the  subjection  of  Great  Kabylia  (1856-7),  the  revolts  of  the  natives  in 
1871-2,  the  rising  of  Bou-Amama  in  S.  Oran  (1881),  the  occupation  of  the 
Sahara  as  far  as  Tidikelt  and  the  Tuat  oases  (1892-1901),  and  lastly  the 
French  advance  towards  Morocco  (comp.  p.  96). 

The  Algiers  of  the  Turkish  period  consisted  solely  of  the  tri- 
angular quarter  on  the  slope  of  the  Kasha  Hill,  between  the  old 
landward  gates,  Bab  Azoun  on  the  S.  and  Bab  el-Oued  on  the  N., 
with  the  Silk  or  Market  Street  (now  Rue  Bab-Azoun  and  Rue  Bab 
el-Oued)  as  its  nucleus.  Between  these  two  gates  ran  the-old  Turkish 
wall,  on  whose  site  lie  the  Boul.  Gambetta  (PI.  B,  C,  3),  on  the  S., 
and  the  Boul.  Valee  (PI.  C,  2),  on  the  N.  The  French  ramparts 
constructed  in  1845  extended  the  town  as  far  as  the  present  Boul. 
Laferriere  (PI.  C,  4,  5)  to  the  S.,  and  to  the  Boul.  du  General  Farre 
to  the  N.  (PL  C,  1).  Since  the  demolition  of  these  fortifications  in 
1904  the  industrial  suburbs  on  the  coast  and  the  lofty  villa-suburbs, 
Quartier  d'Isly  (PL  B,  4,  5),  Telemly  (PL  A,  5,  6),  and  Mustaplia- 
Superieur  (PL  A,  7,8),  which  last  is  little  frequented  except  in 
winter,  have  all  been  brought  within  the  precincts  of  the  town. 

a.  Lower  Quarter  of  the  Old  Town. 

The  chief  business  parts  of  the  town  are  the  arcades,  with  their 
numerous  shops,  in  the  Rue  Bab-Azoun  (PL  C,  2,  3)  and  Rue  Bab 
el-Oued  (PL  C,  2;  p.  224),  the  Place  du  Gouvernement  (PLC,  2; 
p.  223) ,  the  focus  of  all  the  tramways,  and  above  all  the  spacious 
Place  de  la  Republique  (PL  0,3),  with  the  gardens  of  Square 
Bresson  (band,  see  p.  220),  adorned  with  bamboos  and  magnolias,  the 
Thedtre  Municipal  (p.  220) ,  and  the  most  showy  cafes.  Between 
these  two  places  and  the  sea,  at  a  height  of  65  ft.  above  the  quay  and 
its  warehouses,  run  the  uniform  rows  of  houses  of  the  Boulevakd 
de  France  (PL  D,  2;  p.  223),  the  Boulevard  de  la  Republique, 
completed  in  1866,  and  the  Boulevard  Oarnot  (PL  C,  3, 4),  with  the 
new  Prefecture  (PL  23;  C,  4)  in  the  Moorish  style  (1910).  These 
streets,  together  l  M.  long,  form  a  coast-promenade,  whence  in  clear 
weather  we  enjoy  a  splendid  *View  of  the  blue  bay,  the  Atlas  Mts. 
of  Blida,  and  the  distant  Jurjura  chain  (p.  258).  In  stormy  weather, 
however,  the  Rampe  de  l'Amiraute  (PLD,  2;  p.  223)  and  the  Boul. 
Amiral  Pierre  (PL  C,  D,  1,  2;  p.  224)  attract  many  walkers. 

The  sole  Harbour,  prior  to  the  French  period,  was  the  Ancien 
Port,  or  Darse  de  I'AmirauU  (PL  D ,  2) ,  constructed  by  Kheir- 
eddin  Barbarossa,  once  a  nest  of  piratical  vessels,  and  now  a  torpedo- 
boat  station  and  anchorage  for  yachts  and  fishing-boats.  The  new 
Port  de  Commerce  and  Port  Militaire,  213  acres  in  area,  with  the 
Quai  de  la  Marine,  which  was  extended  in  1908,  have  been  formed 
since  1848  at  a  cost  of  46  million  francs.  They  are  protected  by 
the  wave-beaten  Jetee  du  Nord,  984  yds.  long,  the  prolongation 
of  the  old  Jetee  of  Kheireddin  (comp.  p.  221),  and  by  the  Jetee  du 

Barbour.  ALGIERS.  ^4.  Route.     223 

Sud,  1350  yds.  in  length.  The  entrance  is  268  yds.  in  breadth.  A 
second  commercial  harbour,  the  Arriire-Port  (PI.  C.  D,  5,  6),  was 
begun  in  1898,  but  is  still  uncompleted. 

The  harbour  is  approached  by  the  Bampes  Magenta,  descend- 
ing from  Boul.  Carnot  to  the  principal  railway-station  (p.  217), 
by  the  Rampes  Ciuisseloup-Laubat ,  connecting  the  Boul.  de  la 
Republique  with  the  Douane  (PL  D,  3)  and  with  the  warehouses 
and  offices  of  the  French  steamboat-companies,  and  by  the  Rampe 
de  V  Amiraute  (PL  D,  2),  on  the  old  Jetee  of  Kheireddin.  This  jetty 
or  quay,  the  oldest  of  all,  connects  the  old  Porte  de  France  on  the 
mainland  (once  the  Turkish  sea-gate)  with  what  was  once  the  is- 
land of  Pciion  (p.  221),  now  the  Presqu'ile  de  V Amiraute'.  "Walkers 
may  descend  also  by  the  Escaliers  du  Bastion  Central,  opposite 
the  Square  Bresson  (p.  222),  or  from  the  Place  du  Gouvernement 
by  the  Escaliers  de  la  Peclierie,  past  the  mosque  of  that  name 
and  the  Fish  Market,  which  is  worth  seeing  in  the  early  morning. 

On  the  Quai  du  Nord,  between  the  approach  to  the  fish-market 
and  the  old  Porte  de  France,  a  pretty  Turkish  Fountain  has  been 
preserved.  Adjoining  the  neo-Moorish  Palais  de  V Amiraute"  (P1.D,2) 
is  the  Turkish  Gate,  with  two  heraldic  animals  (panthers?),  an 
interesting  relic  of  the  Bordj  Ras  el-Moul  which  was  burned  down 
in  1816.  We  notice  also  several  muzzle-loading  guns  built  into 
1  hi'  wall,  now  serving  as  bulkheads  or  as  posts  for  mooring  vessels. 
Visitors  are  not  admitted  to  the  Phare  (PL  D,  2;  lighthouse),  a 
relic  of  the  Turkish  fort  erected  in  1544  on  the  site  of  the  Spanish 
castle  of  Pefi6n,  nor  to  the  small  Station  Zoologique  (PL  D,  2). 

We  now  follow  the  Boul.  de  France,  past  the  handsome  Palais 
Consulaire  (PL  19,  D  2;  chamber  of  commerce,  exchange,  etc.), 
to  the  — 

Place  du  Gouvernement,  the  noisiest  place  in  the  town,  crowd- 
ed with  natives  at  all  hours  (concerts,  see  p.  220).  The  equestrian 
statue,  in  bronze,  of  the  Duke  of  Orleans  (1810-42),  a  distinguished 
general  in  the  Algerian  campaigns,  is  by  the  Piedmontese  Carlo 
Marocchetti  (1845).  Behind  the  statue,  and  half  concealed  by  the 
Boul.  de  France,  is  the  curiously  incongruous  — 

Mosquee  de  la  Peclierie  (PL  16,  D  2 ;  Arabic  Jdma  el- 
Jcdid,  new  mosque),  erected  by  Turkish  architects  in  1660  for 
adherents  of  the  Hanefite  ritual  (p.  445).  It  is  a  cruciform  building 
with  nave  and  aisles,  a  huge  central  dome  tastelessly  painted  in- 
side, a  rich  marble  pulpit  of  Italian  workmanship,  and  a  square 
minaret  (now  clock-tower).  Entrance  in  the  Rampe  de  la  Pecherie 
(adm.,  see  p.  220). 

A  few  paces  to  the  E.  of  the  Place  du  Gouvernement,  adjoining 
the  Rue  de  la  Marine  (PL  D,  2),  the  harbour-street  of  the  Turkish 
and  early  French  period,  is  the  small  Place  de  la  Pecherie,  the 
site  of  the  pirates'  Slave  Market. 

224     Rente  34.  ALGIERS.  Jardin  Marengo. 

Close  by  is  the  Great  Mosque  (PI.  15,  D  2;  Arabic  Jdma  el- 
Kebir),  the  oldest  and  largest  mosque  in  the  town,  founded  in  1018 
for  believers  in  the  Malekite  ritual,  but  often  altered  since  then. 
Both  the  mosque  and  its  minaret,  originally  built  by  the  Abdel- 
wadite  Abu  Takhfin  (p.  190)  in  1322-3,  have  now  been  modernized. 
The  entrance  is  by  a  portico  in  the  Rue  de  la  Marine,  erected  in 
1837  with  materials  from  a  mosque  of  the  Jenina  (p.  225),  leading 
into  a  court,  embellished  with  a  Turkish  fountain,  and  to  the 
unadorned  sacred  building  itself,  with  its  eleven  aisles  or  arcades 
and  horseshoe  arches  resting  on  low  pillars. 

The  quarter  to  the  N.W.  of  the  Rue  de  la  Marine,  between 
Boul.  Amiral-Pierre  (PI.  C,D,  1,2)  and  Rue  Bab  el-Oued  (see  below), 
is  inhabited  mainly  by  Italians  and  natives  and  still  contains  many 
mediaeval  features  in  its  sombre  lanes  and  passages.  Soon  after 
entering  it,  we  come  to  a  pleasing  Turkish  House,  Rue  Duquesne, 
No.  15,  in  the  small  square  of  that  name,  with  a  marble  portal 
and  a  two-storied  court. 

The  building  of  the  Conseil  General  (PI.  5a,  D  2;  adm.,  see 
p.  220),  close  by,  Rue  de  la  Charte  No.  5,  agood  example  of  Moorish- 
Turkish  architecture,  with  its  Renaissance  portal,  was  the  British 
consulate  in  the  Turkish  period.  No.  29,  in  the  adjoining  Rue 
d'Orleans,  has  a  remarkably  rich  Italian  Renaissance  portal. 

The  short  Rue  du  Quatorze-Juin,  the  last  houses  in  the  Rue 
des  Consuls  (PI.  D,  2) ,  occupied  by  the  other  European  consuls  in 
the  Turkish  period,  and  the  adjacent  narrow  Rue  Navarin  and  Rue 
Jean-Bart,  all  have  the  character  of  the  Kasba  quarter  (p.  227). 

The  narrow  passage  called  Rue  des  Postes  leads  here  to  the 
Rue  Volland  (PI.  C,  1),  the  cross-street  between  Boul.  Amiral-Pierre 
and  the  Avenue  Bab  el-Oued  (PI.  C,  1).  Here,  on  the  right,  arc 
the  barracks  and  the  Kursaal  Theatre  (p.  220) ,  and  on  the  left 
the  Lycee  National,  on  the  site  of  the  Turkish  janissaries'  barracks. 

The  Rampe  Valee  ascending  hence  to  the  Kasba  quarter  skirts 
the  *Jardin  Marengo  (PI.  C,  1),  a  public  park,  laid  out  in 
1834-47  on  the  site  of  the  Mohammedan  cemetery ;  the  grounds, 
with  their  wealth  of  palms,  yuccas,  and  bamboos,  climb  the  hill- 
side as  far  as  the  mosque  of  Sidi  Abderrahman  (p.  228). 

We  now  return  by  the  Rue  Bab  el-Oued  (PI.  C,  2;  p.  222)  to 
the  Place  du  Gouvernement.  Halfway ,  in  the  Rue  de  la  Kasba 
(p.  227),  rises  on  the  right  the  church  of  Notre-Dame  des  Vic- 
toires  (PI.  8;  C,  2),  formerly  a  mosque  (Jdma  Bitehnin,  of  1622). 

From  the  W.  side  of  the  Place  du  Gouvernement  (p.  223)  the 
Rue  du  Divan  and  Rue  du  Soudan  lead  to  the  small  Place  Mala- 
koff,  on  the  E.  side  of  which,  between  these  streets,  rises  the  — 

*Archeveche  (PI.  1,  0  2;  archbishop's  palace),  the  finest  and 
but  little  modernized  relic  of  the  Jenina  founded  by  Horuk  Barbar- 
ossa  (p.  221)  in  1516.   In  the  course  of  centuries  this  residence  of 

National  Library-  ALGIERS.  34.  Route.     225 

the  beys  was  gradually  extended  to  the  Rue  Jenina  and  the  Rue 
small,  and  in  1816  was  at  length  superseded  by  the  Kasba 
(p.  227).    The  entrance  is  by  the  Renaissance  portal  (adm.,  see 
p.  220;  apply  to  the  concierge). 

The  fine  court,  with  its  two  stories  and  horseshoe  arches  resting  on 
slender  winding  columns,  is  remarkable  for  its  harmonious  proportions. 
Tin'  walls  are  adorned  with  tiles  of  little  value,  but  the  rich  wrought- 
iron  gratings  of  the  windows  deserve  notice.  The  upper  story,  whose 
galleries  have  small  domed  chambers  at  the  four  corners,  is  adjoined  by 
rooms  sumptuously  decorated  like  those  of  the  Alcazar  at  Seville  (p.  61). 
We  note  in  particular  the  lavish  ornamentation  in  stucco,  the  elegant 
window -shutters,  restored  in  part,  and  the  beautiful  ceilings  in  cedar 
and  oak  panelling.  The  room  converted  into  a  chapel  has  been  mater- 
ially altered. 

The  Cathedral  (PI.  3,0  2;  St.  Philippe),  on  the  W.  side  of 
the  same  Place,  built  since  1843  in  a  strangely  mingled  Moorish 
and  Romanesque  style,  occupies  the  site  of  the  Kefshdtva  Mosque. 
erected  by  Hassan  Pasha  in  1791  (see  below).  The  fagade  is  adorned 
with  two  towers  resembling  minarets.  The  first  chapel  contains 
the  bones  of  the  so-called  Geronimo,  a  Christian  Arab  (comp. 
p.  230),  who  is  said  to  have  been  immured  alive  in  1569. 

The  Palais  d'Hiver  clu  Gouvemeur  (PL  21,  C  2;  adm.,  see 
p.  220),  built  by  Hassan  Pasha  (1791-9),  like  the  National  Library 
(see  below),  is  one  of  the  latest  specimens  of  Moorish -Turkish 
architecture  in  Algeria;  but  it  lias  been  entirely  remodelled  to 
suit  its  present  purpose  and  has  been  provided  with  a  new  facade. 
Above  the  old  portal,  Rue  du  Soudan  No.  5  (now  Bureau  Arabe;  see 
p.  174),  is  a  pretty  carved  projecting  roof.  No.  7,  next  door,  has 
a  rich  marble  portal.  The  roof  affords  a  good  survey  of  the  whole 
of  the  Jenina  buildings. 

To  the  N.  of  the  Place  Malakoff,  in  the  Rue  de  PEtat-Major, 
No.  12,  on  the  left,  is  the  — 

National  Library  (PL  2 ;  C,  2),  in  the  old  palace  of  Mustapha 
Pasha  (1799-1805),  containing  about  40,000  vols,  and  2000  MSS. 
Adm.,  see  p.  220.    Librarian,  M.  E.  Maupas. 

Adjoining  the  vestibule  (skiifa),  adorned  with  clustered  columns  and 
Delft  rayence,  on  the  left,  is  the  two-storied  *Quadrangle,  similar  to 
that  of  the  archiepiscopal  palace.  In  the  gallery  of  the  first  floor  arc 
views  of  Old  Algiers  (including  the  bombardment  by  the  British  fleet  in 
1824).  Adjacent  are  two  small  reading-rooms  containing  a  valuable  col- 
lection of  Arabic.  Berber,  and  Turkish  MSS.  (shown  only  on  application 
to  the  curator  M.  Abdeltif).  The  charters  of  the  Turkish  period  also  are 

The  Bureau.,'  du  Gouvernement ,  Rue  Bruce  10,  which  once 
belonged  to  tin;  Jenina  buildings,  also  are  worth  seeing  (apply 
to  the  governor's  secretary).  So,  too,  is  the  pleasing  Dwelling 
House,  Rue  Socgemah  12  (now  owned  by  M.  Ratto,  goldsmith; 
p.  220). — The  old  Dtir  Soof  (wool-exchange),  Rue  de  l'intendance  1, 
one  of  the  most  ornate  Mauro- Turkish  buildings  in  the  town,  is 
now  a  private  house  and  can  be  seen  only  by  special  introduction. 

226     Route  34.  ALGIERS.  «•  Quarters. 

We  now  turn  to  the  E.  to  visit  the  Rue  de  Chartres  or  the  Rue 
de  la  Lyre  (PI.  C,  2,  3),  which,  like  the  neighbouring  Rue  Randon 
in  the  Kasba  quarter  (p.  227),  contain  countless  little  shops  kept 
by  Jews  and  Mozabites  (p.  216).  The  Marchi  de  Chartres  and 
the  Marche"  de  la  Lyre  (PI.  14;  C,  3)  are  the  chief  provision 
markets.  In  the  afternoon  the  former  is  devoted  to  the  sale  of 
second-hand  goods.  The  Rue  de  Chartres  and  the  two  flights  of 
steps  in  the  Place  de  la  Lyre,  next  to  the  theatre,  lead  back  to  the 
Place  de  la  Republique  (p.  222). 

To  the  S.  of  the  Place  de  la  Republique  are  the  uew  quarters 
of  the  town.  At  the  beginning  of  the  Rue  de  Constantine  (PI.  0, 
3,  4),  on  the  left,  is  the  new  Palais  de  Justice  (PL  20;  C,  3),  in 
the  pseudo-classical  style.  On  the  right  is  the  new-Romanesque 
church  of  St.  Augustin  (PI.  9;  C,  3). 

At  the  back  of  this  church  runs  the  Rue  Dumont-d'Urville 
(PI.  C,  3),  passing  almost  immediately  on  the  left  the  Rue  de  Tan- 
ger,  in  which  rises  the  small  Mosque  of  the  Mozabites  (p.  216), 
and  leading  to  the  long  and  monotonous  Rue  d'Isly  (PI.  C,  4). 
The  latter  crosses  the  Place  d'Isly  (PI.  0,  4),  where  a  monument, 
has  been  erected  to  Marshal  Bugeaud  (1784-1849),  the  conqueror 
of  Abd  el-Kader  (p.  221). 

Farther  on  in  the  Rue  de  Constantine,  on  the  left,  at  No.  32  is 
the  Musce  Municipal  des  Beaux-Arts  (adm.,  see  p.  220),  con- 
taining a  small  collection  of  pictures  mostly  by  French  painters. 

The  Rue  de  Constantine  and  Rue  d'Isly  reach  the  boundary  of 
the  old  town  at  the  new  Post  Office  (PI.  22,  0  4;  p.  219),  a  neo- 
Moorish  building  (1910),  on  the  N.  side  of  the  Boulevard  Lafek- 
riere  (PI.  C,  4,  5;  p.  222),  or  Boul.  Militaire  Sud.  To  the  right, 
above,  are  the  handsome  offices  of  the  Depeche  Algerienne  (p.  220), 
in  the  neo-Moorish  style.  The  open  space  on  the  left,  down  by 
the  sea,  is  destined  for  the  future  Central  Station. 

From  Boul.  Laferriere  to  Mustapha-Suptrieur,  see  pp.  231, 
230;  to  Belcourt  and  Le  Harnma,  see  p.  232. 

b.  The  Kasba. 

To  avoid  the  steep  ascents  in  the  Kasba  Quarter  we  take  the  tram- 
way (No.  6,  p.  219)  to  the  Prison  Civile,  glance  at  the  Mohammedan  Ceme- 
tery and  the  Kasba  Barracks,  and  then  descend  from  the  Boul.  de  la 
Victoire  by  one  or  other  of  the  streets  (very  slippery  in  wet  weather) 
between  the  Eue  de  la  Kasba  (PI.  C,  2)  and  Boul.  Gainbetta  (PI.  B,  C,  3). 
It  should  be  noted  that  all  the  ascending  streets  lead  to  the  Boulevard 
de  la  Victoire,  and  the  descending  streets  to  Rue  Randon  or  Rue  Marengo. 
Ladies  in  particular  may  sometimes  gain  admission  to  one  of  the  better 
Moorish  houses  (comp.  p.  xxvi),  where  they  should  not  omit  to  see  the 
view  from  the  roof.  A  walk  through  the  Kasba  quarter  by  moonlight  is 
delightful,  but  safe  only  for  a  considerable  party. 

Easba  Quarter.  ALGIERS.  84.  Route.      227 

The  *Kasba  Quarter  (PI.  B,  C,  2,  3),  the  almost  unaltered 
main  portion  of  old  Algiers,  bounded  by  the  Eue  Randon,  Rue 
Marengo,  and  Roul.  de  la  Victoire,  lies  on  the  hill-side  below  the 
Kasha,  the  old  castle  and  afterwards  the  residence  of  the  Turkish 
rulers,  and  still  presents  a  highly  attractive  picture  of  Oriental  life, 
though  partly  inhabited  by  Maltese  and  Spaniards  as  well  as  by 
Mohammedans  of  various  races  and  creeds  (p.  171).  A  few  streets 
only,  with  small  mosques,  coffee-houses,  and  shops,  show  signs  of 
life  in  the  daytime,  and  that  chiefly  on  Fridays  and  Sundays.  Most 
of  the  streets,  however,  often  only  6-7  ft.  wide,  with  their  jutting 
upper  stories  and  balconies  supported  by  brackets  of  beams,  and 
the  numerous  blind  alleys  and  sombre  vaulted  passages  are  shrouded 
in  silence,  while  their  bare,  almost  windowless  walls  and  their  closed 
doors,  marked  with  the  sign  of  the  warning  hand  (p.  81),  enhance 
their  impenetrable  mystery. 

The  chief  business  street  of  the  Kasba  is  the  Rub  Randon 
(PI.  C,  2,  3;  comp.  p.  226),  especially  the  S.  part  of  it  with  its 
shops,  between  the  Marche  dc  la  Lyre  (p.  226)  and  the  Synagogue 
(PI.  24,  C  2 ;  adm.,  see  p.  220),  a  building  with  a  huge  dome  and 
three  women's  galleries. 

The  Rue  de  la  Girafe  and  Rue  Caton,  the  last  two  side-streets 
before  the  Synagogue,  ascend  to  the  Rue  Kleber  (PI.  C,  2),  where